Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
39.22. Ist denn jemand, dessen Brust Allah für den Islam auftut, so daß er sich nach einem Licht von seinem Herrn richtet, (einem beharrlich Ungläubigen gleich)? So wehe denjenigen, deren Herzen gegen Allahs Ermahnung verhärtet sind! Sie befinden sich in deutlichem Irrtum.
25.72. And those who will not witness vanity, but when they pass near senseless play, pass by with dignity. (Pickthall)
25.72. Und diejenigen, welche nicht das Falsche bezeugen, und wenn sie beim nichtigen Gerede Vorbeigehen, achtbar Vorbeigehen, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
25.72. Und (auch) diejenigen, die keine Falschaussage bezeugen und, wenn sie im Vorbeigehen unbedachte Rede (hören), würdevoll weitergehen. (Bubenheim)
25.72. Es sind diejenigen, die kein falsches Zeugnis ablegen, und wenn sie auf dem Wege törichtes Gerede hören, würdevoll vorbeigehen. (Azhar)
25.72. Auch diejenigen, die das Lügnerische nicht bezeugen, und wenn sie beim sinnlosen Treiben vorbeigehen, gehen sie in Würde vorbei. (Zaidan)
25.72. Und (die wahren Diener des Barmherzigen sind weiter diejenigen) die kein falsches Zeugnis ablegen und, wenn sie (unterwegs leerem) Gerede begegnen, (sich nicht darauf einlassen, sondern) vornehm weitergehen (marruu kiraaman), (Paret)
25.72. Und diejenigen, die nichts Falsches bezeugen, und die, wenn sie unterwegs leeres Gerede hören, mit Würde (daran) vorbeigehen. (Rasul)
25.73. And those who, when they are reminded of the revelations of their Lord, fall not deaf and blind thereat. (Pickthall)
25.73. Und diejenigen, welche, wenn sie an die Zeichen ihres Herrn erinnert werden, nicht ihnen gegenüber taub und blind niederfallen, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
25.73. Und diejenigen, die, wenn sie mit den Zeichen ihres Herrn ermahnt werden, ihnen gegenüber nicht taub und blind niederfallen . (Bubenheim)
25.73. Und es sind diejenigen, die, wenn sie durch Gottes Verse ermahnt werden, sich ihnen nicht verschließen, als wären sie blind und taub. (Azhar)
25.73. Und diejenigen, wenn sie mit den Ayat ihres HERRN ermahnt werden, fallen nicht vor ihnen taub und blind nieder. (Zaidan)
25.73. und die, wenn sie mit den Zeichen ihres Herrn gemahnt werden, nicht (anstatt) ihnen gegenüber (Verständnis und Aufnahmebereitschaft zu zeigen) taub und blind niederfallen (lam yakhirruu `alaihaa summan `umyaanan), (Paret)
25.73. Und diejenigen, die, wenn sie mit den Zeichen ihres Herrn ermahnt werden, deswegen nicht wie taub und blind darauf stürzen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 63 bis 73
The (true) servants of the Merciful are those ( 78 ) who walk humbly on the earth ( 79 ) who, when the ignorant people behave insolently towards them, say,"Peace to you" ( 80 ) who pass their nights in prostrating themselves and standing before their Lord: ( 81 ) who pray, "Our Lord, save us from the torment of Hell, for its torment is killing: it is an evil abode and an evil resting place": ( 82 ) who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor miserly but keep the golden mean between the two (extremes): ( 83 ) who do not invoke any god but Allah nor kill a soul, which Allah has forbidden, unjustly, nor commit adultery. ( 84 ) -He who does this shall be punished for his sin, and his torment shall be doubled on the Day of Resurrection, ( 85 ) and he shall abide in a state of ignominy, except the one who may have repented (after those sins) and have believed and done righteous works, ( 86 ) for then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds, and He is very Forgiving and Merciful. In fact, the one ( 87 ) who repents and does righteous deeds, returns to Allah as one ightly should. ( 88 ) -(And the servants of the Merciful are those:) who do not bear witness to falsehood ( 89 ) and who; if they have ever to pass by what is vain, pass by like dignified people: ( 90 ) who do not behave like the blind and the deaf, when the Revelations of their Lord are recited to them for admonition ; ( 91 )
Desc No: 78 That is, "Though all human beings are by birth the servants of the Merciful before Whom you have been invited to prostrate yourselves, and which you disdain, his true servants are those who adopt the way of His obedience consciously and develop such desirable characteristics. Then the natural consequences of the prostration are those found in the lives of the Believers and the evil results of rejecting the invitation, those found in your lives." Here attention is being drawn to the two patterns of character and life: first of those who had accepted the Message of the Holy Prophet and were following it, and the second of those who persisted in the ways of ignorance. Here only the prominent characteristics of the true Believers have been cited, and for contrast, the characteristics of the disbelievers have been left to every discerning eye and mind which could see them all around in society and make its own decision.
Desc No: 79 That is; "They do not walk haughtily and arrogantly like the tyrants and mischief-makers, but their "gait" is of a gentle, right-thinking and goodnatured person." "Walking humbly" does not mean walking like a weak or sick person, nor does it imply the gait of a hypocrite who walks ostentatiously to show humility or fear of God. According to Traditions, the Holy Prophet himself used to walk with firm, quick steps. One day Caliph `Umar saw a young man walking slowly like a weak, sick person, and asked him, "Are you ill?" When the man replied in the negative, the Caliph raised his whip, rebuked him and told him to walk like a healthy man. This shows that the "humble gait" is the natural gait of a noble and gentle person and not a gait which shows weakness and undue humility. In this connection, the first characteristic of the true servants of Allah to which attention has been drawn, is their "gait" This is because the gait indicates the character of an individual. If a man walks in a humble and dignified way, as opposed to a haughty, vain and proud manner, it shows that he is a noble and gentle person. Thus the different "gaits" of the different types of people show what sort of characters they possess. The verse means to imply that the true servants of the Merciful can be easily recognized by their "gait" among the people. Their attitude of Allah's worship and obedience has changed them so thoroughly that it can "be seen at first sight from their "gate that they are noble, humble and good natured people, who cannot be expected to indulge in any mischief. For further explanation, see E.N.43 of Bani Isra'il and L.N 33 of Luqman
Desc No: 80 "Ignorant people": Rude and insolent people and not uneducated and illiterate ones. The true servants of the "Merciful" do not believe in "vengeance", even though they may have to deal with the ignorant people who behave rudely and insolently towards them. If they happen to come across such people, they wish them peace and turn away. The same thing has been expressed in AI-Qasas: 55, thus: "And when they hear something vain and absurd they turn away from it, saying, `Our deeds are for us and your deeds are for you: peace be to you: we have nothing to do with the ignorant'." For details see E.N.'s 72 to 78 ul AI-Qasas.
Desc No: 81 That is, they neither spend their nights in fun and merry-making nor in gossips and telling tales, nor in doing wicked deeds, for these are the ways of the ignorant people. The true servants of Allah pass their nights in worshipping and remembering Him as much as they can. This characteristic of theirs has been brought out clearly at several places in the Qur'an, thus: "their backs forsake their beds and they invoke their Lord in fear and in hope." (As-Sajdah: 16). "These people (of Paradise) slept but little at night, and prayed for their forgiveness in the hours of the morning." (Az-Zariyat: 17, 18). And: "Can the end of the one, who is obedient to Allah, prostrates himself and stands before Him during the hours of the night, fears the Hereafter and places his hope in the mercy of his Lord, be like that of a mushrik;'" (Az-Zumar: 9).
Desc No: 82 That is, their worship has not made them vain and proud to presume that they are the beloved ones of Allah and that the Fire of Hell will not touch them. On the other hand, in spite of all their worship and good deeds, they are so tilled with the fear of the torment of Hell that they pray to their Lord to save them from it, for they do not depend upon their own work for success in the Hereafter but upon the mercy of Allah.
Desc No: 83 The true servants of Allah adopt "the golden mean" between the two extremes in spending their money. They neither go beyond prudence and necessity in expenditure nor live in wretched 'circumstances in order to save and hoard money but are frugal. This was the characteristic of the followers of the Holy Prophet, which distinguished them from the well-to-do people of Arabia, who were either spend-thrifts in regard to the gratific ation of their own lusts or niggardly in spending their money on good works. According to Islam extravagance is: (1) To spend even the smallest amount of money in unlawful ways, (2) to go beyond one's own resources in expenditure even in lawful ways, or to spend money for one's own pleasure, and (3) to spend money in righteous ways not for the sake of Allah but for mere show. On the other hand, one is miserly if one dces not spend money for one's own needs and requirements and those of one's family in accordance with one's resources and position, or if one dces not spend money for good works. The way taught by Islam is the golden mean between the two extremes. The Holy Prophet has said, "It is a sign of wisdom to adopt the "golden mean" in one's living." (Ahmad, Tabarani).
Desc No: 84 The true servants refrain from three great sins: Shirk, murder and adultery. The Holy Prophet himself warned of their gravity. According to 'Abdullah bin Mas`ud, when some one asked him about the worst sins, he replied, (1) "It is to set up someone as equal in rank with Allah, Who has created you, (2) to kill your own child for fear of its sustenance, and (3) to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbour." (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Nasa`i, Ahmad). Obviously this is not a complete list of the "heinous sins". But these three instances have been cited because they were most prevalent in the Arab society of those days . As regards the inclusion of refraining from shirk among the excellences of the true servants, one may ask why it should be presented as virtue before the disbelievers who did not regard shirk as a vice. It is because the Arabs had doubts about the doctrine of shirk even though they appeared to be deeply involved in it. This is amply supported by their history. For instance, when Abraha invaded Makkah, the Quraish did not invoke their idols to save the Ka`bah from him, but they begged Allah to save it. Their contemporary poetry bears sufficient evidence that they regarded the destruction of the "people of the elephant" due to Allah's power and supernatural interference and not due to any help of their idols. The Quraish and the polytheists of Arabia had also come to know that when Abraha reached Ta`if on his way to Makkah, the people of Ta`if had offered him their services to destroy the Ka`bah and had even provided him guides to take him safely to Makkah through the hills, for fear that he might also destroy the temple of "Lat", their chief deity. This event so much offended the Arabs that for years after this they continued , pelting the grave of the chief guide with stones for retaliation. Moreover, the Quraish and the other Arabs attributed their creed to Prophet Abraham and looked upon their religious and social customs and their Hajj rites as part of Abraham's religion. They knew that Prophet Abraham was a worshipper 'of Allah and not of idols. They also had traditions to show as to when they had started idol-worship, and which idol had been brought from where, when and by whom. The fact is that the common Arab did not have much of reverence for his idols. He would even speak insultingly of it and withheld his offerings when it failed to fulfil his wishes and prayers. For instance, there is the story of an Arab who wanted to avenge the murder of his father. He went to the temple of his idol, Zul-Khalasah, and wanted to take an omen. The response came that he should abandon his intention. At this the Arab became furious and cried out: 'O Zul-Khalasah! Had you been in my place, and your father was murdered, you would not have said that the murderers should not be punished." Another Arab took his herd of camels to the shrine of his god, named Sa'd, for seeking its blessings. It was a tall idol which had been smeared with sacrificial blood. On seeing it, the camels became terrified and started running in all directions. The Arab was so filled with rage that he started pelting the idol with stones, shouting, "May God destroy you ! I had come to you to seek blessings for my camels, but you have deprived me of all of them." There were certain idols about whose origin filthy stories were current. For instance, the story about Asaf and Na'ilah whose images had been placed at Safa and Marwa, was that they were actually a man and a woman, who had committed adultery inside the Holy Ka`bah and had been turned into stone by God as a punishment. When the deities had such reputation, no worshipper could cherish any reverence for them in his heart. From this one can easily understand that the Arabs did recognize the value of true God-worship deep in their hearts, but, on the one hand, it had been suppressed by ancient customs and ways of ignorance, and on the other, the priestly class among the Quraish had vested interests, who were busy creating prejudices against it among the people. They could not give up idol-worship because such a step would have brought to an end their supremacy in Arabia. That is why, refraining from shirk and worship of One Allah has been mentioned as a mark of superiority of the followers of the Holy Prophet without any fear of contradiction by the disbelievers, for even they in their heart of hearts knew that it was a weighty argument against them.
Desc No: 85 This can have two meanings: (1) His punishment will never come to an end, but it will continue being inflicted relentlessly over and over again; and (2) the person who in addition to the sins of disbelief, shirk and atheism, would have committed murders, adultery and other sins, will get separate punishment for rebellion and for each other sin. He will be accountable for each of his major and minor sins none of which will be pardoned. For instance, for each murder and for each act of adultery he will be given a separate punishment, and likewise, there will be a separate punishment for every sin committed by him.
Desc No: 86 This is a good news for those people who repented and reformed themselves, for they will have the benefit of the "general amnesty" contained in verse 70. This was regarded as a great blessing by the true servants because very few of those who embraced Islam had been free from those vices during their 'ignorance', and were terrified by the threat contained in vv. 63-69, but this amnesty not only redeemed them but filled them with hope. Many instances of such people, who sincerely repented and reformed their lives, have been related in the traditions. For instance, Ibn Jarir and Tabarani have related an incident from Hadrat Abu Hurairah, who savs, "One day when 1 returned home after offering the 'lsha prayer in the Prophet's Mosque, I saw a woman standing at my door. I saluted her and walked into my room, closed the door and busied myself in voluntary worship. After a while she knocked at the door. I opened the door and asked what she wanted. She said that she had come with a problem: She had committed zina, had become pregnant, given birth to a child and then killed it. She wanted to know if there was any chance of her sin being forgiven. I replied in the negative. She went back grief-stricken, exclaiming, "Ah! this beautiful body was created for the fire!" The next morning, after the prayer, when I related the night's incident before the Holy Prophet, he said, "You gave a very wrong answer, Abu Hurairah: Haven't you read the Qur'anic verse which says: '(Those) who do not invoke any other deity than Allah...except the une who may have repented (after those sins) and have believed and done righteous deeds' `?" Hearing this from the Holy Prophet, I went out in search of the woman, and had her traced again at the `Isha time. I gave her the good news and told her what the Holy Prophet had said in reply to her question. She immediately tell prostrate on the ground and thanked Allah, Who had opened a way for her forgiveness. Then she offered repentance and set a slave-girl, along with her son, tree." A similar incident about an old man has been related in the traditions. He came before the Holy Prophet and said, "O Messenger of Allah, all my life has passed in sin: there is no sin which I have not committed; so much so that if my sins were to be distributed over the people of the whole world, they would all be doomed. Is there any way out for my forgiveness?" The Holy Prophet asked him, "Have you embraced Islam?" He said, "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." The Holy Prophet said, "Go back, Allah is All-Forgiving and has the power to change your evil deeds into good deeds." He asked,"Is it about all my crimes and errors?'' The Holy Prophet replied, "Yes, it is about all your crimes and errors." ( Ibn Kathir) .
Desc No: 87 It has two meanings: (1) When he has repented sincerely, he will start a new life of belief and obedience to Allah and by His grace and help will start doing good deeds instead of evil deeds that he used to do in his life of unbelief, and his evil deeds will be replaced by good deeds; and (2) Not only will his evil deeds done in the past be written off, but it will also be recorded in his conduct register that he was the servant who gave up rebellion against his Lord and adopted the way of His obedience. Then, as he will feel more and more sorry for his past sins and offer repentance, more and more good deeds will be credited to him; for repenting of one's wrong doing and seeking forgiveness is in itself a good deed. Thus, good deeds will supersede all his evil deeds in his conduct register, and he will not only escape punishment in the Hereafter but, in addition, he will also be blessed with high favours by Allah.
Desc No: 88 That is. ultimately everyone has to return to Allah for Allah alone is man's last and real refuge: He alone can reward one for his good deeds or punish une for his evil deeds: He alone is All-Merciful and AlI Compassionate, Who receives the penitent with forgiveness and Who dces not rebuke him for his past errors provided that he has repented sincerely, and adopted the right attitude and reformed himself.
Desc No: 89 This also has two meanings: (1) They do not give evidence ( in a law court etc.) in regard to a false thing in order to prove it right, when in tact it is a falsehood, or at best a doubtful thing; and (2) they have no intention to witness any thing which is false, evil or wicked as spectators. In this sense, every sin and every indecency, every sham and counterfeit act is a falsehood. A true servant of Allah recognizes it as false and shuns it even if it is presented in the seemingly beautiful forms of "art" .
Desc No: 90 The Arabic word laghv implies all that is vain, useless and meaningless and it also covers "falsehood". The true servants pass by in a dignified manner if ever they come across "what is vain", as if it were a heap of tilth. They do not tarry there to enjoy the "filth" of moral impurity, obscenity or foul language, nor do they intentionally go anywhere to hear or see or take part in any sort of "filth". For further details, see E.N. 4of AI-Mu"minun.
Desc No: 91 The true servants of Allah do not behave like the blind and the deaf towards the Revelations of Allah, when they are recited to them for their admonition. They do not turn a deaf ear to their teachings and Message and do not deliberately close their eyes to the Signs that they are asked to observe, but are deeply moved by them. They follow and practise what they are enjoined and retrain from what is forbidden. "
25.75. They will be awarded the high place forasmuch as they were steadfast, and they will meet therein with welcome and the word of peace, (Pickthall)
25.75. Diesen wird vergolten mit dem Obergemach, weil sie geduldig ausgeharrt haben, und sie werden dort empfangen mit Begrüßung und Frieden, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
25.75. (All) diesen wird mit dem Obergemach vergolten werden, daß sie standhaft waren; und ihnen wird Gruß und Friede" entgegengebracht, (Bubenheim)
25.75. Diese werden mit der hohen Kammer im Paradies für ihr geduldiges Ausharren belohnt werden, und sie werden dort mit Gruss und Frieden empfangen. (Azhar)
25.75. Diesen wird das Paradies vergolten für das, was sie an Geduld aufbrachten. Und sie werden darin mit Gruss und Salam empfangen. (Zaidan)
25.75. (Allen) diesen (Dienern des Barmherzigen) wird (dereinst) mit einem Obergemach (im Paradies) vergolten (zum Lohn) dafür, daß sie geduldig waren. Und ihnen wird darin Gruß und "Heil!" entboten. (Paret)
25.75. Diese werden mit der höchsten Stätte (im Paradies) belohnt, weil sie geduldig waren; und Gruß und Frieden werden sie dort empfangen. (Rasul)
25.76. Abiding there for ever. Happy is it as abode and station! (Pickthall)
25.76. Ewig sind sie dort, es ist gut als Ruhestätte und als Halteplatz. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
25.76. ewig darin zu bleiben. Schön ist es als Aufenthaltsort und Bleibe. (Bubenheim)
25.76. Dort werden sie ewig bleiben. Welch schöne Bleibe und welch herrliche Wohnstätte! (Azhar)
25.76. Darin bleiben sie ewig. Es ist schön als Niederlassung und Aufenthaltsort. (Zaidan)
25.76. Sie werden (ewig) darin weilen - ein schöner Aufenthalt und eine schöne Bleibe. (Paret)
25.76. Ewig darin verweilend: herrlich ist es als Ruhestatt und als Aufenthalt. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 74 bis 76
who pray, "Our Lord, bless us with wives and children, who may be the comfort of our eyes ( 92 ) , and make us leaders of the righteous. " ( 93 ) -Such are the people who will be rewarded with high palaces for their fortitude, ( 94 ) , ( 95 ) wherein they will be welcomed with due respect, honour and salutations and wherein they will live for ever: what an excellent abode and what an excellent resting place!
Desc No: 92 The most distinctive characteristic of the true servants is their eagerness for prayer to Allah. In verse 65 their "prayer" for their own salvation and in verse 74 their prayer for their wives and children have been cited: "Our Lord, make our wives and children true believers so that they should practise righteousness and become a source of comfort for us." Their prayer shows that the true servants of Allah are more concerned about the salvation of their beloved ones in the Hereafter than the enjoyment of the world. It should be noted that this characteristic has been cited here to show that the true servants had sincerely believed in the Message. That is why they were so concerned about the "Faith" of their beloved ones. It should also be kept in mind that many of the near and dear ones of the Believers had not as yet embraced Islam. If a husband had embraced Islam, the wife was still an unbeliever, and if a youth had accepted Islam, his parents and brothers and sisters were still involved in disbelief, and vice versa. Therefore, the true servants wept and prayed for them, whenever the picture of their horrible state in Hell came before their mind's eyes.
Desc No: 93 That is,"We should excel in piety, righteousness and good works; nay, we should become the leaders of the pious people so that we may lead them in the propagation of virtue and piety in the world. " Incidentally, this characteristic of the true servants was in great contrast to that of the disbelievers, who strove in competition and rivalry with one another for superiority in worldly power and wealth. But it is a pity that some people in our time have misinterpreted this verse as containing sanction for seeking candidature for political leadership. According to them, the verse means: "Our Lord, make us rulers over the pious people."
Desc No: 94 The word sabr (fortitude) has been used here in its most comprehensive sense. The true servants courageously endured their persecution by the enemies of the Truth; they remained firm and steadfast in their struggle to establish Allah's way in the land; they carried out their duties enjoined by Allah sincerely and tearlessly without any concern for the worldly losses and deprivation; and they withstood all temptations held out by Satan and all the lusts of the flesh.
Desc No: 95 "Ghurfah " is a high mansion and the word is generally used for the "upper chamber" of a double-storeyed house. But the reality is that the highest buildings made by tnan in this world, even the Taj Mahal of India and the skyscrapers of New York, are an ugly imitation of the "excellent abodes" in Paradise. They are so magnificent, grand and beautiful that human imagination cannot form any picture of their grandeur. "
25.77. Say (O Muhammad, unto the disbelievers): My Lord would not concern himself with you but for your prayer. But now ye have denied (the Truth), therefor there will be judgment. (Pickthall)
25.77. Sag: Es würde sich mein Herr nicht um euch scheren, wenn es nicht eure Anrufung gäbe, und ihr habt schon abgeleugnet, also wird es für euch unumgänglich sein. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
25.77. Sag: Mein Herr kümmerte Sich nicht um euch, wenn nicht euer Bittgebet (zu Ihm) wäre. Ihr habt doch (alles) für Lüge erklärt, und so wird (eure Strafe hierfür) un abwendbar sein. (Bubenheim)
25.77. Sprich: "Gott will von euch nur, dass ihr Ihn allein anbetet. Die Ungläubigen unter euch haben Gottes Offenbarung verleugnet, und so ist ihre Strafe unumgänglich." (Azhar)
25.77. Sag: ‚Mein HERR würde euch nicht beachten, wäre nicht euer Bittgebet. Ihr habt bereits doch abgeleugnet, so wird es (das Vergelten) unabdingbar sein.‘ 2 (Zaidan)
25.77. Sag Mein Herr würde sich (überhaupt) nicht um euch kümmern, wenn nicht euer Gebet (du`aa'ukum) wäre. Ihr habt doch (früher) (das, was euch verkündet wird) als Lüge erklärt. Nun wird es unausweichlich sein (? sfa-saufa yakuunu lizaaman). (Paret)
25.77. Sprich: "Was kümmert Sich mein Herr um euch, wenn ihr nicht (zu Ihm) betet? Ihr habt (Ihn) ja geleugnet, und das wird (euch) nun anhaften." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 77 bis 77
O . Muhammad, tell the people, "My Lord dces not care at all if you do not invoke Him ( 96 ) . Now that you have denied (His Revelations), you will soon be awarded such a punishment which you will never be able to avoid."
Desc No: 96 This warning to the disbelievers has been given in order to contrast it with the great rewards that have been promised to the true servants of Allah, as if to say, "If you do not invoke Allah for help and protection, and do not worship Him, you will have no value and importance in His sight, and He will not care at all for you because He does not stand in need of any help from you. It is indeed for your own sake that He has given you the opportunity to invoke Him so that He thay turn in mercy towards you; otherwise there is no difference between you and the rest of creation."