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23.46. zu Fir´aun und seiner führenden Schar. Sie aber verhielten sich hochmütig und waren überhebliche Leute.

[ alMu'minun:46 ]


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2.31. WaAAallama adama al-asmaakullaha thumma AAaradahum AAala almala-ikatifaqala anbi-uunii bi-asma-i haola-iin kuntum sadiqiina

2.31. And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform me of the names of these, if ye are truthful. (Pickthall)

2.31. Und Er lehrte Adam alle die Namen, dann zeigte Er sie den Engeln, und Er sprach: Teilt mir die Namen dieser mit, wenn ihr wahrhaft seid. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.31. Und Er lehrte Adam die Namen alle. Hierauf legte Er sie den Engeln vor und sagte: "Teilt Mir deren Namen mit, wenn ihr wahrhaftig seid!" (Bubenheim)

2.31. Gott lehrte Adam die Namen aller Dinge. Den Engeln führte Gott die Dinge vor und sprach: "Nennt mir die Namen dieser Dinge, wenn ihr die Wahrheit sagt!" (Azhar)

2.31. Und ER lehrte Adam alle Namen, dann führte ER sie (die Dinge) den Engeln vor und sagte: „TeiltMir deren Namen mit, solltet ihr wahrhaftig sein.“ (Zaidan)

2.31. Und er lehrte Adam alle Namen. Hierauf legte er sie den Engeln vor und sagte: "Tut mir ihre Namen kund, wenn (anders) ihr die Wahrheit sagt!" (Paret)

2.31. Und Er brachte Adam alle Namen bei, dann brachte Er diese vor die Engel und sagte: "Nennt mir die Namen dieser Dinge, wenn ihr wahrhaftig seid!" (Rasul)



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2.32. Qaluu subhanaka laAAilma lana illa ma AAallamtanainnaka anta alAAaliimu alhakiimu

2.32. They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise. (Pickthall)

2.32. Sie sagten: "Preis Dir! Kein Wissen haben wir, außer was Du uns gelehrt hast, Du bist ja der Wissende, der Weise." (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.32. Sie sagten: "Preis sei Dir! Wir haben kein Wissen außer dem, was Du uns gelehrt hast. Du bist ja der Allwissende und Allweise." (Bubenheim)

2.32. Die Engel sprachen: "Gepriesen seist Du! Wir wissen nur, was Du uns gelehrt hast. Du bist allwissend und unendlich weise." (Azhar)

2.32. Sie sagten: „Gepriesen-erhaben seist DU! Wir haben kein Wissen außer dem, das DU uns gelehrt hast. Gewiß, DU bist Der Allwissende, Der Allweise.“ (Zaidan)

2.32. Sie sagten: "Gepriesen seist du! Wir haben kein Wissen außer dem, was du uns (vorher) vermittelt hast. Du bist der, der Bescheid weiß und Weisheit besitzt" (Paret)

2.32. Sie sprachen: "Gepriesen seist Du. Wir haben kein Wissen außer dem, was Du uns gelehrt hast; wahrlich, Du bist der Allwissende, der Allweise." (Rasul)



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2.33. Qala ya adamu anbi/humbi-asma-ihim falamma anbaahum bi-asma-ihim qalaalam aqul lakum innii aAAlamu ghayba alssamawatiwaal-ardi waaAAlamu ma tubduuna wamakuntum taktumuuna

2.33. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide. (Pickthall)

2.33. Er sprach: Adam, teile ihnen ihre Namen mit! Und als er ihnen ihre Namen mitgeteilt hatte, sprach Er: Habe Ich nicht zu euch gesprochen: Ich weiß das Verborgene der Himmel und der Erde? Und Ich weiß, was ihr sichtbar werden laßt und was ihr immer verschwiegen habt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.33. Er sagte: "O Adam, teile ihnen ihre Namen mit!" Als er ihnen ihre Namen mitgeteilt hatte, sagte Er: "Habe Ich euch nicht gesagt, Ich kenne das Verborgene der Himmel und der Erde, und Ich weiß auch, was ihr offenlegt und was ihr verborgen zu halten sucht?" (Bubenheim)

2.33. Gott sprach: "Adam! Sage ihnen die Namen der Dinge!" Nachdem Adam ihnen die Namen der Dinge gesagt hatte, sprach Gott zu den Engeln: "Habe Ich euch nicht gesagt, dass Ich alles Verborgene im Himmel und auf Erden weiß, und dass Mir nichts von dem entgeht, was ihr äußert oder verschweigt?" (Azhar)

2.33. ER sagte: „Adam! Teile ihnen deren Namen mit!“ Und nachdem er ihnen deren Namen mitgeteilt hatte, sagte ER: „Sagte ICH euch etwa nicht, dass ICH das Verborgene der Himmel und der Erde kenne, und dass ICH das kenne, was ihr offenlegt und was ihr zu verheimlichen pflegtet?!“ (Zaidan)

2.33. Er sagte: "Adam! Nenne ihnen ihre Namen!" Als er sie ihnen kundgetan hatte, sagte Allah: "Habe ich euch nicht gesagt, daß ich die Geheimnisse von Himmel und Erde kenne? Ich weiß (gleichermaßen), was ihr kundgebt, und was ihr (in euch) verborgen haltet." (Paret)

2.33. Er sprach: "O Adam, nenne ihnen ihre Namen!" Und als er ihnen ihre Namen nannte, sprach Er: "Habe Ich nicht gesagt, daß Ich das Verborgene der Himmel und der Erde kenne, und daß Ich kenne, was ihr offenbart und was ihr verborgen gehalten habt." (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 30 bis 33

Just ( 36 ) recall the time when your Lord said to the angels ( 37 ) , "I am going to appoint a vicegerent ( 38 ) on the Earth." They humbly enquired, "Are you going to appoint such a one as will cause disorder and shed blood on the Earth? ( 39 ) We are already engaged in hymning Your praise, and hallowing Your name". ( 40 ) Allah replied, "I know what you do not know." ( 41 ) After this he taught Adam the names of all things. ( 42 ) Then He set these before the angels and asked, "Tell Me the names of these things, if you are right (in thinking that the appointment of a vicegerent will cause disorder)". They replied, "Glory be to You. You alone are free from defect. We possess only that much knowledge which You have given us. ( 43 ) Indeed You alone are All-Knowing and All-Wise." Then Allah said to Adam, "Tell them the names of these things." When Adam told them the names of all those things, ( 44 ) Allah declared, "Did I not tell you that I know those truths about the Earth and the Heavens which are hidden from you? I know what you disclose and what you hide."

Desc No: 36
In the foregoing verses, Man has been asked to submit to Allah because He is his Creator and Sustainer and has power over his life and death, and because He is the Master and Ruler of the Universe in which he lives. In these verses, he has been exhorted to submit to Him because he is His vicegerent on the earth. As such, he is not only bound to serve Him but also to obey and act according to the Guidance sent down by Him. For if he did not do so and yielded to the temptations of Satan, his eternal enemy, he would be guilty of the worst crime of rebellion against Allah and meet with evil consequences.
In the foregoing verses, Man has been asked to submit to Allah because He is his Creator and Sustainer and has power over his life and death, and because He is the Master and Ruler of the Universe in which he lives. In these verses, he has been exhorted to submit to Him because he is His vicegerent on the earth. As such, he is not only bound to serve Him but also to obey and act according to the Guidance sent down by Him. For if he did not do so and yielded to the temptations of Satan, his eternal enemy, he would be guilty of the worst crime of rebellion against Allah and meet with evil consequences. Incidentally, the Qur'an here throws light on the truth about man and his correct position in the Universe and presents the chapter of human history, which man could not have ascertained in any other way. The important results that this chapter yields, are far more precious than the results which man tries to obtain by excavating miscellaneous bones from the earth and joining them together by speculation and conjecture. 

Desc No: 37
"Malak'' literally means a "messenger", which is translated farishta (angel). Angels are not mere abstract powers without personality; they are beings with personalities and are so to speak the agents of Allah, Who employs them for the administration of His Kingdom. Ignorant people mistook them for associates in Godhead; others thought they were related to God and started to worship them as deities. 

Desc No: 38
Khalifah: one who exercises the delegated powers on behalf o: another as his vicegerent. Khalifah thus is not the master, but deputy of the Master; his powers are not his own but delegated to him by the real Master. He has, therefore. no right to have his own will but he is there to fulfil the will of the delegating Authority. It would be dishonesty and treason, if he assumed sovereign powers, or used them according to his own whim, or if he acknowledged another as his sovereign and submitted to his will. 

Desc No: 39
This was not an objection but a query raised by the angels, for the angels dare not object to any scheme of Allah. From the word Khalifah they had understood that the one, who was about to be created, was going to be entrusted with some powers, but they could not understand how an autonomous creature could fit in this totalitarian system of the universe. They also could not understand how that part of the universe, in which someone was entrusted with autonomy, could be free from disorder. 

Desc No: 40
By this, the angels did not mean to say that they should be entrusted with the vicegerency because they deserved it. They simply meant to say, "We are carrying out orders obediently, faithfully and earnestly and are keeping the whole universe clean and in order, and sing hymns of Your praise and sanctify You as Your humble servants. Therefore, we are unable to understand what need then is there for a vicegerent."
The word tasbih has a double meaning: it means "to sanctify" as well as "to work earnestly and do one's utmost." Similarly taqdis also means both to sanctify and to purify. 

Desc No: 41
This was the reply to the second doubt of the angels: "You can not understand the need and wisdom of the appointment of a vicegerent as I do. Your services do not suffice for the purpose that I have in view. I want something more than the services you have mentioned. That is why I am going to create a being on the Earth and endow him with some powers." 

Desc No: 42
Nomenclature is the means by which human mind grasps the knowledge of things. Hence, the whole information of man, in fact, consists of assigning names. for things. Thus, teaching Adam the names of all things was meant to impart their knowledge to him.  

Desc No: 43
It appears that the knowledge of each angel and of each species of angels is confined only to his or its own special sphere. For example, the angels who deal with the air, know everything about the air but nothing about water. The same is true about the angels who are responsible for other spheres. In contrast to them, man has been granted comprehensive knowledge. He may not know as much about these things as the angels in charge of a special sphere do but the comprehensiveness of knowledge that man has been granted has not been granted to the angels. 

Desc No: 44
This demonstration was the answer to the first doubt of the angels. Thus, Allah, so to say, informed them: "I am not giving Adam only authority but also knowledge. The chaos that you apprehended from his appointment is only one aspect of the matter. It has its good aspect also, which is more weighty and valuable than the evil aspect, and a wise man does not give up a greater good because of a lesser evil."  "




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Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



2.34. Wa-idh qulna lilmala-ikatiosdschuduu li-adama fasadschaduu illa ibliisa abawaistakbara wakana mina alkafiriina

2.34. And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever. (Pickthall)

2.34. Und als Wir zu den Engeln sprachen: Werft euch nieder vor Adam!, da haben sie sich niedergeworfen außer Iblis. Er weigerte sich, und er wähnte sich groß, und er wurde einer von den Glaubensverweigerern. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.34. Und als Wir zu den Engeln sagten: "Werft euch vor Adam nieder!" Da warfen sie sich nieder, außer Iblis. Er weigerte sich und verhielt sich hochmütig und gehörte zu den Ungläubigen. (Bubenheim)

2.34. Einst sprachen Wir zu den Engeln: "Werft euch vor Adam nieder (um ihn - seines Wissens wegen - zu ehren)!" Alle warfen sich nieder, außer Iblîs, der das ablehnte und sich überheblich verhielt. Er ging den Weg der Ungläubigen. (Azhar)

2.34. Und (erinnere daran), als WIR zu den Engeln sagten: „Vollzieht Sudschud vor Adam!“ Sogleich vollzogen sie Sudschud; außer Iblis lehnte es ab, erhob sich in erheblicher Arroganz und war von den Kafir. (Zaidan)

2.34. Und (damals) als wir zu den Engeln sagten: "Werft euch vor Adam nieder!" Da warfen sie sich (alle) nieder, außer lblies. Der weigerte sich und war hochmütig. Er gehörte nämlich zu den Ungläubigen. (Paret)

2.34. Und als Wir zu den Engeln sprachen: "Werft euch vor Adam nieder", da warfen sie sich nieder bis auf Iblis; er weigerte sich und war hochmütig. Und damit wurde er einer der Ungläubigen. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 34 bis 34

Then We commanded the angels, "Bow yourselves to Adam. "All bowed ( 45 ) but Iblis ( 46 ) refused to do so; he waxed proud and joined the defiers. ( 47 )

Desc No: 45
This was symbolic of the submission and subjugation to Man of all the angels appointed to manage the Earth and that part of the Universe which is connected with it in any way. As Man was being appointed vicegerent in this part by Allah's command, it was ordained that all the angels, who worked in it must, as tar and as long as Allah willed, cooperate with him in their respective spheres whether he wanted to use the powers given to him rightly or wrongly. This implied: "You must help him in whatever he wants to do, irrespective of whether it is right or wrong. If he wants to commit theft or offer the Prayer, or intends to do another good or evil, you must cooperate with him in both cases as long as We allow him to act according to his will and choice." This may be illustrated by the example of a government officer. He is obeyed within his jurisdiction by every official but no sooner is he deposed by the government than those very officials, who carried out his orders promptly cease to obey him. They even handcuff him and take him to prison, if the government so orders. The command given to the angels to bow down before Adam was in the same nature. Possibly the word sajdah (bowing down) here is symbolic of only submission, but this also is possible that the angels were ordered to perform some such act actually to signify their subordination, and this seems to be more correct. 

Desc No: 46
Iblis dejected and desperate. As a term it is the name of the Jinn who disobeyed Allah and refused to bow down to Adam as a symbol of subordination to him and his offspring and asked Allah to grant him the opportunity of tempting mankind up to the Last Day. He is also called "ash-Shaitan" (Satan). He is not merely an abstract power of evil but is a being with his own personality like that of man. He was not an angel as is commonly understood but was one of the jinn who form a distinct species of their own separate from the angels. (Refer to Al-Kahf, XVIII: 50). 

Desc No: 47
From the words of the Text it so appears that probably Iblis was not alone in refusing to bow down before Adam, but a group of the jinn also was bent upon disobedience. Iblis has been particularly mentioned because he was their chief who led the rebellion. But this verse can also be translated as: "He was of the disbelievers." In this case, it would mean that there already existed a group of rebellious and disobedient jinn and Iblis belonged to it. The word "shayatin" in the Qur'an has generally been used for these jinn and their species, and wherever there is no basis for taking shayatin to imply men, this same jinn satans are implied.   "




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2.35. Waqulna ya adamu oskunanta wazawdschuka aldschannata wakula minha raghadan haythuschi/tuma wala taqraba hadhihi alschschadscharatafatakuuna mina aldhdhalimiina

2.35. And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrongdoers. (Pickthall)

2.35. Und Wir sprachen: Adam, bewohne du und deine Gattin den Paradiesgarten, und eßt davon in Fülle, wo ihr wollt, und nähert euch nicht diesem Baum, und werdet nicht welche von den Unrechthandelnden! (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.35. Und Wir sagten: "O Adam, bewohne du und deine Gattin den (Paradies)garten, und eßt von ihm reichlich, wo immer ihr wollt! Aber naht euch nicht diesem Baum, sonst gehört ihr zu den Ungerechten!" (Bubenheim)

2.35. Zu Adam sprachen Wir: "Bewohne zusammen mit deiner Frau den Garten! Eßt davon, soviel ihr möchtet und wo immer ihr wollt! Nur diesen einen Baum dürft ihr nicht anrühren, sonst würdet ihr Unrecht begehen." (Azhar)

2.35. Und WIR sagten: „Adam, bewohne mit deiner Gattin die Dschanna und esst darin reichlich, von wo ihr beide wollt; doch nähert euch nicht diesem Baum, sonst werdet ihr von den Verlierern sein.“ (Zaidan)

2.35. Und wir sagten: "Adam! Verweile du und deine Gattin im Paradies, und eßt uneingeschränkt von seinen Früchten, wo ihr wollt! Aber naht euch nicht diesem Baum, sonst gehört ihr zu den Frevlern!" (Paret)

2.35. Und Wir sprachen: "O Adam, verweile du und deine Gattin im Garten und esset uneingeschränkt von seinen Früchten, wo immer ihr wollt! Kommt jedoch diesem Baum nicht nahe, sonst würdet ihr zu den Ungerechten gehören." (Rasul)



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2.36. Faazallahuma alschschaytanuAAanha faakhradschahuma mimma kanafiihi waqulna ihbituu baAAdukum libaAAdinAAaduwwun walakum fii al-ardi mustaqarrun wamataAAunila hiinin

2.36. But Satan caused them to deflect therefrom and expelled them from the (happy) state in which they were; and We said: Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a tune. (Pickthall)

2.36. Da ließ sie der Teufel daran straucheln und brachte sie heraus von wo sie dort gewesen waren, und Wir sprachen: Geht hinab, manche von euch den anderen Feind, und es gibt für euch auf der Erde Verbleib und Nießbrauch für eine Weile. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.36. Doch Satan entfernte sie davon, und da vertrieb er sie aus dem, worin sie (an Glückseligkeit) gewesen waren. Wir sagten: "Geht fort! Einige von euch seien der anderen Feind. Und auf der Erde sollt ihr Aufenthalt und Nießbrauch auf Zeit haben." (Bubenheim)

2.36. Der Satan verführte sie jedoch dazu, einen Fehltritt zu begehen und von dem verbotenen Baum zu essen. Dadurch verloren sie das Paradies, wo sie geweilt hatten. Wir sagten ihnen: "Geht auf die Erde hinab! Die einen von euch sind Feinde der anderen. Auf Erden werdet ihr leben und alles für eine bestimmte Zeit genießen." (Azhar)

2.36. So ließ der Satan sie diesbezüglich Fehler begehen, so brachte er sie hinaus von dem, wo sie sich befanden. Und WIR sagten: „Steigt ab! Die einen von euch (Menschen) sind Feind für die anderen (Satane), und für euch gibt es auf Erden Aufenthaltsort und Verbrauchsgut bis zu einer bestimmten Zeit.“ (Zaidan)

2.36. Da veranlaßte sie der Satan, einen Fehltritt zu tun, wodurch sie des Paradieses verlustig gingen, und brachte sie so aus dem (paradiesischen) Zustand heraus, in dem sie sich befunden hatten. Und wir sagten: "Geht (vom Paradies) hinunter (auf die Erde)! Ihr seid (künftig) einander feind. Und ihr sollt auf der Erde (euren) Aufenthalt haben, und Nutznießung auf eine (beschränkte) Zeit." (Paret)

2.36. Doch Satan ließ sie dort straucheln und brachte sie aus dem Zustand heraus, in dem sie waren. Da sprachen Wir: "Geht (vom Paradies) hinunter! Der eine von euch sei des anderen Feind. Und ihr sollt auf der Erde Wohnstätten und Versorgung auf beschränkte Dauer haben." (Rasul)



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2.37. Fatalaqqa adamu min rabbihikalimatin fataba AAalayhi innahu huwa alttawwabualrrahiimu

2.37. Then Adam received from his Lord words (of revelation), and He relented toward him. Lo! He is the Relenting the Merciful. (Pickthall)

2.37. Da empfing Adam von seinem Herrn Worte, und Er wandte sich vergebend zu ihm, Er ist ja der Vergebende, der Barmherzige. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.37. Da empfing Adam von seinem Herrn Worte, und darauf nahm Er seine Reue an. Er ist ja der Reue-Annehmende und Barmherzige. (Bubenheim)

2.37. Adam empfing hierauf von Gott Worte für die Bitte um Vergebung, woraufhin Er ihm vergab. Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)

2.37. Dann empfing Adam Worte von seinem HERRN, so vergab ER ihm. Gewiß, ER ist Der Allvergebende, Der Allgnädige. (Zaidan)

2.37. Hierauf nahm Adam von seinem Herrn Worte (der Verheißung) entgegen. Und Allah wandte sich ihm (gnädig) wieder zu. Er ist ja der Gnädige (tauwaab) und Barmherzige. (Paret)

2.37. Da empfing Adam von seinem Herrn Worte, worauf Er ihm verzieh; wahrlich, Er ist der Allverzeihende, der Barmherzige. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 35 bis 37

Then We said, "O Adam, you and your wife, both dwell in the Garden and eat to your hearts' content where from you will, but do not go near this tree; ( 48 ) otherwise you shall become transgressors" ( 49 ) After a time Satan tempted them with that tree to disobey. Our Command and brought them out of the state they were in, and We decreed, "Now, go down all of you from here; you are enemies of one another. ( 50 ) Henceforth you shall dwell and provide for yourselves on the Earth for a specified period." At that time Adam learnt appropriate words from his Lord and repented, ( 51 ) and his Lord accepted his repentance, for He is very Relenting and very Merciful. ( 52 )

Desc No: 48
This shows that Adam and Eve were first kept in the "Garden" for a trial of their inclinations before they were to be sent to the Earth, the place where they were appointed as vicegerent. A tree was chosen for this purpose and they were forbidden even to go near it. They were duly warned that if they violated the command, they would be considered guilty of iniquity in the sight of Allah. The discussion as to what tree it was and why they were forbidden to go near it, is unnecessary. They were not forbidden because there was something intrinsically evil in the tree itself by which Adam and Eve could be harmed. It was chosen for the purpose of trial to see how far they remained constant on obedience to Allah's command as against the temptations of Satan. For this purpose it was enough to select a tree. That is why Allah has not mentioned the name and any characteristics of the tree.
The Garden was a very suitable place for this trial because it was meant to show to Man that Paradise alone was the fit place for Allah's vicegerent, but if he yielded to satanic temptations, he would deprive himself of it. The only way to regain it was to oppose the enemy successfully who was always on the look-out to mislead him
The tree has not been named or pointedd out specifically in the Quran because there was nothing intrinsically evil in the tree itself. It was merely chosen for the purpose of trial.. 

Desc No: 49
The Arabic word zalim is very comprehensive in its meaning. Zulm is "violation of a right or duty" and zalim is one who violates a right or duty. Anyone who disobeys Allah really violates three basic rights. First, he violates the rights of Allah Who is worthy of obedience. Second, he violates the rights of all those things and beings whom he employs in this disobedience, e.g., his own limbs and faculties, his fellow beings and those angels who contribute to the fulfilment of his will and all those things which he uses for the performance of the work of iniquity, for they have a right to be used only in accordance with the will of the real Master but it is an act of iniquity, if he abuses the powers he has over them. Lastly, he violates his own rights on himself, for his own self has a right that he should do his best to save it from destruction. He is also guilty of iniquity against himself when he brings the wrath of Allah on himself by his disobedience. That is why the Qur'an, in many places has used the term zulm for sin and zalim for the sinner. 

Desc No: 50
That is, "Satan shall be the adversary of man and man the adversary of Satan". The fact, that Satan tries his utmost to beguile man from the path of Allah to the path of destruction, is a clear proof that he is the arch-enemy of man. On the other side, man's humanity demands that he should fight Satan as his enemy. But it is a pity that man is so beguiled by the temptations of Satan that he begins to take him as his friend. This, however, does not mean that their mutual enmity has really been changed into friendship. It only means that man has been beguiled by his opponent and caught in the snare which has been laid for him. 

Desc No: 51
When Adam felt sorry for his guilt and wanted to repent and return to Allah, he could not find appropriate words for asking Allah's pardon. Then Allah took pity upon him on account of his grief and helplessness and taught him the appropriate words.
The Arabic word "taubah" means both "to turn back" and "to turn to". When applied to man, it means that he has turned back from rebellion to submission, and, when it is ascribed to Allah, it means that He has again turned with compassion to the penitent person.  

Desc No: 52
Here the Qur' an rejects the theory that the consequences of sin are inevitable and every man shall bear these anyhow. This is one of those selfinvented, nusleading theories which have done great harm to humanity. As a result of this, one loses for ever all hope of reform, when once one is involved in sin. Even if he feels sorry for a past sin and wants to make amends for it and changes his life for the better, this theory confronts him with despair: there is no hope for you because you are doomed for ever: you must bear the consequences of what you have done in the past. In contrast to this, the Qur'an says, "It lies absolutely fn Allah's power to reward a virtue or to punish a sin. If you are rewarded for a virtue, it is not on account of the natural result of your virtue, but it is through Allah's grace. He has full power to reward it or not. In the same way, if you are punished for a sin, it is not because of the inevitable consequences of the sin but because Allah has full power to punish or pardon it. Of course, being All-Wise, He does not use these powers indiscriminately, but takes into consideration the intention of the doer. If He rewards a virtue, He does so when He sees that His servant performed the good deeds to please Him. And if He rejects an apparent virtue, He does so because He knows that it lacked sincerity. In the same way, He punishes the crime which is committed in a spirit of rebellion and is not followed by self-reproach but by an evil desire to commit more crimes. He, however, exercises His grace, and forgives the sins for which His servant feels sorry and makes up his mind to change for the better. It is thus clear that the rejection of the theory of the inevitability of punishment for sin holds out new hopes of reform for sinners. Even the worst criminals and the staunchest unbelievers need not despair of forgiveness from Allah, provided that they confess their sins (of course, before their Lord and not before a priest), feel ashamed of their disobedience, give up their attitude of rebellion and adopt the attitude of submission instead.  "




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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

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Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



2.38. Qulna ihbituu minhadschamiiAAan fa-imma ya/tiyannakum minnii hudan faman tabiAAahudaya fala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanuuna

2.38. We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and whoso followeth My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (Pickthall)

2.38. Wir sprachen: Geht hinab aus ihm, allesamt, und wenn von Mir zu euch Rechtleitung kommt, wer dann Meiner Rechtleitung gefolgt ist, - keine Furcht auf ihnen, und sie sind nicht traurig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.38. Wir sagten: Geht alle fort von ihm (, dem Paradiesgarten). Wenn nun von Mir Rechtleitung zu euch kommt, dann soll über diejenigen, die Meiner Rechtleitung folgen, keine Furcht kommen, noch sollen sie traurig sein. (Bubenheim)

2.38. Wir sprachen: "Geht alle aus dem Paradies hinaus! Wenn Ich euch Rechtleitung zukommen lasse, sollt ihr sie annehmen. Diejenigen, die Meiner Rechtleitung folgen, brauchen weder Angst zu haben noch traurig zu sein. (Azhar)

2.38. WIR sagten: „Steigt davon allesamt ab! Und wenn euch von Mir Rechtleitung erreicht, so wird es um diejenigen, die Meiner Rechtleitung folgen, weder Angst geben, noch werden sie traurig sein.“ (Zaidan)

2.38. Wir sagten: "Geht allesamt von ihm hinunter (auf die Erde)! Und wenn dann (später) von mir eine rechte Leitung zu euch kommt, brauchen diejenigen, die ihr folgen, (wegen des Gerichts) keine Angst zu haben, und sie werden (nach der Abrechnung am jüngsten Tag) nicht traurig sein. (Paret)

2.38. Wir sprachen: "Geht hinunter von hier allesamt!" Und wenn dann zu euch Meine Rechtleitung kommt, brauchen diejenigen, die Meiner Rechtleitung folgen, weder Angst zu haben, noch werden sie traurig sein. (Rasul)



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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



2.39. Waalladhiina kafaruu wakadhdhabuubi-ayatina ola-ika as-habualnnari hum fiiha khaliduuna

2.39. But they who disbelieve, and deny our revelations, such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein. (Pickthall)

2.39. Und diejenigen, die den Glauben verweigert und Unsere Zeichen abgeleugnet haben, diese sind die Gefährten des Feuers, sie bleiben dort ewig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.39. Diejenigen aber, die ungläubig sind und Unsere Zeichen für Lüge erklären, das sind Insassen des (Höllen)feuers. Ewig werden sie darin bleiben. (Bubenheim)

2.39. Diejenigen aber, die Mich verleugnen und Meinen Offenbarungen nicht glauben, sollen Bewohner der Hölle sein, wo sie ewig bleiben werden." (Azhar)

2.39. Und diejenigen, die Kufr betrieben und Unsere Ayat ableugnet haben, diese sind die Weggenossen des Feuers. Darin bleiben sie ewig. (Zaidan)

2.39. Diejenigen aber, die ungläubig sind und unsere Zeichen für Lüge erklären, werden Insassen des Höllenfeuers sein und (ewig) darin weilen. (Paret)

2.39. Diejenigen aber, die ungläubig sind und Unsere Zeichen für Lüge erklären, werden Bewohner des Feuers sein, in dem sie auf ewig verweilen sollen. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 38 bis 39

We said, "Now go down, all of you from here. ( 53 ) Henceforth there shall come to you Guidance from Me now and again: whoever will follow it shall have neither fear nor sorrow and whoever will refuse to accept it and defy Our Revelations ( 54 ) they shall be doomed to the Fire wherein they shall remain for ever. ( 55 )

Desc No: 53
The repetition of this command after forgiveness is very significant. In the preceding verse, it has been said that Adam repented and Allah accepted his repentance. Thus Adam was not only absolved from the sin of disobedience, but his future descendants also were made immune from its effect. There was, therefore, no need for Allah to crucify "His only son" for the atonement of the sin of Adam and of his offspring.' On the contrary, Allah not only accepted his repentance but also appointed him as His Messenger to show Guidance to his children. The repetition of the command, "Go down from here", shows that the real purpose of Adam's creation was to make him vicegerent on tire Earth. He was kept in the Garden merely for trial and training, (please see E.N. 48). That is why he was not kept in the Garden after the acceptance of his repentance. He was sent to the Earth not by way of punishment but as a matter of course. 

Desc No: 54
Ayat is plural of ayat, which literally means a "sign" or "symbol" that points to something. The Qur'an has used this word in four different senses. At some places, it means merely a sign or symbol. At other places, the different phenomena of Nature have been termed as ayat of Allah, because each phenomenon points to the Reality which is hidden behind such curtains. Then the miracles which were given to the Messengers have also been called ayat (signs) hecause these showed that they were the representatives of the Ruler of the universe. At some places the verses of the Book have been called "ayat" because they point not only to the Truth and the Right but also to the Great Author of the book It is not only the subject matter of the Book but also its words and mode of expression and its style that point to its Author. The meaning of the word ayat in a particular place becomes clear from the context in which it occurs. 

Desc No: 55
The law of Allah, contained in vv. 38-39 about the Guidance, has been in force ever since the creation of man and will remain so up to the Last Day. It has been called Allah's "covenant" in verse 27. It is meant to warn man not to invent a way of life for himself but to follow the Guidance of his Lord, for he is His servant as well as vicegerent. And there are only two means of knowing this: either a man should receive direct revelation from Allah, or follow the one who has received Revelation from Him. There is no third way of knowing Allah's Will. Therefore, every other way than these two is not only wrong but also rebellion which will lead ultimately to Hell.
The story of the creation of man and the advent of mankind has been described in six other places in the Qur' an: Al-A'raf, VII: 11-25; Al-Hijr, XV: 2648; Bani Isra'il, XVII :60-b5; AI-Kahf, XVIII 50 : Ta Ha, XX :116-123, Sad, XXXVIII 71 - 85.
It will be useful to read the same story in the Old Testament (Genesis, Chapters 1 to 3). The comparison of the Qur' anic version with the Biblical one, will conclusively show that the Qur' an has remained intact in its pure, original and unadulterated form just as it was revealed by Allah, while the Bible has been tampered with.
It will also be interesting to contrast the conversation between Allah and the angels as has been given here in the Qur'an with that cited in the Talmud. The latter is not only void of spiritual values but is also ridiculous. According to it when the angels asked Allah why He was going to create Man, He answered that He was doing that so that good people should be born on the Earth. He did not mention the birth of bad people lest the angels should withhold their permission for the creation of Man.   "




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Tafsir auf arabisch:
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Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



2.40. Ya banii isra-iila odhkuruuniAAmatiya allatii anAAamtu AAalaykum waawfuu biAAahdii uufibiAAahdikum wa-iyyaya fairhabuuni

2.40. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor wherewith I favored you, and fulfil your (part of the) covenant, I shall fulfil My (part of the) covenant and fear Me. (Pickthall)

2.40. Ihr Kinder Israils, erinnert euch Meiner Wohltat, mit der Ich euch wohlgetan habe, und haltet die Abmachung mit Mir ein, so halte Ich die Abmachung mit euch ein, und habt Ehrfurcht vor Mir. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

2.40. O Kinder lsra´ils, gedenkt Meiner Gunst, die Ich euch erwiesen habe! Und haltet euren Bund Mir gegenüber, so will Ich Meinen Bund euch gegenüber halten! Und vor Mir (allein) sollt ihr Ehrfurcht haben. (Bubenheim)

2.40. O ihr Kinder Israels! Gedenkt der Gaben, die Ich euch gewährt habe, und erfüllt euer Bündnis mit Mir, damit Ich Mein Bündnis mit euch erfülle. Mich allein sollt ihr fürchten. (Azhar)

2.40. Kinder Israils! Entsinnt euch Meiner Gaben, die ICH euch gewährt habe, und erfüllt das von Mir Auferlegte, dann erfülle ICH das euch von Mir Versprochene, und habt Ehrfurcht Mir gegenüber! (Zaidan)

2.40. Ihr Kinder Israel! Gedenket meiner Gnade, die ich euch erwiesen habe! Und erfüllt eure Verpflichtung gegen mich! Dann werde (auch) ich meine Verpflichtung gegen euch erfüllen. Und vor mir (allein) sollt ihr Angst haben. (Paret)

2.40. O ihr Kinder Israels! Gedenkt Meiner Gnade, die Ich euch erwiesen habe und erfüllt euer Versprechen Mir gegenüber, so erfülle Ich Mein Versprechen euch gegenüber. Und Mich allein sollt ihr fürchten. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 40 bis 40

O children of Israel! ( 56 ) Just recall to mind My favour wherewith I blessed you fulfil your covenant with Me and I shall fulfil My covenant with you, and fear Me alone.

Desc No: 56
'Israel' means the servant of Allah. This was the title that Allah had bestowed upon Jacob, who was a son of Isaac, and a grandson of Abraham (Allah's peace be upon them all ). His descendents are called children of Israel. Up to verse 39, it was an introductory discourse meant for all mankind. From verse 40 to verse 121 is a new discourse in which the children of Israel have been especially and particularly addressed. In some places it has also been directed towards the Christians and the mushriks of Arabia and in between towards the people who believed in the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). In order to understand the full significance of this address, the following should be kept in view.
First, it aims to appeal to those few followers of the former Prophets, who were still capable of reforming themselves to believe in the Truth which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had brought and to cooperate with the mission which he had been appointed to perform. They are, therefore, told that the message of the Qur'an is the same as of the Scriptures of the former Prophets, and the mission of the Holy Prophet also was the same as theirs. It means to say: "At tirst this mission was entrusted to you so that you may put the Message into practice and then invite the world to accept it. But, not to speak of carrying out the mission, you discarded the Guidance and went on degenerating. The past history of your community and its present moral and religious degeneration are a standing witness against you. Now Allah has sent another Servant of His with the same Message and mission and there is nothing new or strange in this for you. You should not, therefore, oppose the Truth knowingly. The best thing for you is to accept it and cooperate with those who are doing the same work that was once entrusted to you."
Secondly, it aims to argue the Jews out of their wrong position and to expose their moral and religious degeneration thoroughly. Therefore, it proves conclusively that their attitude towards Islam was absolutely wrong; for they were opposing it, whereas they knew that its fundamentals were exactly the same as of their religion and that there was nothing in the teachings of the Qur'an that was different from or opposed to the teachings of the Torah in principle. It also shows that they had utterly failed to follow the Guidance which was given to them and fulfil the obligations of the leadership entrusted to them. As a proof thereof, such incidents have been cited as they could not deny. Moreover, this address unravelled the plots they were hatching, the doubts they were arousing, the crooked arguments they were advancing and the evil machinations they were contriving to defeat the mission of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), though they knew it to be from Allah. This also exposed their "piety", for it lacked sincerity and righteousness and was motivated by obduracy, prejudice and self-worship. It also proved beyond any shadow of doubt that they did not really want virtue to thrive. This produced the desired effect: it opened the eyes of the righteous element among the Jews and put an end to the spiritual and moral superiority they enjoyed against the common and polytheistic Arabs of Madinah. Besides, when they themselves were once exposed, they were so dismayed that they dared not oppose Islam openly with the courage of conviction.
Thirdly, in the preceding verses, mankind had been invited to accept the Guidance of Allah. Now the example of the Israelites is being cited to show the consequences of discarding that Guidance. The reason why the Israelites have been held out as an example is that they are the only community whose history during the last four thousand years has been a living object lesson for all the nations of the world. In its history one can see all the ups and downs which result from following the Divine Guidance or from discarding it.
Fourthly, though the appeal is addressed to the Jews, it is also meant to forewarn the Muslims against the pitfalls of degeneration into which the followers of the former Prophets had fallen. That is why, on the one hand, the moral weaknesses of the Jews, their wrong notions about religion, their wrong ways of thinking and living, have been pointed out, one by one, while, on the other, the demands of the true faith have been stated so that the Muslims are able to see the Right Way clearly and avoid wrong. ways
The Holy Prophet knew by Divine inspiration that, by and by, the Muslims also would follow the same ways that had been pointed out in this discourse. Therefore, according to a Tradition, he forewarned that they would discard the Guidance and follow, step by step, the communities of the former Prophets, that is, the Jews and the Christians, in their wrong ways. It is a pity that they have not paid any heed to this warning and adopted the same ways of degeneration.   "




31-40 von 286 Ayaat, Seite 4/29

 

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