24.31. Waqul lilmu/minati yaghdudnamin absarihinna wayahfadhnafuruudschahunna wala yubdiina ziinatahunna illa madhahara minha walyadribnabikhumurihinna AAaladschuyuubihinna wala yubdiinaziinatahunna illa libuAAuulatihinna aw aba-ihinnaaw aba-i buAAuulatihinna aw abna-ihinna awabna-i buAAuulatihinna aw ikhwanihinna aw baniiikhwanihinna aw banii akhawatihinna aw nisa-ihinnaaw ma malakat aymanuhunna awi alttabiAAiinaghayri olii al-irbati mina alrridschali awi alttiflialladhiina lam yadhharuu AAala AAawratialnnisa-i wala yadribnabi-ardschulihinna liyuAAlama ma yukhfiina min ziinatihinnawatuubuu ila Allahi dschamiiAAan ayyuhaalmu/minuuna laAAallakum tuflihuuna
24.31. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands fathers, or their sons or their husbands ' sons, or their brothers or their brothers ' sons or sisters sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigor, or children who know naught of women ' s nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed. (Pickthall)
24.31. Und sage den gläubigen Frauen, daß sie manche von ihren Blicken zurückhalten und ihre Scham hüten und nicht ihren Schmuck sichtbar machen, außer was davon außen ist, und sie sollen ihre Kopftücher über ihre Kleiderausschnitte schlagen, und nicht ihren Schmuck sichtbar machen, außer ihren Ehemännern, oder ihren Vätern, oder den Vätern ihrer Ehemänner, oder ihren Söhnen, oder den Söhnen ihrer Ehemänner, oder ihren Brüdern, oder den Söhnen ihrer Brüder, oder den Söhnen ihrer Schwestern, oder ihren Frauen, oder die in ihrer Hand sind, oder Bediensteten ohne Trieb von den Männern, oder Kindern, denen nichts offenbar ist über die Blößen der Frauen, - und sie nicht mit ihren Füßen schlagen, damit man weiß, was sie von ihrem Schmuck verbergen, und kehrt reuig um zu Allah, allesamt, ihr, die Gläubigen, damit es euch vielleicht wohlergeht. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.31. Und sag zu den gläubigen Frauen, sie sollen ihre Blicke senken und ihre Scham hüten, ihren Schmuck nicht offen zeigen, außer dem, was (sonst) sichtbar ist. Und sie sollen ihre Kopftücher auf den Brustschlitz ihres Gewandes schlagen und ihren Schmuck nicht offen zeigen, außer ihren Ehegatten, ihren Vätern, den Vätern ihrer Ehegatten, ihren Söhnen, den Söhnen ihrer Ehegatten, ihren Brüdern, den Söhnen ihrer Brüder und den Söhnen ihrer Schwestern, ihren Frauen, denen, die ihre rechte Hand besitzt, den männlichen Gefolgsleuten, die keinen (Geschlechts)trieb (mehr) haben, den Kindern, die auf die Blöße der Frauen (noch) nicht aufmerksam geworden sind. Und sie sollen ihre Füße nicht aneinanderschlagen, damit (nicht) bekannt wird, was sie von ihrem Schmuck verborgen tragen. Wendet euch alle reumütig Allah zu, ihr Gläubigen, auf daß es euch wohl ergehen möge! (Bubenheim)
24.31. Und sage den gläubigen Frauen, sie sollen den Blick niederschlagen und ihre Keuschheit wahren und ihre Zierde nicht zeigen, außer dem, was davon sichtbar ist, und sie sollen ihre Tücher über ihren Kleideraußchnitt ziehen und ihre Zierde niemandem zeigen außer ihren Ehemännern, ihren Vätern, Schwiegervätern, ihren Söhnen, Stiefsöhnen, ihren Brüdern, den Söhnen ihrer Brüder und ihrer Schwestern, den Frauen, mit denen sie Umgang haben, den Leibeigenen, den mit ihnen lebenden Männern, die Frauen nicht mehr begehren, und den Kindern, die noch kein Verlangen nach Frauen haben. Sie sollen den Boden nicht mit den Füßen schlagen, um verdeckten Schmuck bemerkbar zu machen. Kehrt alle reumütig zu Gott zurück, ihr Gläubigen, damit ihr Erfolg erzielt! (Azhar)
24.31. Und sag zu den Mumin-Frauen, dass sie von ihren Blicken niederschlagen, ihre Keuschheit bewahren und ihren Schmuck nicht sichtbar tragen außer dem, was davon sichtbar wird, und dass sie ihre Khumur bis über ihre Dschuyub ziehen, und dass sie ihren Schmuck vor niemandem sichtbar tragen außer vor ihren Ehemännern, ihren Vätern, den Vätern ihrer Ehemänner, ihren Söhnen, den Söhnen ihrer Ehemänner, ihren Brüdern, den Söhnen ihrer Brüder, den Söhnen ihrer Schwestern, ihren Frauen, denjenigen, die ihr gehören, den Bediensteten außer denjenigen mit Verlangen von den Männern oder den Kindern, die noch nichts über die Blößen der Frauen wissen, und dass sie mit ihren Füßen nicht (auf den Boden) stampfen, damit bekannt wird, was sie noch von ihrem Schmuck verbergen. Und bittet ALLAH um Vergebung allesamt - ihr Mumin! - damit ihr erfolgreich werdet. (Zaidan)
24.31. Und sag den gläubigen Frauen, sie sollen (statt jemanden anzustarren, lieber) ihre Augen niederschlagen, und ihre Keuschheit bewahren, den Schmuck, den sie (am Körper) tragen, nicht offen zeigen, soweit er nicht (normalerweise) sichtbar ist, ihren Schal sich über den (vom Halsausschnitt nach vorne heruntergehenden) Schlitz (des Kleides) ziehen und den Schmuck, den sie (am Körper) tragen, niemandem offen zeigen, außer ihrem Mann, ihrem Vater, ihrem Schwiegervater, ihren Söhnen, ihren Stiefsöhnen, ihren Brüdern, den Söhnen ihrer Brüder und ihrer Schwestern, ihren Frauen, ihren Sklavinnen, den männlichen Bediensteten, die keinen Geschlechtstrieb (mehr) haben, und den Kindern, die noch nichts von weiblichen Geschlechtsteilen wissen. Und sie sollen nicht mit ihren Beinen aneinanderschlagen und damit auf den Schmuck aufmerksam machen, den sie (durch die Kleidung) verborgen (an ihnen) tragen. Und wendet euch allesamt (reumütig) wieder Allah zu, ihr Gläubigen Vielleicht wird es euch (dann) wohl ergehen. (Paret)
24.31. Und sprich zu den gläubigen Frauen, daß sie ihre Blicke zu Boden schlagen und ihre Keuschheit wahren und ihren Schmuck nicht zur Schau tragen sollen - bis auf das, was davon sichtbar sein darf, und daß sie ihre Tücher um ihre Kleidungsausschnitte schlagen und ihren Schmuck vor niemand (anderem) enthüllen sollen als vor ihren Gatten oder Vätern oder den Vätern ihrer Gatten oder ihren Söhnen oder den Söhnen ihrer Gatten oder ihren Brüdern oder den Söhnen ihrer Brüder oder Söhnen ihrer Schwestern oder ihren Frauen oder denen, die sie von Rechts wegen besitzen, oder solchen von ihren männlichen Dienern, die keinen Geschlechtstrieb mehr haben, und den Kindern, die der Blöße der Frauen keine Beachtung schenken. Und sie sollen ihre Füße nicht so (auf den Boden) stampfen, daß bekannt wird, was sie von ihrem Schmuck verbergen. Und wendet euch allesamt reumütig Allah zu, o ihr Gläubigen, auf daß ihr erfolgreich sein möget. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 31 bis 31
O Prophet, enjoin the Believing men to restrain their gaze ( 31 ) and guard their private ( 32 ) parts. ( 33 ) and not to display their adornment ( 34 ) except that which is displayed of itself, ( 35 ) and to draw their veils over their bosoms ( 36 ) and not to display their adornment except before their husbands, ( 37 ) their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, ( 38 ) their sons and the sons of their husbands ( 39 ) (from other wives), their brothers, ( 40 ) their brothers' sons, ( 41 ) their sisters' sons, ( 42 ) their female associates ( 43 ) and those in their possession ( 44 ) and male attendants incapable of sex desire ( 45 ) and those boys who have not yet attained knowledge of sex matters concerning women; ( 46 ) also forbid them to stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden ornaments should be displayed. ( 47 ) O Believers, turn all together towards Allah : ( 48 ) it is expected that you will attain true success. ( 49 )
Desc No: 31 The Commandments of restraining the gaze for women are the same as for men. They should not glance intentionally at the other men, and if they happen to cast a chance look, they should turn their eyes away; and they should abstain from looking at the satar of others. However, the Commandments relating to the men's looking at women are a little different from those relating to the women's looking at men. On the one hand, there is an incident related in a Tradition saying that Hadrat Umm Salamah and Hadrat Umm Maimunah, wives of the Holy Prophet, were sitting with him when lbn Umm Maktum, a blind Companion, made his appearance. The Holy Prophet said to his wives: "Conceal your faces from him." The wives said, "O Messenger of Allah: Is he not a blind man '? Neither will he see us nor recognize us." Thereupon the Holy Prophet remarked: "Are you two also blind? Do you not see him?" Hadrat Umm Salamah has clarified that this incident occurred at a time when the Commandments about the observance of purdah had already been sent down. (Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Tirmizi. This is also supported by a Tradition in Mu'atta saying that a blind man came to see Hadrat 'A'ishah and she observed purdah from him. When asked as to why she observed purdah when the man could not see her, she replied: "But I do see him." On the other hand, there is a different Tradition from Hadrat `A'ishah. In 7 A.H. a deputation of the negroes came to AI-Madinah and they gave a performance of physical skill in the compound of the Prophet's Mosque. The Holy Prophet himself showed their performance to Hadrat 'A'ishah. (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad). In another case, we find that when Fatimah bint Qais was irrevocably divorced by her husband, the question arose as to where she should pass her 'Iddah (the prescribed waiting term after divorce or death of husband). The Holy Prophet first told her to stay with Umm Sharik Ansari, but then instructed her to stay in the house of Ibn Umm Maktum, where she could stay with greater freedom as he was a blind man. He did not approve of her staying in the house of Umm Shank because she was a rich lady and her house was frequented by the Companions whom she entertained generously. (Muslim, Abu Da'ud). Read together these Traditions show that the restrictions about the women's looking at melt are not so hard as about the men's looking at women. While it is forbidden for women to sit face to face with men, it is not unlawful if they cast a look at men while passing on the way or see a harmless performance by them from a distance. There is also no hams for women to see the other men in case of real need if they are living in the same house. Imam Ghazzali; and lbn Hajar `Asqalani have also reached almost the same conclusion. Shaukani in his Nail al-Autar has quoted Ibn Hajar as saying: "Such a permission in respect of women is also supported by the fact that they have always enjoyed this type of freedom in outdoor duties While they came out veiled when visiting the mosques, or moving in the streets, or during the journey, so that men may not gaze at them, the men were never commanded to use the veil so that women may not gaze at them. This shows that the Commandments in respect of the two sexes are different." (Vol. Vl, p. 101). However, it is not at all permissible that women should gaze leisurely at men and draw pleasure of the eye in doing so.
Desc No: 32 That is, they should abstain from illicit gratification of their sex desire as well as from exposing their satar before others. Though the commandments for men in this respect are the same as for women, the boundaries of satar for women are different from those prescribed for men. Moreover, the female satar with respect to men is different from that with respect to women The female satar with respect to men is the entire body, excluding only the hand and the face, which should not be exposed before any other man, not even the brother and father, except the husband. The woman is not allowed to wear a thin or a tight fitting dress which might reveal the skin or the outlines of the body. According to a Tradition from Hadrat 'A'ishah, orate her sister Asma' came before the Holy Prophet in a thin dress. The Holy Prophet immediately turned his face away and said: "O Asma', when a woman has attained her maturity, it is not permissible that any part of her body should be exposed except the face and the hand." (Abu Da'ud). Ibn Jarir has related a similar incident from Hadrat 'A'ishah saying that once the daughter of `Abdullah bin Tufail, who was her mother's son from her former husband, came to her house on a visit. When the Holy Prophet (Allah's peace be upon him) entered the house, he saw her but turned his face to the other side. Hadrat `A'ishah said: "O Messenger of Allah, she is my niece." Thereupon the Holy Prophet remarked: "When a woman reaches the age of puberty, it is not lawful for her to display her body except the hand and the face. (Then he indicated what he meant by the hand by gripping his own hand from the wrist so that there was hardly a breadth left between his grip and the palm of the hand)." The only relaxation permitted in this connection is that a woman can uncover only that much of her body before her close relatives (for example, her brother, father, etc.) as is absolutely necessary for attending to the household duties. For instance, she can roll up her sleeves while kneading the flour, or tuck up her trousers while washing the floor. The boundaries of female satar with respect to women are the same as the boundaries of the male satar with respect to men, which is the part of the body from the navel to the knee. This does not, however, mean that a woman should appear half naked before other women. It only means that while it is obligatory to keep the part of body from the navel to the knee duly covered, it is not so in case of other parts.
Desc No: 33 It should be carefully noted that the demands that Divine Law makes from women are not only those it has made from men, that is restraining of looks and guarding of the private parts, but it makes some other demands from them also, which it has not made from men. This shows that men and women are not identical in this respect.
Desc No: 34 "Adornment" includes attractive clothes, ornaments and other decorations of the head, face, hand, feet, etc. which the women usually employ, and is expressed by the modern word 'make-up'. The injunction that this `makeup' should not be displayed before others is discussed in detail in the following Notes.
Desc No: 35 Different interpretations given by different commentators of this verse have greatly confused its real meaning. AII that is obviously meant is that "women should not display their make-up and adornment" except that "which is displayed of itself" and is beyond their control. This clearly means that women should not purposely and intentionally display their make-up, but there is no accountability if the make-up becomes displayed without any purpose or intention on their part; for instance, the head-wrapper's being blown aside by the wind thus exposing the adornment, ,or the outer-garment itself which cannot be concealed but which nevertheless has attraction being a part of the female dress. This very interpretation of this verse has been given by Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Hasan Basri, Ibn Sirin and Ibrahim Nakha`i. On the contrary, some other commentators have interpreted the verse to mean "all those parts of the body which usually remain exposed or uncovered" and in this they include the hands and the face with all their adornments. This is the view of Hadrat Ibn `Abbas and his followers, and a large number of the Hanafi jurists have accepted it. (Ahkam-ul-Qur'an, AlJassas, Vol. III, pp. 388-389). Thus, according to them, it is permissible for a woman to move out freely with the uncovered face in full make-up and adornment of the hands We are, however, unable to subscribe to this view. There is a world of difference between "displaying something" and "its becoming displayed of itself." The tirst implies `intention' and the second 'compulsion' and a state of helplessness. Moreover, such an interpretation also goes against the traditions which state that the women never moved out with open and uncovered faces in the time of the Holy Prophet after the Commandments of purdah had been sent down. These Commandments implied veiling of the face as well, and the veil had become a part of the female dress except during Hajj when one has to be in the prescribed state of ihram and keep the face uncovered. Another argument that is advanced in support of this view is that the hands and the face are not included in the satar of the woman, whereas satar and purdah are two entirely different things. Sanctity of satar is such that it cannot be violated even before the mahram males like the father. brother, etc. As for purdah it is over and above satar which is meant to segregate women from non mahram males; the discussion here relates to the Commandments of purdah and not to satar.
Desc No: 36 In the pre-lslamic days of ignorance, women used to wear a sort of head-band, which was tied in a knot at the rear of the head. The slit of the shirt in the front partly remained open exposing the front of the neck and the upper part of the bosom. There was nothing except the shirt to cover the breasts, and the hair was worn in a couple or two of plaits hanging behind like tails. (AI-Kashshaf, Vol. II, p. 90, and Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, pp. 283-284). At the revelation of this verse, the head-wrapper (dopatta) was introduced among the Muslim women, which was meant to cover the head, the breasts, and the back, completely. The way the Muslim women responded to this Command has been described by Hadrat 'A'ishah in a vivid manner. She states that when Surah An-Nur was revealed and the people learnt of its contents from the Holy Prophet, they immediately went back to their houses and recited the verses before their wives, daughters and sisters. There was an instantaneous response. The Ansar women, one and all, inunediately got up and made wrappers from whatever piece of cloth that was handy. The next morning all the women who came to the Prophet's Mosque for prayers were dressed in wrappers. In another tradition Hadrat `A'ishah says that thin cloth was discarded and the women selected only coarse cloth for the purpose. (lbn Kathir, Vol.III, p. 284, Abu Da'ud). The very nature and object of the Command demanded that the wrapper should not be made out of fine and thin cloth. The Ansar women immediately understood the real object and knew what type of cloth was intended to be used. The Law-Giver himself clarified this and did not leave it to be interpreted by the people. Dihya Kalbi states: "Once a length of fine Egyptian muslin was presented to the Holy Prophet. He gave a piece of it to me and said, `Use one part of it for your shirt, and give the rest of it to your wife for a wrapper, but tell her that she should stitch another piece of cloth on the inner side so that the body may not be displayed through it." (Abu Da'ud).
Desc No: 37 This verse describes the circle in which a woman can move freely with all her make-up and adornment. Outside this circle she is not allowed to appear with make-up before the other people, whether they are relatives or strangers. The Commandment implies that she should not display her embellishments outside this limited circle, intentionally or through carelessness. However, what becomes displayed incidentally, in spite of care and concern, or what cannot be concealed, it is excused by Allah.
Desc No: 38 `Fathers' include grandfathers and great grandfathers as well, both paternal and maternal. Accordingly a woman can appear before her own and her husband's grandfathers just as she can appear before her own father and father-inlaw.
Desc No: 39 `Sons' include grandsons and great grandsons from the male or female offspring. No distinction is to be made between the real sons and the step-sons.
Desc No: 40 Brothers' include real and stepbrothers.
Desc No: 41 'Sons of brothers and sisters' include sons, grandsons and great grandsons of all the three kinds of brothers and sisters.
Desc No: 42 After the relatives the other people are now being mentioned. But before we proceed further, it would be useful to understand three things in order to avoid confusion. First, some jurists hold that the freedom of movement and display of adornment by a woman is restricted to the circle of relatives mentioned in this verse. AII others, even the real paternal and maternal uncles, are excluded from this list and a woman should observe purdah from them because they have not heen mentioned in the Qur'an. This is, however, not a correct view. Let alone the real uncles, the Holy Prophet disallowed Hadrat `A'ishah to observe purdah even from her foster uncles. A tradition quoted in Sihah Sitta' and Musnad Ahmad on the authority of Hadrat `A'ishah says that once Aflah, brother of Abul Qu'ais, came to see her and sought permission to enter the house. But since the Commandment of purdah had been received, Hadrat `A'ishah refused him permission. On this Aflah sent back the word saying, "You are my niece: you were suckled by my brother Abul Qu'ais's wife." But Hadrat `A'ishah still was hesitant whether it was permissible to appear unveiled before such a relative or not. In the meantime the Holy Prophet arrived and he ruled that he could see her. This shows that the Holy Prophet himself did not interpret the verse in the way these jurists do that it was lawful to appear unveiled only before those relatives who have been mentioned in the verse and not before others. He interpreted it to mean that purdah need not be observed from those relatives with whom marriage is prohibited, for instance, paternal and maternal uncles, son-in-law and foster relatives. Hadrat Hasan Basri from among the followers has expressed the same opinion and the same has been supported by `Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas in his Ahkam-ul-Qur an. (Vol. III, p. 390). Secondly, there is the question of those relatives with whom marriage is not permanently prohibited; they neither fall in the category of mahram relatives (that women may freely appear before them with adornment) nor in the category of complete strangers that they should observe full purdah from them as from others. What should be the right course between the two extremes has not been determined by the Shari `ah for such a course cannot possibly be determined. The observance of purdah or otherwise in such cases will inevitably depend on the mutual relationship, age of the woman and of men, family relations and contacts and other circumstances (e.g. residence in the same house or in different houses). The personal example of the Holy Prophet himself in this matter gives us the same guidance. A large number of traditions confirm that Hadrat Asma', daughter of Abu Bakr, who was a sister-in-law of the Holy Prophet, appeared unveiled before him and no purdah, at least of the face and hands, was observed by her. This same position continued till the Farewell Pilgrimage which took place just a few months before the death of the Holy Prophet. (Abu Da'ud). Similarly Hadrat Umm Hani, daughter of Abu Talib and a first cousin of the Holy Prophet, appeared before him till the end without ever observing purdah of the face and hands. She herself has narrated an incident pertaining to the conquesh of Makkah, which confirms the same. (Abu Da'ud).On the contrary, we see that Hadrat `Abbas sends his son Fadal, and Rabi'ah bin Harith bin `Abdul Muttalib (a first cousin of the Holy Prophet) his son 'Abdul Muttalib before the Holy Prophet with the request for a job, as they could not be married till they became earning members of the family. They both see the Holy Prophet in the house of his wife Zainab, who is a first cousin of Fadal and is similarly related to the father of 'Abdul Muttalib bin Rabi'ah. But she dces not appear before them and talks to them from behind a curtain in the presence of the Holy Prophet. (Abu Da'ud). Taking the two kinds of precedents together we come to the same conclusion as we have stated above. Thirdly, in cases where the relationship itself becomes doubtful, purdah should be observed even from the mahram relatives. Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Da'ud have related a case where Saudah, a wife of the Holy Prophet, had a brother born of a slave woman. `Utbah, the father of Saudah and the boy, left a will enjoining his brother, Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, to look after the boy as a nephew for he was from his own seed. When the case came before the Holy Prophet, he rejected the claim of Hadrat Sa 'd, saying: "The boy belongs to him on whose bed he was born; as for the adulterer, let stones and pebbles be his lot." But at the same time he told Hadrat Saudah to observe purdah from the boy because it was doubtful whether he was really her brother.
Desc No: 43 The Arabic word nisa-i -hinna means "their female associates". Before we consider what women are exactly meant, it is worth noting that the word used here is not an-nisa, which merely means "women", but nisa i-hinna which means "their female associates". In the former case, it would be quite permissible for a Muslim woman to appear unveiled before all sorts of women and display her adornment. The use of nisa-i-hinna, however, has circumscribed her freedom within a specific circle. As to what specific circle of women is implied, the commentators and jurists have expressed different opinions. According to one group, the "female associates" mean only the Muslim women; as for the non-Muslim women, whether zimmis or otherwise, they are excluded and purdah should be observed from them as from men. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Ibn Juraij hold this opinion and cite the following incident in support thereof: Caliph `Umar wrote to Hadrat Abu `Ubaidah: "I hear that some Muslim women have started going to public baths along with the non-Muslim women. It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day that she should expose her body before the women other than of her own community." On receipt of this letter Hadrat Abu `Ubaidah was much upset, and he cried out: "May the face of the woman who goes to the public baths to whiten her complexion be blackened on the Last Day!" (Ibn Jarir, Baihaqi, Ibn Kathir). Another group, which includes Imam Razi, is of the view that "female associates" are all women without exception. But it is not possible to accept this view as in that case an-nisa should have sufficed and there was no need to use nisa-i-hinna. The third opinion, and this appears to be reasonable and nearer the Qur'anic Text, is that "their female associates" mean those familiar and known women with whom a woman usually comes into contact in her daily life and who share in her household chores, etc. whether they are Muslim or non-Muslim. The object here is to exclude those women from the circle who are either strangers whose cultural and moral background is not known or whose antecedents are apparently doubtful, which make them unreliable. This view is also supported by the authentic Traditions which state that zimmi women used to visit the wives of the Holy Prophet. The real thing to be considered in this connection would be the moral character and not the religious belief. Muslim women can meet and have intimate social contacts with noble, modest and virtuous women, who come from well-known and reliable families even if they are non-Muslim. But they must observe purdah from immodest, immoral and vulgar women even if they happen to be "Muslims". Their company from the moral viewpoint is as dangerous as of other men. As for contacts with un-known, unfamiliar women, they may at the most be treated like non-mahram relatives. A woman may uncover her face and hands before them but she must keep the rest of her body and adornments concealed.
Desc No: 44 There is a good deal of difference of opinion among the jurists about the correct meaning of this injunction. One group holds that this refers only to the slave girls owned by a lady. Accordingly they interpret the Divine Command to mean that the Muslim woman can display her adornment before a slave girl, whether she is an idolatress or a Jew or a Christian, but she cannot appear before a slave man even if he is legally owned by her; for purposes of purdah, he is to be treated just like a free male stranger. This is the view of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Mujahid, Hasan Basri, Ibn Sirin, Said bin Musayyab, Ta`us and Imam Abu Hanifah, and a saying of Imam Shafi`i also supports this. They argue that the slave is not a mahram to the lady; if he is freed, e can marry his former owner. Therefore the there fact of his being a slave cannot by itself entitle him to be treated like the male mahrams and allow the lady to appear freely before him. The question why should the words" those in their possession" which are general and applicable to both slaves and slave girls, be restricted to mean only slave girls, is answered by these jurists like this: Though the words are general, the context and background in which they occur snake them specifically applicable to slave girls only. The , words "those in their possession" occur just after "their female associates" in the verse; therefore one could understand that the reference was to a woman's relatives and other associates; this could lead to the misunderstanding that the slave girls perhaps were excluded; the words "those in their possession". therefore were used to clarify that a woman could display her adornments before the slave girls as before her free female associates. The other group holds that the words "those in their possession" include both the slaves and the slave girls. This is the view of Hadrat `A'ishah, Umm Salamah and some learned scholars of the house of the Holy Prophet and also of Imam Shafi`i. They do not argue merely on the basis of the general meaning of the words, but they also cite precedents from the Sunnah in support of their view. For instance, the incident that the Holy Prophet went to the house of his daughter, Hadrat Fatimah, along with his slave 'Abdullah bin Musa'dah al-Fazari. She was at that time wearing a sheet which would leave the feet exposed if she tried to cover the head, and the head exposed if she tried to cover the feet. The Holy Prophet felt her embarrassment and said: "No harm: there are only your father and your slave!" (Abu Da'ud, Ahmad, Baihaqi on the authority of Anas bin Malik). Ibn 'Asakir has stated that the Holy Prophet had given that slave to Hadrat Fatimah, who brought him up and then freed him. (But the man turned out to be an ungrateful wretch; in the battle of Siffin, he was the bitterest opponent of Hadrat 'Ali and a zealous supporter of Amir Mu`awiyah). They also quote the following words of the Holy Prophet in support of their stand: "When any of you agrees to a deed of emancipation with her slave, and the slave has the necessary means to buy his freedom, she (the owner) should observe purdah from him." (Abu Da'ud, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah on the authority of Umm Salamah).
Desc No: 45 The literal translation of the Text would be: "those from among the men who are your subordinates and have no desire." The obvious meaning is that apart from the mahram males, a Muslim woman can display her adornment only before the man who satisfies two conditions: firstly, he should be in a subordinate capacity, and secondly, he should be free from sexual urges either due to advanced age, impotence, mental weakness, poverty or low social position, so that he cannot cherish the desire or have the boldness to think evilly of his master's wife, daughter, sister or mother. Anybody who studies this injunction in the right spirit with a view to obeying it, and not for the sake of finding ways and means of escaping from or violating it, will readily appreciate that the bearers, cooks, chauffeurs and other grown up servants employed these days in the houses do not fall in this category. The following clarifications given by the commentators and the jurists of this point would show the type of men envisaged in the verse: Ibn 'Abbas: This implies a man who is a mere simpleton and has no interest in women. Qatadah: A poor man who is attached to you merely for his sustenance. Mujahid: A fool who only needs food and has no desire for women. Sha'bi: The one who is a subordinate; entirely dependent on his master, and cannot have the boldness to cast an evil look at the womenfolk of the house. lbn Zaid: The one who remains attached to a family for such a long time that he is regarded as a member brought up in that house, and who has no desire for the women of the house. He is there merely because he gets his sustenance from the family. Ta'us & Zuhri: An idiot who dces not cherish the desire for the women nor has the courage to do so. (Ibn Jarir, Vol. XVIII, pp. 95-96, Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 285). The best explanation in this regard is the incident that happened in the time of the Holy Prophet, which has been quoted by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ahmad on the authority of Hadrat `A'ishah and Umm Salamah. There was a certain eunuch in Madinah who was allowed free access to the wives of the Holy Prophet and the other women of the city, on the assumption that he being incapable of sex was free from the sexual urge. One day when the Holy Prophet went to the house of his wife, Umm Salamah, he heard him talking to her brother, 'Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah. He was telling `Abdullah that if Ta`if was taken the following day, he should try to have Badia, daughter of Ghailan Thaqafi . And then he started praising Badia's beauty and her physical charms and even went to the extent of describingher private parts. On hearing this the Holy Prophet said: "O enemy of Allah! you seem to have seen her through." Then he ordered that the women should observe purdah from him and he should not be allowed to enter the houses in future. After this he turned him out of Madinah and forbade the other eunuchs also to enter the houses, because the women did not mind their presence, while they would describe the women of one house before the other men of other houses in the society.This shows that the word "incapable of sex desire" do not merely imply physical impotence. Anyone who is physically unfit but cherishes sex desire in the heart and takesinterest in women, can become the cause of many mischiefs.
Desc No: 46 That is, the children who do not yet have their sex feelings aroused. This may apply to boys of 11 to12 at the most. Older boys start having sex feelings though they may still be immature otherwise.
Desc No: 47 The Holy Prophet did not restrict this injunction to the jingle of the ornaments, but has derived from it the principle that besides the look, anything which tends to excite any of the senses, is opposed to the objective for which Allah has forbidden the women to display their adornment. Therefore he ordered the women not to move out with perfumes. According to Hadrat Abu Hurairah, the Holy Prophet said: "Do not stop the bondmaids of Allah from coming to the mosques, but. they should not come with perfumes." (Abu Da'ud, Ahmad). According to another tradition, Hadrat Abu Hurairah passed by a woman who was coming out of the mosque and felt that she had perfumed herself. He stopped her and said: "O bondmaid of Allah, are you coming from the mosque?" When she replied in the affirmative, he said: "I have heard my beloved Abul Qasim (Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) say that the prayer of the woman who comes to the mosque with perfumes, is not accepted till she purifies herself with a complete hath as is done after a sexual intercourse." (Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Nasa'i). Abu Musa Ash'ari has quoted the Holy Prophet as saying: "A woman who passes on the way with perfumes so that people may enjoy her perfumes, is such and such: he used very harsh words for her." (Tirmizi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i). His instruction was that women should use scents with bright colours but light odours. (Abu Da`ud). Similarly the Holy Prophet disapproved that feminine voices should enter the ears of men unnecessarily. In case of genuine need the Qur'an itself has allowed women to speak to men, and the Holy Prophet's wives themselves used to instruct people in religious matters. But where there is no necessity, nor any moral or religious objective, the women have been discouraged to let their voices be heard by men. Thus if the lmam happens to commit a mistake during a congregational prayer, and he is to be warned of the lapse, the men have been taught to say Subhan-Allah (Glory be to Allah), while the women have been instructed to tap their hands only. (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah).
Desc No: 48 "Turn towards Allah": Repent of the lapses and errors that you have been committing in this regard so far, and reform your conduct in accordance with the Commands given by Allah and His Prophet.
Desc No: 49 It would be useful to give here a resume of the other reforms which the Holy Prophet introduced in the Islamic society after the revelation of these Commandments. (1) He prohibited the other men (even if they are relatives) to see a woman in privacy or sit with her in the absence of her mahram relatives. Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah has reported that the Holy Prophet said: "Do not visit the women whose husbands are away from home, because Satan circulates in one of you like blood." (Tirmizi). According to another Tradition from Hadrat Jabir, the Holy Prophet said: "Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should never visit a woman when alone unless she has a mahram relative also present, because the third one would be Satan. " (Ahmad). Imam Ahmad has quoted another Tradition from `Amir bin Rabi'ah to the same effect. The Holy Prophet himself was extremely cautious in this regard Once when he was accompanying his wife Hadrat Safiyyah to her Douse at night, two men of Ansar passed by them on the way. The Holy Prophet stopped them and said: "The woman with me is my wife Safiyyah." They said: "Glory be to Allah! O Messenger of Allah, could there be a
24.32. Waankihuu al-ayamaminkum waalssalihiina min AAibadikumwa-ima-ikum in yakuunuu fuqaraa yughnihimu Allahumin fadlihi waAllahu wasiAAun AAaliimun
24.32. And marry such of you as are solitary and the pious of your slaves and maid servants. If they be poor; Allah will enrich them of His bounty. Allah is of ample means, Aware. (Pickthall)
24.32. Und verheiratet die Ledigen von euch und die Rechtschaffenen von euren Knechten und euren Mägden. Wenn sie bedürftig sind, macht Allah sie reich aus Seiner Gunst, und Allah ist allerreichend, wissend. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.32. Und verheiratet die noch ledigen (Männer und Frauen) unter euch und die Rechtschaffenen von euren Sklaven und euren Sklavinnen. Wenn sie arm sind, wird Allah sie durch Seine Huld reich machen. Allah ist Allumfassend und Allwissend. (Bubenheim)
24.32. Verheiratet die ledigen Frauen und Männer, die unter euch sind, desgleichen die Rechtschaffenen unter euren Sklaven und Sklavinnen! Sollten sie arm sein, wird Gott sie aus Seiner Gabenfülle reich machen. Gott umfasst alles, und Sein Wissen ist unermesslich. (Azhar)
24.32. Und verheiratet die Unverheirateten unter euch und die gottgefällig Guttuenden von euren Dienern und euren Dienerinnen! Sollten sie arm sein, wird ALLAH sie von Seiner Gunst reich machen. Und ALLAH ist allumfassend, allwissend. (Zaidan)
24.32. Und verheiratet diejenigen von euch, die (noch) ledig sind, und die Rechtschaffenen von euren Sklaven und Sklavinnen (min `ibaadikum wa-imaa'ikum) Wenn sie arm sind (und sich nicht zutrauen, eine Familie zu ernähren), wird Allah sie durch seine Huld reich machen. Er umfaßt (alles) und weiß Bescheid. (Paret)
24.32. Und verheiratet diejenigen von euch, die ledig sind, und die guten unter euren Sklaven, männliche wie weibliche. Wenn sie arm sind, so wird Allah sie aus Seiner Fülle reich machen; denn Allah ist Allumfassend, Allwissend. (Rasul)
24.33. WalyastaAAfifi alladhiina layadschiduuna nikahan hatta yughniyahumu Allahumin fadlihi waalladhiina yabtaghuuna alkitabamimma malakat aymanukum fakatibuuhum inAAalimtum fiihim khayran waatuuhum min mali Allahialladhiiatakum wala tukrihuu fatayatikumAAala albigha-i in aradna tahassunanlitabtaghuu AAarada alhayati alddunyawaman yukrihhunna fa-inna Allaha min baAAdi ikrahihinnaghafuurun rahiimun
24.33. And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your slaves as seek a writing (of emancipation), write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, Lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful. (Pickthall)
24.33. Und diejenigen sollen sich keusch halten, die zu keiner Ehe finden, bis Allah sie reich gemacht hat durch Seine Gunst, und diejenigen, die ein Schreiben erstreben, von denen, die in eurer Hand sind, so schreibt für sie, wenn ihr Gutes über sie wißt, und gebt ihnen vom Vermögensgut Allahs, das Er euch gegeben hat, und zwingt nicht eure jungen Frauen zur Hurerei, wenn sie ehrbar sein möchten, weil ihr die Güter des Lebens dieser Welt erstrebt, und wer sie zwingt, so ist Allah, nachdem sie gezwungen wurden, verzeihend, barmherzig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.33. Diejenigen, die keine (Möglichkeit zum) Heirat(en) finden, sollen keusch bleiben, bis Allah sie durch Seine Huld reich macht. Und denjenigen von denen, die eure rechte Hand besitzt, die einen Freibrief begehren, sollt ihr einen Freibrief ausstellen, wenn ihr an ihnen etwas Gutes wißt. Und gebt ihnen (etwas) vom Besitz Allahs, den Er euch gegeben hat. Und zwingt nicht eure Sklavinnen, wo sie ehrbar sein wollen, zur Hurerei im Trachten nach den Glücksgütern des diesseitigen Le bens. Wenn aber einer sie dazu zwingt, so ist Allah, nachdem sie gezwungen wor den sind, Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
24.33. Diejenigen, die über keine Mittel für eine Ehe verfügen, sollen Keuschheit üben, bis Gott ihnen aus Seiner Gabenfülle Mittel gewährt! Denjenigen unter euren Sklaven, die um einen Freibrief bitten, sollt ihr diesen außtellen, sofern ihr von ihrem guten Willen überzeugt seid! Schenkt ihnen von den Gütern, die Gott euch beschert hat! Ihr sollt eure Sklavinnen nicht zur Unzucht zwingen, wenn sie selbst ehrbar leben wollen, nur weil ihr nach den vergänglichen Gütern des irdischen Lebens trachtet! Wer sie aber gezwungen hat und das dann bereut, dem wird Gott voller Vergebung und Erbarmen verzeihen. (Azhar)
24.33. Und diejenigen, die keine Heiratsmöglichkeit finden, sollen keusch bleiben, bis ALLAH sie von Seiner Gunst reich macht. Und diejenigen von denen, die euch gehören, wenn sieMukataba begehren, dann macht mit ihnen Mukataba, wenn ihr von ihnen Gutes wisst. Und gebt ihnen von ALLAHs Vermögen, das ER euch gab. Und zwingt eure Dienerinnen nicht zur Prostitution - wenn sie keusch bleiben wollen - um das Vergängliche vom dießeitigen Leben zu erstreben. Und wer sie zwingt, dann ist ALLAH gewiss nach dem Zwang ihnen gegenüber allvergebend, allgnädig. (Zaidan)
24.33. Und diejenigen, die es sich nicht leisten können zu heiraten, sollen so lange Enthaltsamkeit üben, bis Allah sie durch seine Huld reich macht. Und wenn welche von euren Sklaven einen Freibrief haben wollen, dann stellt ihnen einen solchen aus, falls ihr eine gute Meinung von ihnen habt, und gebt ihnen etwas von dem Vermögen Allahs, das er euch gegeben hat! Und zwingt nicht eure Sklavinnen (fatayaat), wenn sie ein ehrbares Leben führen wollen, zur Prostitution, um (auf diese Weise) den Glücksgütern (`arad) des diesseitigen Lebens nachzugehen Wenn (jedoch) jemand sie (wirklich dazu) zwingt, dann ist Allah gewiß nach ihrem erzwungenen Tun, barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
24.33. Und diejenigen, die keine (Gelegenheit) zur Ehe finden, sollen sich keusch halten, bis Allah sie aus Seiner Fülle reich macht. Und jene, die ihr von Rechts wegen besitzt - wenn welche von ihnen eine Freilassungsurkunde begehren, (so) stellt sie ihnen aus, falls ihr von ihnen Gutes wisset; und gebt ihnen von Allahs Reichtum, den Er euch gegeben hat. Und zwingt eure Sklavinnen nicht zur Prostitution, wenn sie ein ehrbares Leben führen wollen, nur um die Güter des irdischen Lebens zu erlangen. Werden sie aber (zur Prostitution) gezwungen, dann wird Allah gewiß nach ihrem erzwungenen Tun Allvergebend und Barmherzig (zu ihnen) sein. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 32 bis 33
Arrange marriages between the single men and women among your ( 50 ) and between your slave men and slave women, who are righteous, ( 51 ) , ( 52 ) if they be indigent, Allah will provide means for them out of His bounty: ( 53 ) Allah has boundless resources and He is AllKnowing. And those, who cannot find a match, should observe continence till Allah provides them with means out of His bounty ( 54 ) And if those who are in your possession, ask for a deed of emancipation, execute the deed of emancipation ( 55 ) with them, ( 56 ) provided that you find some good in them ; ( 57 ) and give them something out of the means Allah has given you. ( 58 ) And do not force your slave-girls into prostitution for your own worldly gains when they themselves want to keep chaste; ( 59 ) and if anyone forces them into it, after such a compulsion Allah will be forgiving and merciful for them.
Desc No: 50 The word ayama is the plural of ayyim which means a single person, and is applicable to every tnan who is without a wife and to every woman who is without a husband.
Desc No: 51 That is, those who show the right attitude in their dealings with you and in whom you find the capability of discharging the responsibilities of married life. The owner whose slave dces not show the right attitude nor seems to possess the necessary capability and temper to lead a reasonably happy married life, has not been required to arrange his or her marriage. For in that case he would become the cause of ruining another person's life. This condition, however, has not been imposed on free persons because in their case the people who promote marriages are no more than mere advisers, associates and introducers. The actual marriage depends on the mutual willingness of the bride and the bridegroom. In the case of a slave, however, the entire responsibility lies on the owner, and if he makes the mistake of marrying a poor person with an ill-natured, ill-mannered spouse, the responsibility for the consequences will be entirely his.
Desc No: 52 ..The imperative mood of the verb in "Arrange marriages .... the right attitude", has led some scholars to assume that it is obligatory to arrange such marriages; whereas the nature of the problem indicates that it cannot be so. Obviously it cannot. be obligatory for somebody to arrange the marriage of the other person. Marriage is not a one-sided affair; it needs another party also. If it were obligatory, what would be the position of the person who is going to be married? Should he willingly accept to be married wherever others arrange it? If so, it would mean that he or she had absolutely no choice in the matter. And if the one has a right to refuse, how are the others going to discharge their responsibility? Taking all these aspects into account the majority of the jurists have held that the Commandment is not obligatory but recommendatory. The intention is that the Muslims should ensure that none in the society should retrain unmarried. The people of the house, friends and neighbours, all should take necessary interest in the matter, and where no such help is available, the state should make necessary arrangements.
Desc No: 53 This dces not mean that Allah will certainly bestow wealth on anybody who marries. The intention is to discourage a calculative approach. This instruction is both for the parents of the girl and of the boy. The former should not reject a pious and virtuous suitor merely because he happens to be poor. Similarly the boy's parents should not go on postponing his marriage because he is not yet a full earning member or is not yet earning sufficiently. Young melt have been advised not to go on postponing their marriage unnecessarily waiting for better times Even if the income is not yet sufficient, one should marry with full faith in Allah Very often the marriage itself becomes the cause of improving straitened circumstances. The wife helps to control the family budget, or the husband starts to exert himself more to meet the new challenges and responsibilities. The wife cap: also earn to supplement the family budget. Then, who knows what the future holds in store for him. Good times can change into bad times and bad into good. One should therefore refrain from being too calculative in this regard.
Desc No: 54 The best commentary on these verses are the Traditions which have been reported from the Holy Prophet in this connection. Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud has related that the Holy Prophet once said: "O young men, whoso among you can afford to marry, he should marry, because this will be a means of restraining the eyes from casting the evil look and of keeping one pure and chaste, and the one who cannot afford, should fast, because fasting helps cool down the passions." (Bukhari, Muslim). According to Hadrat Abu Hurairah, the Holy Prophet said: "Allah has taken upon Himself to succour three men: (a) the one who marries with a view to guarding his chastity, (b) the slave who works to earn his freedom, and (c) the one who goes out to fight in the way of Allah." (Tirmizi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad) For further explanation, see Surah An-Nisa: 25.
Desc No: 55 Mukatabat as a term means a deed of emancipation between the owner and the slave entitling the latter to earn his or her freedom after payment of an agreed sum of money in a certain period. This is one of the methods laid down i+ Islam for the slaves to attain their freedom. It is not essential that the slave must always pay in cash; he can also earn his freedom by rendering some special service to the owner, provided that both the parties agree. Once the agreement is signed, the owner is not entitled to put any obstacles in the way of the slave's freedom. He will have to provide opportunities to enable him to earn for his emancipation and shall have to free him when the agreed amount has been paid in time. In the time of Hadrat 'Umar, a slave entered into such an agreement with his lady owner, but managed to collect the amount in advance of the time limit. When the amount was offered to the lady, she refused to accept it on the ground that she would like to have it in monthly and yearly instalments. The slave complained to Hadrat 'Umar who ordered that the amount be deposited in the state treasury and the slave be sec free. The lady was informed that her money lay in the treasury and she had the option to take it in a lump sum or in yearly or monthly instalments. (Daraqutni).
Desc No: 56 A group of jurists have interpreted the words "execute the deed of emancipation with them" to mean that it is obligatory for the owner to accept the offer of a slave to earn his emancipation This is the view of 'Ata', 'Amr bin Dinar Ibn Sirin, Masruq, Dahhak, `Ikrimah, the Zahiriyyah and Ibn Jarir Tabari, and Imam Shafi'i 'also favoured it in the beginning. The other group holds that it .is not obligatory but only recommendatory and commendable. This group includes jurists like Sha'bi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Hasan Basri, 'Abdul Rahman bin Zaid, Sufyan Thauri, Abu Hanifah and Malik bin Anas and Imam Shafi`i later on also had adopted this view. The first view is supported by two things: (a) The imperative mood of the verb in "execute the deed...,' suggests that it is a Command front Allah. (b) Authentic Traditions contain the incident that when Sirin, father of Hadrat Muhammad bin Sirin, the great jurist and traditionalist, made a request to his master, Hadrat Anas, for a deed of emancipation, the latter refused to accept it. Sirin took he matter before Hadrat `Umar, who whip in hand turned on Anas, saying: "Allah's Command is that you execute the deed." (Bukhari). From this it has been argued that it was not a discretionary and personal decision of Hadrat 'Umar but it was taken in the presence of the Companions and none expressed any difference of opinion. This therefore should be taken as an authentic interpretation of the verse. The other group argues that Allah does not merely say: "Execute the deed of emancipation with them", but adds: ". . . provided that you trod some good in them." This condition of finding some good in them" lies entirely on the owner, and there is no fixed standard or means by which the question of "finding good in them" be got adjudicated through a court. Legal injunctions are never couched in such language. As such this injunction can only be regarded as recommendatory and not as legally mandatory. As regards the precedent of the case of Sirin, the jurists say that there was not one slave who asked for a deed of emancipation but thousands of them in the time of the Holy Prophet and the rightly-guided Caliphs, and a large number of them earned their freedom in that way. But apart from Sirin's there is no case where an owner was forced by a judicial verdict to execute a deed of emancipation. Accordingly this decision of Hadrat 'Umar cannot be taken as a judicial decision. All that can be said is that Hadrat `Umar, apart from his position of a judge, was like a father to the Muslims and might have used his paternal authority in a matter where he could not intervene as a judge.
Desc No: 57 "Good" implies three things: (a) The slave must be capable of earning his emancipation money through hard work and labour. The Holy Prophet has said: "Execute the deed when you are sure that the slave can earn the required amount of money; do not let him go about begging the people for it." (Ibn Kathir). (b) He should be honest, truthful and reliable for the purposes of the agreement. He should nuke the best of the opportunities and should not waste his earnings. (c) The owner should make sure that the slave has no immoral trends and does not harbour feelings of enmity against Islam or the Muslims, nor should there be any apprehension that his freedom might prove harmful to the interests of the Muslim society. In other words, he should prove to be a loyal and faithful member of the Muslim society and not a fifth columnist. It should be noted that such precautions were absolutely necessary in the case of the prisoners of war taken as slaves.
Desc No: 58 This Command is general and is addressed to the owners, the common Muslims and the Islamic government. (a) The owner is instructed that he should remit a part of the emancipation money. There are traditions to confirm that the Companions used to remit a sizeable amount of the emancipation money to their slaves. Hadrat 'Ali used to remit a quarter of the amount and exhorted others also to do the same. (lbn Jarir). (b) The common Muslim is instructed that he should extend liberal help to all such slaves who asked for help in this regard. One of the heads of Zakat expenditure as laid down in the Qur'an is "the ransoming of slaves". (IX:60) In the sight of Allah "freeing of slaves" is a great act of virtue. (XC :13). According to a Tradition, a Bedouin came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to instruct him what he should do to earn Paradise. The Holy Prophet replied "You have asked about the most important thing in a most concise way. You should free the slaves and help them to earn their freedom, If you present a head of cattle to somebody, present such a one as gives plenty of milk. Treat your relatives kindly even if they treat you unjustly. If you cannot do all this, you should feed the poor, give water to the thirsty, exhort the people to do good and forbid them to do evil. If you cannot do even this, you should restrain your tongue: if you have to speak, speak something good, otherwise keep quiet"'. (Baihaqi). (c) The Islamic government is advised to spend a part of the Zakat collections on the emancipation of slaves. Here it should be noted that slaves in the ancient tunes were of three kinds: (i) Prisoners of war, (ii) Free men who were captured and traded as slaves, (iii) Hereditary slaves who did not know when their ancestors became slaves and to which of the above categories they originally belonged. Before the advent of Islam, Arabia as well as the outside world abounded in all kinds of slaves. The entire social and economic structure of society depended more on slave labour than on servants and wage-earners. The first question before Islam was to tackle the problem of the hereditary slaves, and secondly, to find a solution to the entire problem of slavery for all times to come. In tackling the first problem, Islam did not abruptly abrogate the ownership rights in respect of the hereditary slaves as it would have completely paralysed the entire social and economic system, and involved Arabia in a far more destructive civil war than the one fought in America, leaving the problem where it was as it is in America, where the Negroes are still facing humiliation and disgrace. Islam did not follow any such foolhardy policy of reform. Instead it generated a great moral movement for the emancipation of slaves and employed inducements, persuasions, religious injunctions and legal enactments to educate and motivate the people to free the slaves voluntarily for earning their salvation in the Hereafter, or as expiation of their sins as enjoined by Islam, or by accepting monetary compensation. To set the pace the Holy Prophet himself freed 63 slaves. One of his wives, Hadrat 'A'ishah, alone treed 67 slaves. The Holy Prophet's uncle, Hadrat `Abbas, freed 70 slaves. Among others, Hakim bin Hizam freed 100 slaves, 'Abdullah bin 'Umar 1,000, Zulkal'a Himyari 8,000, and 'Abdur Rehman bin 'Auf 30,000. The other Companions among whom Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Uthman were prominent also set a large number of slaves free. The people, in order to win Allah's favour, not only emancipated their own slaves, but also bought them from others and then set them free. The result was that in so far as hereditary slaves were concerned, almost all of them had been freed even before the righteous Caliphate came to an end. As for the future, Islam completely prohibited free men from being kidnapped and traded as slaves. As for the prisoners of war, it was permitted (not commanded) that they might be kept as slaves so long as they were not exchanged for Muslim prisoners of war, or freed on payment of ransom. Then, on the one hand, the slaves were aIso allowed to earn their freedom through written agreements with their masters, and on the other, the masters were exhorted to set them free just like the hereditary slaves, as an act of virtue, to win Allah's approval, or as expiation of sins, or by willing that a slave would automatically gain his freedom on the master's death, or that a slave girl would be free on the master's death if she had borne him children, whether he had left a will or not. This is how Islam solved the problem of slavery. Ignorant people raise objections without trying to understand this solution, and the apologists offer all sorts of apologies and have even to deny the fact that Islam had prohibited slavery absolutely.
Desc No: 59 This does not mean that if the slave girls do not want to lead a chaste and virtuous life they can be forced into prostitution. It only means this that if a slave girl commits an immoral act of her own free will, she herself is responsible for it and the law will be applied against her alone. But if the owner forces her into it, it will be entirely his responsibility, and the law will proceed against him. Obviously the question of force arises only when someone is compelled to act against his own will. As for the words "for your own worldly gains", these have not been used in a conditional or restrictive sense that if the owner is not sharing the immoral earnings of the slave girl, he is not an offender if he forces her into prostitution. The intention is to declare all such money unlawful as has been earned through illegal and immoral ways. It is, however, not possible to comprehend the full import of this injunction merely from the words of the text. For this it is necessary to understand the entire background and circumstances prevalent at the time of its revelation. Prostitution in Arabia existed in two forms: Domestic prostitution and open prostitution in the brothel. (a) 'Domestic' prostitution was carried out by freed slave girls who had no guardians, or by free women who had no family or tribal support. They would take residence in a house and enter into an agreement with a number of men simultaneously for financial help in return for sexual gratification. Whenever a child was born, the mother would name whomsoever she liked as its father and the man was accepted in society as the father of the child. This was an established custom in the pre-Islamic days, which was considered almost analogous to "marriage". When Islam came, it recognised only that contract as legal marriage where a woman had only one husband. Thus all other forms of sexual gratification came to be regarded as adultery and punishable offences as such. (Abu Da'ud). (b) Open prostitution which was carried out entirely through slave girls was of two kinds. First, the slave girls were obliged to pay a fixed heavy amount every month to the owner, which they could only earn through prostitution. The owner knew fully well how the money was earned, and in fact there was no other object of imposing a heavy demand on the poor slave girl, especially when it was much higher than the usual wages for work or labour. Secondly, beautiful and young slave girls were made to stay in the brothel and a flag was put at the door to indicate that a "needy person" could satisfy his lust there. Such women were called "qaliqiyat" and their houses were well known as, "mawakhir"'. AlI prominent men of the 'day owned and maintained such houses of prostitution. `Abdullah bin Ubayy (the chief of the hypocrites of Madinah, who had been nominated as king of Madinah before the Holy Prophet's arrival there and who was in the forefront of the campaign to slander Hadrat `A'ishah) himself owned a regular house of prostitution in Madinah, which had six beautiful slave girls. Not only did he earn money through them but also used them to entertain his respectable and important guests who came to see him from different parts of Arabia. He employed the illegitimate children thus born to enhance the splendour and strength of his army of slaves. When one of these prostitutes, named Mu'azah, accepted Islam and wanted to offer repentance for her past sins, Ibn Ubayy subjected her to torture. She complained of it to Hadrat Abu Bakr, who brought it to the notice of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet ordered that the woman be taken away from the cruel man. (Ibn Jarir, Vol. XVIII, pp. 55 -58, and 103-104; AlIsti`ab Vol 11, p. 762; p. 762; Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, pp. 288-289). Such were the conditions when this verse was revealed. If these conditions are kept in view, it will become obvious that the real object was not merely to stop the slave girls from being forced into prostitution but to ban prostitution itself as illegal within the boundaries of the Islamic state. Simultaneously there was a declaration of general pardon for those who had been forced into this business in the past. After the revelation of this Divine Command the Holy Prophet declared: "There is no place for prostitution in Islam." (Abu Da'ud). The second Command that he gave was that the earnings made through adultery were unlawful, impure and absolutely forbidden. According to a tradition reported by Rafi` bin Khadij, the Holy Prophet described such earnings as impure, product of the worst profession and most filthy income. (Abu Da'ud, Tirmizi, Nasa'i). According to Abu Huzaifah, he termed the money earned through prostitution as unlawful. (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad). Abu Mas`ud `Uqbah bin `Amr says that the Holy Prophet forbade the people to take prostitution earnings. (Sihah Sitta and Ahmad). The third Command was that the slave girl could be employed for lawful manual labour, but the owner had no right to impose or receive any money from her about which he was not sure how it had been earned. According to Rafi` bin Khadij, he prohibited accepting any earnings from the slave girl unless it was known how she had earned it. (Abu Da'ud). Rafi` bin Rifa`ah Ansari has reported the same Command in clearer words. He says: "The Prophet of Allah prohibited us from accepting anything from the earnings of a slave girl except that which she earned through manual labour, such as (and he indicated this with his hand) baking bread, spinning cotton or carding wool or cotton." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud). Another tradition quoted from Hadrat Abu Hurairah in Abu Da'ud and Musnad Ahmad says that taking of money earned by a slave girl through unlawful means is prohibited. Thus the Holy Prophet in accordance with the intention of this verse, banned by religious injunction and law all kinds of prostitution prevalent in Arabia in those days. Over and above this, the decision he gave in the case of Mu'azah, the slave girl of `Abdullah bin Ubayy, shows that an owner who forces his slave girl into prostitution loses his rights of ownership over her. This is a tradition from Imam Zuhri, which Ibn Kathir has quoted on the authority of Musnad `Abdur Razzaq. "
24.34. And verily We have sent down for you revelations that make plain, and the example of those who passed away before you. An admonition unto those who ward off (evil). (Pickthall)
24.34. Und bestimmt haben Wir schon auf dich klargemachte Zeichen herabgesandt und ein Gleichnis von denjenigen, die vor euch dahingegangen sind, und eine Mahnung für die Gottesfürchtigen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.34. Wir haben ja zu euch Zeichen hinabgesandt, die (alles) klar machen, und ein Beispiel (aus den Berichten) von denjenigen, die vor euch dahingegangen sind, und eine Ermahnung für die Gottesfürchtigen. (Bubenheim)
24.34. Wir haben euch Verse herabgesandt, die die Gebote und Verbote klarstellen, Gleichnisse über die früheren Völker vor euch bringen und Ermahnung für die Frommen sind. (Azhar)
24.34. Und gewiß, bereits sandten WIR dir doch erläuternde Ayat hinab, ein Gleichnis von denjenigen, die vor euch vergingen, und eine Ermahnung für die Muttaqi. (Zaidan)
24.34. Wir haben doch Verse zu euch hinabgesandt, die (alles) deutlich machen, und ein Beispiel (aus der Geschichte) derer, die vor euch dahingegangen sind, und eine Ermahnung für die Gottesfürchtigen. (Paret)
24.34. Und wahrlich, Wir haben euch deutliche Zeichen niedergesandt und das Beispiel derer, die vor euch dahingingen, und eine Ermahnung für die Gottesfürchtigen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 34 bis 34
We have sent down to you Revelations giving clear guidance and cited examples of the peoples who went before you to serve as warning and We have imparted admonitions for the God-fearing. ( 60 )
Desc No: 60 This verse is not only connected with the verse inunediately preceding it but with the entire discourse right from the beginning. "Revelations giving clear guidance" are those verses which: (1) state the law concerning Zina, Qazf and Li an. (2) forbid the believers to marry impure men or women, (3) prohibit the slandering of chaste people and propagating indecencies in society, (4) lay stress on men and women to restrain their gaze and guard their private parts, (5) prescribe the limits of purdah` for women, (6) disapprove of the marriageable people's remaining unmarried, (7) lay down the rule for slaves to earn their freedom through written agreements, and (8) ban prostitution to purify society. After all these commands and instructions, a warning is being given that now if the people violated these instructions it would only mean that they wanted to meet with the same doom as had been the lot of the wretched communities before them, whose stories have been related in the Qur'an itself. There could probably be no severer warning at the end of an edict. But it is a pity that a people who profess to he believers, and recite the holy edict and hold it sacred, yet continue to defy and violate its provisions in spite of the severe warning. "
24.35. Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light, Allah guideth unto His light whom He will. And Allah speaketh to mankind in allegories, for Allah is knower of all things. (Pickthall)
24.35. Allah ist das Licht der Himmel und der Erde. Das Gleichnis Seines Licht ist wie eine Nische, in ihr ist eine Lampe, die Lampe in einem Glas, das Glas wie ein funkelndes Gestirn, sie ist entzündet von einem gesegneten Baum, einem Ölbaum, nicht vom Osten und nicht vom Westen, fast erleuchtet sein Öl, wenn auch kein Feuer es berührt hat, - Licht über Licht. Allah leitet recht zu Seinem Licht, wen Er will, und Allah gibt die Gleichnisse für die Menschen, und Allah weiß alles. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.35. Allah ist das Licht der Himmel und der Erde. Das Gleichnis seines Lichtes ist das einer Nische, in der eine Lampe ist. Die Lampe ist in einem Glas. Das Glas ist, als wäre es ein funkelnder Stern. Ihr Brennstoff kommt von einem gesegneten Baum, einem Ölbaum, weder östlich noch westlich, dessen Öl beinahe schon Helligkeit verbreitete, auch wenn das Feuer es nicht berührte. Licht über Licht. Allah führt zu Seinem Licht, wen Er will. Allah prägt den Menschen die Gleichnisse, und Allah weiß über alles Bescheid. (Bubenheim)
24.35. Gott, Allah ist das Licht der Himmel und der Erde. Das Gleichnis Seines Lichts ist wie eine Nische, in der eine Lampe steht. Die Lampe ist in einem Glas. Das Glas ist wie ein funkelnder Stern. Die Lampe erhält ihren Brennstoff von einem gesegneten Baum, einem Olivenbaum, der weder zum Sonnenaufgang allein, noch zum Sonnenuntergang allein hin wächst. Sein ?l leuchtet beinahe, ohne dass Feuer es berührt. Licht über Licht! Gott leitet recht, wen Er will zu Seinem Licht. Gott führt Gleichnisse für die Menschen an. Gottes Wissen umfasst alles. (Azhar)
24.35. ALLAH ist Der Erleuchtende von den Himmeln und der Erde. Das Gleichnis Seiner Erleuchtung ist wie eine Aushöhlung, in der eine Leuchte ist. Die Leuchte 2 ist in einem Glas. Das Glas ähnelt einem leuchtenden Stern, das von einem Baum voller Baraka, einem Olivenbaum angezündet wird, der weder östlich noch westlich liegt. Sein Öl leuchtet beinahe, auch dann, würde es kein Feuer berühren; Licht über Licht! ALLAH leitet zum Seinem Licht recht, wen ER will. Und ALLAH prägt die Gleichnisse für die Menschen. Und ALLAH ist über alles allwissend. (Zaidan)
24.35. Allah ist das Licht von Himmel und Erde. Sein Licht ist einer Nische zu vergleichen, mit einer Lampe darin. Die Lampe ist von Glas umgeben, das (so blank) ist, wie wenn es ein funkelnder Stern wäre. Sie brennt (mit Öl) von einem gesegneten Baum, einem Ölbaum, der weder östlich noch westlich ist, und dessen Öl fast schon hell gibt, (noch) ohne daß (überhaupt) Feuer darangekommen ist, - Licht über Licht. Allah führt seinem Licht zu, wen er will. Und er prägt den Menschen die Gleichnisse. Allah weiß über alles Bescheid. (Paret)
24.35. Allah ist das Licht der Himmel und der Erde. Sein Licht ist gleich einer Nische, in der sich eine Lampe befindet: Die Lampe ist in einem Glas; das Glas gleich einem funkelnden Stern. Angezündet (wird die Lampe) von einem gesegneten Ölbaum, der weder östlich noch westlich ist, dessen Öl beinahe leuchten würde, auch wenn das Feuer es nicht berührte. Licht über Licht. Allah leitet zu Seinem Licht, wen Er will. Und Allah prägt Gleichnisse für die Menschen, und Allah kennt alle Dinge. (Rasul)
24.37. Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguileth from remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs will be overturned; (Pickthall)
24.37. Männer, die kein Handel und kein Kauf ablenkt vom Eingedenksein Allahs und dem Einrichten des Gebets und dem Geben der Zakat-Steuer. Sie fürchten einen Tag, an dem die Herzen und die Blicke sich hin und her wenden, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.37. Männer, die weder Handel noch Kaufgeschäft ablenken vom Gedenken Allahs, von der Verrichtung des Gebets und der Entrichtung der Abgabe´, die einen Tag fürch ten, an dem Herzen und Augenlicht umgekehrt werden, (Bubenheim)
24.37. Männer, die weder durch Handel noch Geschäfte davon abgelenkt werden, Gottes zu gedenken, die Gebete zu verrichten, Zakat-Abgaben zu entrichten und den Tag zu fürchten, an dem die Herzen und die Blicke erzittern werden. (Azhar)
24.37. Männern, die weder durch Handel noch durch Verkauf vom Gedenken an ALLAH abgelenkt werden, sowie nicht vom ordnungsgemäßen Verrichten des rituellen Gebets und nicht vom Entrichten der Zakat. Sie fürchten einen Tag, an dem die Herzen und die Blicke sich ständig wenden werden. (Zaidan)
24.37. Männer, die sich weder durch Ware (tidschaara) noch durch ein Kaufgeschäft (bai`) davon ablenken lassen, Allahs zu gedenken, das Gebet (salaat) zu verrichten und die Almosensteuer (zakaat) zu geben, und die einen Tag fürchten (yakhaafuuna), an dem (den Menschen) Herz und Gesicht umgekehrt werden (so daß ihnen der Verstand stillsteht und Hören und Sehen vergeht). (Paret)
24.37. - Männer, die weder Ware noch Handel vom Gedenken an Allah abhält und der Verrichtung des Gebets und dem Entrichten der Zakah; sie fürchten einen Tag, an dem sich Herzen und Augen verdrehen werden. (Rasul)
24.38. Liyadschziyahumu Allahu ahsana maAAamiluu wayaziidahum min fadlihi waAllahuyarzuqu man yaschao bighayri hisabin
24.38. That Allah may reward them with the best of what they did, and increase reward for them of His bounty. Allah giveth blessings without stint to whom He will. (Pickthall)
24.38. Damit Allah ihnen auf"s Beste vergilt, was sie getan haben und ihnen mehr von Seiner Gunst gibt, und Allah versorgt, wen Er will, ohne Anrechnen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.38. damit Allah ihnen das Beste von dem vergelte, was sie getan haben, und ihnen von Seiner Huld noch mehr gebe. Und Allah versorgt, wen Er will, ohne zu rechnen. (Bubenheim)
24.38. So wird Gott ihnen die beste Belohnung für ihre Werke gewähren und ihnen noch mehr aus Seiner Gabenfülle bescheren. Gott schenkt, wem Er will, unzählbare Gaben. (Azhar)
24.38. ALLAH wird ihnen gewiss vergelten Besseres als das, wie sie handelten, und wird ihnen noch mehr von Seiner Gunst geben. Und ALLAH gewährt Rizq, wem ER will, ohne Berechnung. (Zaidan)
24.38. (Das alles wird ihnen gutgeschrieben) damit Allah ihnen (dereinst) ihre besten Taten vergelte (ohne ihre schlechten Taten anzurechnen) und (ihnen darüber hinaus) von seiner Huld noch mehr gebe. Allah beschert, wem er will, (Gutes) ohne abzurechnen. (Paret)
24.38. Damit Allah sie belohne für die besten ihrer Taten und ihnen reichlich gebe aus Seiner Fülle. Und Allah versorgt ja, wen Er will, ohne zu rechnen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 35 bis 38
Allah ( 61 ) is the light of the heavens and the earth: ( 62 ) His light (in the universe) may be likened (to the light of) a lamp in a niche: the lamp is in a glass shade: the glass shade is like a glittering star and lamp is lit with the olive oil of a blessed tree ( 63 ) which is neither eastern nor western: ( 64 ) its oil is (so fine) as if it were going to shine forth by itself though no fire touched it (as though all the means of increasing) light upon light (were provided ( 65 ) ); Allah guides to His light whomever He wills. ( 66 ) He cites parables to make the Message clear to the people; He has perfect knowledge of everything. ( 67 ) (Those who obtain guidance to His light are found) in the houses which He has enjoined to raise up and to mention His name therein. ( 68 ) In them such people glorify Him morning and evening as are not diverted by trade and merchandise from remembering Him and from establishing Salat and paying Zakat, for they fear the Day when the hearts will be overturned and the eyes will become petrified. (And they behave like this) so that Allah may reward them for their excellent deeds and, in addition to it, show His favour to them out of His bounty: Allah provides without stint ( 69 ) for anyone He pleases.
Desc No: 61 From here the discourse is directed towards the hypocrites, who were bent upon starting mischief in the Islamic community, and were as active from within as the unbelievers were from without to harm the Islamic movement and the body politic of Islam. As these people professed belief, and apparently belonged to the Muslim community, and had blood relationships with the Muslims, especially with the Ansar, they were better placed to start and spread mischief. The result was that even some sincere Muslims, due to simplicity or weakness, became tools in their hands and even their supporters. But in spite of their profession of faith, the lure of worldly gains had utterly blinded them to the light that was spreading in the world through the teachings of the Qur'an and the Holy Prophet Muhammad IAllah's peace and blessings be upon him). The indirect address to the hypocrites here has three things in view: Firstly, to admonish them, for the first and foremost demand of Allah's providence and His mercy is to go on admonishing the misguided and the erring one till the last in spite of his persistence in mischief and wickedness. Secondly, to differentiate clearly between belief and hypocrisy so that every right thinking person from the Muslim community should be able to distinguish between a true believer and a hypocrite. Then if anybody, in spite of this differentiation, falls a prey to the machinations of the hypocrites or supports them, he should himself be responsible for his conduct. Thirdly, to warn the hypocrites clearly and plainly that Allah's promises for the believers are meant only for those who sincerely believe and then fulfil the demands and requirements of their Faith. These promises are not meant for anybody who poses himself as a Muslim. The hypocrites and the sinful people therefore should not cherish any hope that they will have any share in these.
Desc No: 62 The phrase "heavens and the earth" in the Qur'an is generally used for the "universe". Thus the verse would also mean: "Allah is the light of the whole universe" Light is something which makes things visible; which is itself manifest and helps make other things manifest. The human mind conceives light in this very sense. Absence of light is termed darkness, invisibility and obscurity. On the other hand, when there is visibility and things become exposed to view, man says there is light. Allah has been called `Light' in this basic sense, and not in the sense of a beam of light which travels at the speed of 186,000 miles per second and stimulates the optic nerve through the retina. This conception of light has nothing to do with the reality of the meaning for which human mind has coined this word; rather the word light is used for all those lights which we experience in this physical world All human words used for Allah are used in their basic sense and meaning, and not with reference to their physical connotation. For instance, when, the word "sight" is used with respect to Allah, it dces not mean that Allah has an eye like men and animals with which He sees. Similarly when we say that Allah 'hears' or 'grips' or 'grasps', it does not mean that He hears through ears, or grips or grasps with the hand like us. These words are used in a metaphorical sense and only a man of very poor intelligence would have the misconception that hearing or seeing or grasping is not possible except in the limited and specific sense in which we experience it. Similarly it will be shortsightedness to interpret the word 'light' in the sense of physical light rays emanating from a luminous body and affecting the retina. This word is not applicable to Allah in its limited sense, but in its absolute sense. That is, He alone in this universe is the real and prime "Cause of manifestation", otherwise there is nothing but darkness. here. Everything which gives light and illuminates other things has got its light from Him; it has no light of its own . The word light is also used for knowledge, and ignorance is termed as darkness. Allah is the Light of the universe in this sense too, because the knowledge of Reality and of right Guidance can be obtained from Him alone; without having recourse to His `Light', there will be nothing but darkness of ignorance and the resultant vice and wickedness in the world.
Desc No: 63 "Blessed": yielding multiple benefits
Desc No: 64 which is neither eastern nor western": which grows in an open plane or on a hill, where it gets sunshine from morning till evening. Such an olive tree yields tine oil which gives a bright light. On the other hand, a tree which gets sunlight only from the east or only from the west, yields thick oil which gives weak light.
Desc No: 65 In this parable, Allah has been likened to the Lamp and the universe to the Niche. The glass shade is the veil behind which Allah has concealed Himself from His creation. This veil is not a physical veil for concealment, but a veil caused by the intensity of Divine manifestation. The human eye is unable to see Him not because of the intervening darkness but because of the intensity of the all pervading, all-embracing Light radiating through the transparent veil. The human vision which is limited in nature cannot comprehend it. It can only comprehend and perceive limited physical lights which vary in brightness, which disappear and reappear, and Which can be perceived only by contrast to existing darkness. But the 'Absolute Light' has no confronting dark ness: it does not vanish, it shines forth and pervades all around with ever-existing glory; it is beyond human perception and comprehension. As for "the lamp which is lit with the oil of a blessed olive tree, which is neither eastern nor western"', this is a metaphor to give an idea of the perfect light of the lamp and its brilliance. In antiquity the source for brilliant light were the olive lamps, and the most superior oil for the purpose was that obtained from a tree standing in an open and elevated place. The epithet of Lamp for Allah in the parable does trot mean that Allah is deriving His energy from some external source. It only means that the Lamp of the parable is not an ordinary lamp but the most brilliant lamp that can be imagined. Just as a brilliant lamp illuminates the whale house, so has Allah illuminated the whole universe. Again, the words " .... its oil is (so fine) as if it were going to shine forth by itself though no fire touched it", are also meant to emphasize the brilliance of :he light of the lamp, which is being fed by the finest and most readily combustible oil. The 'olive' and 'its being neither eastern nor western', and 'high combustibility of its oil by itself' (without fire), are not the essential elements of the parable, but attributes of the lamp, which is the primary element of the parable. The essential elements of the parable are only three: the Lamp, the Niche and the transparent Glass Shade. The sentence, "His light may be likened......", dispels the possible misunderstanding that one could have front the words: "'Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth." This shows that the use of the word "light" for Allah does not at all mean that the essence of His Being is nothing but 'light'. In essence, He is a Perfect Being, Who is AII-Knowing, All-Powerful, All-Wise etc. and also possessing all 'Light' H2 has been called 'Light' itself because of His Perfection as a Source of Light, just as somebody may be called `Grace' on account of his being highly gracious and beneficent and 'Beauty' because of his being highly beautiful and attractive.
Desc No: 66 That is, although Allah's Light is illuminating the whole world, everybody does not and cannot perceive it. It is Allah alone Who blesses whomsoever He wills with the capacity for perceiving His Light and benefiting by it. Just as the day and night are alike to a blind man, so is the case of a man without the gift of inner perception: he may see the electric light, the sunlight, the moonlight and the light from stars, but he cannot perceive the Light of Allah. For him. there is nothing but darkness in the universe. Just as a blind man cannot see the stone in his way unless he stumbles over it, so is the man without the gift of inner perception, who cannot perceive even those realities around him which may he all brilliance and shining by Allah's Light. He will perceive them only when he is overtaken by the consequences of his own misdeeds.
Desc No: 67 This means two things: First, He knows what parable can best explain a certain reality, and secondly, He knows who is entitled to receive this bounty and who is not. Allah has no need to show His Light to the one who has do desire or longing for it and who is utterly lost in worldly pursuits and in seeking material pleasures and gains. This bounty can be bestowed only on the one who in the knowledge of Allah has a sincere desire for it.
Desc No: 68 Some commentators have interpreted these "houses" to mean the mosques, and 'raising them' to mean constructing and reverencing them. Some others, however, take them to mean the houses of the believers and 'raising them' to mean raising their moral status. The words "to mention His name therein" seem to refer to the mosques and support the tirst interpretation, but if we look deeper, we see that they support the second interpretation equally well. This is because Divine Law does not confine worship to mosques alone as is the case with the priest-ridden religions where the rituals can only be performed under the leadership of a clergy. ht Islam a house is also a place of worship like the mosque and every man is his own priest. As this Surah mostly contains instructions for ennobling domestic life, we feel that the second interpretation is more in keeping with the context though there is no reason for rejecting the first interpretation. There will be no harm if both the mosques and the houses of the believers are implied here.
Desc No: 69 Here those characteristics have been described which are necessary for the true perception of Allah's Absolute Light and for benefiting from His bounties. Allah does not bestow His bounties without reason. He bestows them on the deserving ones alone. He only sees this that the recipient has sincere love for Him, stands in awe of Him, seeks His favours and avoids His wrath; he is not lost in material pursuits but in spite of his worldly engagements keeps his heart warm with God's remembrance. Such a person dces not rest content with low spiritual levels, but actively endeavours to attain the heights towards which his Master may guide him. He does not go for the paltry gains of this transitory world, but has his gaze constantly fixed on the everlasting life of the Hereafter. These are the things which determine whether or not a person should be granted the favour to benefit from Allah's Light. Then, when Allah is pleased to bestow His bounties, He bestows them without measure; and it will be man's own incapacity if he does not receive them in full. "
24.39. Waalladhiina kafaruu aAAmaluhumkasarabin biqiiAAatin yahsabuhu aldhdham-anumaan hatta idhadschaahu lamyadschidhu schay-an wawadschada Allaha AAindahu fawaffahu hisabahuwaAllahu sariiAAu alhisabi
24.39. As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are as a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one supposeth it to be water till he cometh unto it and findeth it naught, and findeth, in the place thereof, Allah, Who payeth him his due; and Allah is swift at reckoning. (Pickthall)
24.39. Und diejenigen, die den Glauben verweigern, ihre Taten sind wie eine Luftspiegelung auf einer Ebene, - der Durstige hält sie für Wasser, bis, wenn er dahin kommt, er da nichts findet, und er findet Allah bei sich, und Er begleicht ihm seine Abrechnung, und Allah ist schnell bei der Abrechnung, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.39. Die Werke derjenigen aber, die ungläubig sind, sind wie eine Luftspiegelung in einer Ebene, die der Durstige für Wasser hält. Wenn er dann dorthin kommt, findet er, daß es nichts ist; aber er findet Allah da, Der ihm dann seine Abrechnung in vollem Maß zukommen läßt. Allah ist schnell im Abrechnen. (Bubenheim)
24.39. Die Werke der Ungläubigen sind wie Luftspiegelungen in einer Ebene, die der Durstige für Wasser hält, aber wenn er sich dorthin begibt, nichts findet. Der Ungläubige wird aber Gott finden, Der ihm seine genau berechnete Strafe zuteilen wird. Gott ist schnell im Abrechnen. (Azhar)
24.39. Und diejenigen, die Kufr betrieben haben, ihre Handlungen ähneln einer Fata Morgana in einer Ebene. Der Durstige hält sie für Wasser, und wenn er es erreicht, findet er es als Nichts, aber er findet ALLAH bei sich, dann wird ER ihm seine Abrechnung vergüten. Und ALLAH ist schnell im Zur-Rechenschaft-Ziehen. (Zaidan)
24.39. Die Handlungen der Ungläubigen sind dagegen wie eine Luftspiegelung in einer Ebene. Wenn einer (unterwegs ist und) unter Durst leidet, hält er es für Wasser. Wenn er aber schließlich hinkommt (und trinken will), findet er, daß es (überhaupt) nichts ist. Und er findet (statt dessen) Allah vor (der seinem Leben ein Ende setzt). Und der rechnet ihm alles voll an. Er ist schnell im Abrechnen. (Paret)
24.39. Die aber ungläubig sind - ihre Taten sind wie eine Luftspiegelung in einer Ebene: Der Dürstende hält sie für Wasser, bis er, wenn er hinzutritt, sie als Nichts vorfindet. Doch nahebei findet er Allah, Der ihm seine Abrechnung vollzieht; und Allah ist schnell im Abrechnen. (Rasul)
24.40. Aw kadhulumatin fii bahrinludschdschiyyin yaghschahu mawdschun min fawqihi mawdschun min fawqihisahabun dhulumatun baAAduhafawqa baAAdin idha akhradscha yadahu lam yakad yarahawaman lam yadschAAali Allahu lahu nuuran fama lahu minnuurin
24.40. Or as darkness on a vast, abysmal sea. There covereth him a wave, above which is a wave, above which is a cloud. Layer upon layer of darkness. When he holdeth out his hand he scarce can see it. And he for whom Allah hath not appointed light, for him there is no light. (Pickthall)
24.40. Oder wie die tiefe Finsternis in einem bodenlosen Meer, eingehüllt von Wogen, über denen Wogen sind, über denen Wolken sind, tiefe Finsternis, eine davon über der anderen, - wenn einer seine Hand ausstreckt, fast sieht er sie nicht, und für wen Allah kein Licht macht, für den gibt es kein Licht. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
24.40. Oder (sie sind) wie Finsternisse in einem abgrundtiefen Meer, das von Wogen überdeckt ist, über denen (nochmals) Wogen sind, über denen (wiederum) Wolken sind: Finsternisse, eine über der anderen. Wenn er seine Hand ausstreckt, kann er sie kaum sehen. Und wem Allah kein Licht schafft, für den gibt es kein Licht. (Bubenheim)
24.40. Oder sie sind wie die Finsternis in einem stürmischen Meer, die Wogen über Wogen bedecken und darüber Wolken, Finsternis über Finsternis. Wenn der Ungläubige dort die Hand außtreckt, kann er sie kaum sehen. Wem Gott kein Licht gibt, der findet auch kein Licht. (Azhar)
24.40. Oder (sie ähnelt) den Finsternissen im einem tiefen Meer, das von einer Woge bedeckt wird, über der noch eine Woge liegt, und darüber eine Wolke ist. Es sind Finsternisse, die einen über den anderen, wenn er seine Hand außtreckt, beinahe sieht er sie nicht. Und wem ALLAH kein Licht gewährt, für den gibt es kein Licht. (Zaidan)
24.40. Oder (die Handlungen der Ungläubigen sind) wie Finsternis in einem abgrundtiefen Meer, das von einer Woge bedeckt wird, über der eine (weitere) Woge liegt, und über der (auch noch) eine Wolke liegt, - eine Finsternis über der anderen: Wenn man seine Hand ausstreckt, kann man sie (vor Dunkelheit) kaum sehen. Wem Allah kein Licht verschafft, der hat (überhaupt) keines. (Paret)
24.40. Oder (die Ungläubigen sind) wie Finsternisse in einem tiefen Meer: Eine Woge bedeckt es, über ihr ist (noch) eine Woge, darüber ist eine Wolke; Finsternisse, eine über der anderen. Wenn er seine Hand ausstreckt, kann er sie kaum sehen; und wem Allah kein Licht gibt - für den ist kein Licht. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 39 bis 40
(On the other hand,) the deeds of those who disbelieved, ( 70 ) maybe likened to a mirage in a waterless desert, which the thirsty one took for water; but when he reached there he found nothing to drink; nay, he found there Allah Who settled his full account, and Allah is very swift at reckoning. ( 71 ) Or (their efforts may be likened to those of a man trying to swim in) a deep dark ocean, covered with billows, one over the other, and above it a cloud: darkness upon darkness: so much so that if he stretches out his hand, he cannot see ( 72 ) it. There is no light for the one whom Allah does not give light. ( 73 )
Desc No: 70 That is, they refused to accept sincerely the Divine Message which was brought by the Prophets, and which at that time was being given by the Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). These verses clearly show that the truthful and righteouse believers only can benefit from Allah's Light. In contrast to them, the state of those people is being described here, who refused to believe and obey the Holy Prophet, who was the real and sole means of attaining the Light of Allah.
Desc No: 71 This parable describes the condition of those people who, in spite of disbelief and hypocrisy, practise some good deeds and also believe, among other things, in the life after death in the hope that their good deeds will be of some help to thetas in the Hereafter even if they did not believe and follow the Prophet and lacked the qualities of true believers. In this parable they are being told that their expectations of reaping benefits of their ostentatious deeds of virtue in the Hereafter are no more than a mirage. Just as a traveller in the desert takes the glittering sands for a surging pool of water and runs towards it for quenching his thirst, so are these people travelling on the road to death cherishing false hopes on account of their good deeds. But just as the one running towards a mirage does not find anything there to quench his thirst, so will these people find nothing to avail them when they enter the state of death. On the contrary, they will find Allah there, Who will require them to account for their disbelief, hypocrisy and misdeeds, which they committed along with their ostentatious deeds of virtue, and will deal with them in full justice.
Desc No: 72 This parable describes the condition of all the disbelievers and the hypocrites including those who perform good deeds for ostentation. It is being stated that such people are passing their life in a state of absolute and complete ignorance, whether otherwise they are the most learned people in the world and leaders in their respective fields of learning. They are like the mart who is lost in complete darkness where no ray of light can reach him. They think that knowledge merely consists in producing atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, supersonic planes and moon rockets, or in attaining excellence in economics and finance and law and philosophy. But they little understand that real knowledge is something entirely different and they have no idea of it. Thus considered they are just ignorant, and an illiterate peasant who has gained some acquaintance of the Divine Truth is wiser than they.
Desc No: 73 . Here is stated the real object of the discourse which began with: "Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth." When in fact there is no light in the universe except the Light of Allah and all manifestation of reality is due to that Light, where from can the one whom Allah does not give light have light? There exists no other source of light from where he can receive a ray . "