Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
59.2. Er ist es, Der diejenigen von den Leuten der Schrift, die ungläubig sind, aus ihren Wohnstätten zur ersten Versammlung vertrieben hat. Ihr habt nicht geglaubt, daß sie fortziehen würden; und sie meinten, daß ihre Festungen sie vor Allah schützten. Da kam Allah über sie, von wo sie nicht (damit) rechneten, und jagte in ihre Herzen Schrecken, so daß sie ihre Häuser mit ihren (eigenen) Händen und den Händen der Gläubigen zerstörten. Darum zieht die Lehre daraus, o die ihr Einsicht besitzt.
29.41. The likeness of those who choose other patrons than Allah is as the likeness of the spider when she taketh unto herself a house, and lo! the frailest of all houses is the spider ' s house, if they but knew. (Pickthall)
29.41. Das Gleichnis derjenigen, die sich außer Allah Schutzfreunde nehmen ist wie das Gleichnis der Spinne, - sie errichtet sich ein Haus, und das schwächste der Häuser ist ja bestimmt das Haus der Spinne, wenn sie es nur wüßten. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.41. Das Gleichnis derjenigen, die sich anstatt Allahs Schutzherren nehmen, ist das der Spinne, die sich ein Haus genommen hat; das schwächste Haus ist fürwahr das Haus der Spinne, wenn sie (es) nur wüßten! (Bubenheim)
29.41. Das Gleichnis derer, die anstatt Gottes andere Beschützer nehmen, ist das der Spinne, die sich als Haus ein Gewebe spinnt. Das schwächste Haus aber ist das der Spinne. Wenn sie es nur wüssten! (Azhar)
29.41. Das Gleichnis derjenigen, die sich anstelle von ALLAH Wali nahmen, ist wie das Gleichnis der Spinne, die sich ein Netz spinnt. Und gewiß, das Schwächste aller Netze ist zweifelsohne das Spinnennetz, würden sie es nur wissen! (Zaidan)
29.41. Diejenigen, die sich an Allahs Statt Helfer nehmen, sind einer Spinne zu vergleichen, die sich ein Haus gemacht hat. Das schwächste Haus (das man sich denken kann) ist gewiß das Haus der Spinne. Wenn sie (es) nur wüßten! (Paret)
29.41. Das Gleichnis derer, die sich Helfer außer Allah nehmen, ist wie das Gleichnis von der Spinne, die sich ein Haus macht; und das gebrechlichste der Häuser ist gewiß das Haus der Spinne - wenn sie es nur begreifen würden! (Rasul)
29.44. Allah created the heavens and the earth with truth. Lo! therein is indeed a portent for believers. (Pickthall)
29.44. Allah hat die Himmel und die Erde geschaffen, gemäß der Wahrheit. Hierin ist ja bestimmt ein Zeichen für die Gläubigen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.44. Allah hat die Himmel und die Erde in Wahrheit erschaffen. Darin ist wahrlich ein Zeichen für die Gläubigen. (Bubenheim)
29.44. Gott erschuf Himmel und Erde der Wahrheit gemäß. Darin ist ein Zeichen für die wahrhaft Gläubigen. (Azhar)
29.44. ALLAH 2 erschuf die Himmel und die Erde mit der Gesetzmäßigkeit. Gewiß, darin ist doch eine Aya für die Mumin. (Zaidan)
29.44. Allah hat Himmel und Erde wirklich (und wahrhaftig) geschaffen. Darin liegt ein Zeichen für diejenigen, die glauben. (Paret)
29.44. Allah erschuf die Himmel und die Erde in makelloser Weise. Hierin liegt wahrlich ein Zeichen für die Gläubigen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 41 bis 44
The likeness of those who have taken other patrons than Allah, is the likeness of a spider, which makes itself a dwelling; and the weakest of all dwellings is the dwelling of a spider. Would that these people had knowledge! ( 73 ) Allah surely knows whomever they invoke instead of Him: He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. ( 74 ) These parables We cite for the instruction of the people, but only those people understand them, who have knowledge. Allah has created the heavens and the earth with the Truth. ( 75 ) Indeed there is a Sign in this for the believers. ( 76 )
Desc No: 73 All the above-mentioned nations were involved in shirk, and their belief about their deities was that they were their supporters and helpers and guardians, and had the power to make or mar their destinies; so when they will have won their goodwill by worship and. presentation of offerings they will succour them in need and protect them against calamities and afflictions. But, as shown by the historical events cited above, all their beliefs and superstitions proved to be baseless when their destruction was decreed by Allah. Then no god, and no god incarnate, and no saint or spirit, and no jinn or angel, whom they worshipped came to their rescue, and they met their destruction with the realization that their expectations and beliefs had been false and futile. After relating these events, Allah is now warning the mushriks to the effect: "The reality of the toy-house of expectations that you have built on your faith in the powerless servants and imaginary deities, apart from the real Master and Ruler of the universe, is no more than the cobweb of a spider. Just as a cobweb cannot stand the slightest interference by a finger, so will the toy-house of your expectations collapse in its first clash with the scheme of Allah. It is nothing but ignorance that you are involved in the web of superstition. Had you any knowledge of the Reality you would not have built your system of life on baseless props. The fact is that none other than the One Lord of the worlds in this universe is the Owner of power and authority, and His support is the only support which is reliable. "Now whoever rejects taghut and believes in Allah has taken a firm support that never gives way. And Allah hears everything and knows everything." (Al-Baqarah: 256).
Desc No: 74 That is, "Allah knows full well the reality of those beings and things which they have taken as their deities and which they invoke for help. They are absolutely powerless. The Owner of power is only Allah, Who is controlling the system of this universe according to His own wisdom and design." Another translation of this verse can be: "Allah knows full well that those whom they invoke, apart from Him, are nonentities, and He alone is the AllMighty, the All-Wise."
Desc No: 75 That is, "The system of the universe is based on the truth and not on falsehood. Whoever ponders over this system with an unbiased mind will realize that the earth and the heavens owe their existence to reality and fact and not to superstition and fancy. Here there is no possibility that whatever a person may conceive in his mind and whatever philosophy he may invent out of his personal whim and conjecture should fit in with the system. Here only such a thing can succeed and endure, which is in harmony with the reality and actual fact. A structure that is raised on unreal presumptions and hypotheses will ultimately collapse when it clashes with the reality. The system of the universe clearly testifies that its Creator is One God, and One God alone is its Master and Disposer. If a person works against this basic Reality on the presumption that this world has no God, or that it has many gods, who devour the offerings of their devotees and in return give them a licence to do whatever they please and a guarantee to live in peace and happiness, the Reality will not change due to his presumptions, but, on the contrary, he himself will some time meet with a grave disaster."
Desc No: 76 That is, "A clear evidence exists in the creation of the earth and the heavens about the truth of Tauhid and the refutation of polytheism and atheism, but this evidence is found only by those who accept the teachings of the Prophets of Allah. Those who deny them do not find it even though they see everything." "
29.45. Recite that which hath been inspired in thee of the Scripture, and establish worship. Lo! worship preserveth from lewdness and iniquity, but verily remembrance of Allah is more important. And Allah knoweth what ye do. (Pickthall)
29.45. Verlies, was dir offenbart wurde von der Schrift und richte das Gebet ein, das Gebet hält ja ab vom Abscheulichen und vom Verwerflichen, und bestimmt ist Allah Eingedenksein größer, und Allah weiß, was ihr fertigbringt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.45. Verlies, was dir vom Buch (als Offenbarung) eingegeben wird, und verrichte das Gebet. Gewiß, das Gebet hält davon ab, das Schändliche und das Verwerfliche (zu tun). Und das Gedenken Allahs ist wahrlich größer. Und Allah weiß, was ihr macht. (Bubenheim)
29.45. Trage vor, was dir vom Buch (dem Koran) offenbart wurde, und verrichte das Gebet! Das Gebet hält davon ab, abscheuliche und unwürdige Taten zu begehen. Gottes zu gedenken, ist das Höchste. Gott weiss genau, was ihr tut. (Azhar)
29.45. Trage vor, was dir von der Schrift an Wahy zuteil wurde, und verrichte ordnungsgemäß das rituelle Gebet! Gewiß, das rituelle Gebet hält vom Abscheulichen und vom Mißbilligten ab. Und das Gedenken an ALLAH ist doch noch größer. Und ALLAH weiß, was ihr bewerkstelligt. (Zaidan)
29.45. Verlies, was dir von der Schrift (als Offenbarung) eingegeben worden ist! Und verrichte das Gebet (salaat)! Das Gebet verbietet (zu tun), was abscheulich und verwerflich ist. Aber Allahs zu gedenken bedeutet (noch) mehr. Und Allah weiß, was ihr tut. (Paret)
29.45. Verlies, was dir von dem Buche offenbart wurde, und verrichte das Gebet. Wahrlich, das Gebet hält von schändlichen und abscheulichen Dingen ab; und Allahs zu gedenken, ist gewiß das Höchste. Und Allah weiß, was ihr begeht. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 45 bis 45
(O Prophet, ) recite this Book which has been revealed to you, and establish the Salat. ( 77 ) Surely the Salat restrains from indecent and evil acts, ( 78 ) and the remembrance of Allah is a thing even greater ( 79 ) than this; Allah knows whatever you do.
Desc No: 77 The address apparently is directed to the Holy Prophet but, in fact, it is meant for all the believers. Until now they were being counselled patience and reliance on Allah to brave the extreme trying conditions in which they found themselves and the persecutions they were being subjected to on account of their faith. Now they are being told to recite the Qur'an and establish the Salat as a practical device, for these are the two things which endow a believer with a strong character and a wonderful capacity by which he can not only brave successfully the most violent storms of evil and falsehood but can even subdue them. But man can acquire this power from the recitation of the Qur'an and the Prayer only when he does not retrain content with the mere recital of the words but also understands well the Qur'anic teachings and absorbs them in his soul, and his Prayer does not remain confined to physical movements but becomes the very function of his heart and the motive force for his morals and character. The desired quality of the Prayer is being mentioned by the Qur'an itself in the next sentence. As for its recitation, one should know that the recitation which does not reach the heart beyond the throat, cannot even give tnan enough power to remain steadfast to his faith, not to speak of enabling him to withstand the furies of unbelief. About such people, a Hadith says: "They will recite the Qur'an, but the Qur'an will not go beyond their throats; they will leave the Faith just as the arrow leaves the bow." (Bukhari, Muslim, Mu'atta`). As a matter of fact, the recitation which dces not effect any change in a man's way of thinking, and his morals and character, and he goes on doing what the Qur'an forbids, is not the recitation of a believer at all. About such a one the Holy Prophet has said: ;'He who makes lawful what the Qur'an has declared unlawful, has not believed in the Qur'an at all." (Tirmidhi, on the authority of Suhaib Rumi). Such a recitation dces not reform and strengthen a maws self and spirit, but makes him even more stubborn against Allah and impudent before his own conscience, and destroys his character altogether. For the case of the person who believes in the Qur'an as a Divine Book, reads it and comes to know what his God has enjoined, and then goes on violating His injunctions, is of the culprit, who commits a crime not due to ignorance but after full knowledge of the law. The Holy Prophet has elucidated this point in a brief sentence, thus: "The Qur'an is a testimony in your favour as well as against you." (Muslim). That is, "If you follow the Qur'an rightly it is a testimony in your favour. Whenever you are called to account for your deeds, here or in the hereafter, you can produce the Qur'an as a testimony in your defence, saying that whatever you did was in accordance with this Book. If what you did was precisely according to it, no jurist in the world will be able to punish you, nor will God in the Hereafter hold you accountable for it. But if this Book has reached you, andyou have read it and found out what your Lord demands from you, what He enjoins and what He forbids, and then you adopt an attitude opposed to it, then this Book will be a testimony against you. It will further strengthen the criminal case against you in the Court of God. Then it will in no way be possible for you to escape the punishment, or receive a light punishment, by making the excuse of ignorance. "
Desc No: 78 This is an important characteristic out of the many characteristics of the Prayer, which has been presented here prominently in view of its relevance to the context. To counter the severe storm of opposition and resistance that the Muslims were experiencing in Makkah, they stood in need of a moral force rather than any material power. To bring about the moral force and develop it suitably two practical devices were pointed out in the first instance, the recitation of the Qur'an and the establishment of the Salat. Now they are being told that the establishment of the Salat is the means through which they can get rid of those evils in which they themselves had been involved before they embraced Islam and in which the non-Muslim Arabs and the non-Arab world around them were involved at that tithe. With a little thinking one can easily understand why this special advantage of the Prayer has been particularly mentioned here. Evidently, getting rid of the moral evils is not only useful insofar as it is beneficial for those who attain the moral purity, both here and in the Hereafter, but its inevitable advantage is that it gives them unique superiority over those who might be involved in diverse moral evils, and who might be exerting their utmost to sustain the impure system of ignorance, which nourishes those evils, against the efforts of the morally pure people. Indecent and evil acts are those which man by nature abhors, and which have always been held as evil in principle by the people of every community and society, however depraved and perverted practically. The Arab society in the days of the revelation of the Qur'an was no exception to this. Those people also were aware of ò.he moral virtues and the evils: they valued the good above the evil and there might be none among them, who regarded the evil as identical with the good, or depreciated good. Under such conditions, in a perverted society like that, the emergence of a movement which revolutionised morally members of the same society itself as soon as they came into contact with it, and raised them in character high above their contemporaries, inevitably had widespread effects. The common Arabs could not possibly fail to feel the moral impact of the movement, which eradicated evils and promoted goodness, and instead go on following those who were themselves morally corrupt and were fighting to sustain the system of ignorance, which had been nourishing those evils since centuries. That is why the Qur'an at that time exhorted the Muslims to establish Sa/at instead of urging them to collect material resources and force and strength that could win over the people's hearts and defeat the enemy without any material force. The virtue of the Prayer that has been mentioned here has two aspects: its essential and inseparable quality that it restrains from evil and indecent acts, and its desired quality that the one who performs it should in actual fact refrain from evil and indecent acts. As for the first quality the Prayer does restrain people from the evils. Anyone who ponders a little over the nature of the Prayer, will admit that of all the checks and brakes that can be put on man to restrain him from the evils, the Prayer can be the most effective. After all, what check could be more effective than this that man should be called upon five times a day for the remembrance of Allah and made to remind himself again and again that he is not wholly free and independent in this world but is the servant of One God, and his God is He Who is aware of his open as well as hidden acts, even of the most secret aims and intentions of his heart, and a time will surely come when he will have to account for all his deeds before his God. Then he is not only reminded of this but is given practical training at every Prayer time that he should not disobey any of his God's Commands even secretly. From the time that he stands up for the Prayer till its completion man has to perform continuously certain acts in which there is no third person, besides him and his God, who can know whether he has obeyed God's law or , disobeyed it. For instance, if the man's wudu (state of ablutions ) has become void and he stands up for the Prayer, there ca.. be no one, besides him and God, who will know that he is no longer in the state of wudu. If the man has expressed no intention of the Prayer but just goes on performing all the required movements and recites poetry, for instance, instead of the prescribed texts quietly, there is none, besides him and his God who can be aware of the secret that he has not, in fact, performed his Prayer at all. Notwith standing this, if a person offers the Prayer five times a day, fulfilling faithfully all the conditions of the Divine law in respect of the cleanliness of the body and dress, and the essentials of the Prayer and its recitation, etc. it means that through this Prayer his conscience is being awakened to life several times a day, he is being helped to-become a responsible and dutiful person, and he is being practically trained that he should, under his own urge of obedience, abide by the law which he has believed in openly as well as secretly, regardless whether there is any external force to make him abide by it or not, and whether the people of the world have any knowledge of his intentions and deeds or not. Thus considered, one cannot help admitting that the Prayer not only restrains man from the evils and indecencies, but, in fact, there is no other method of training in the world, which may be so effective as the Prayer is in restraining man from the evils. As for the question whether or not man in actual fact refrains from the evils even after attendance at the Prayer, this depends upon the man himself, who is undergoing training for self-reform. If he has the intention to benefit from it, and endeavours for it, the reformatory effects of the Prayer will certainly have their impact on him. Otherwise, evidently, no reformatory device in the world can be effective with a person, who is not prepared to receive any impact of it, or tries to avoid its impact intentionally. This can be explained by an example. The essential quality of food is to nourish the body and develop it. But this advantage can be had only when food is allowed to be assimilated. If a person vomits what he eats after every meal, his food cannot profit him in any way. Just as, keeping such a person in view, one cannot say that food is not nutritious for the body, because so-and-so is becoming a skeleton in spite of eating food, so can no one present the example of an unrighteous offerer of the Prayer and say that the Prayer dces not restrain from the evils, because so-and-so is unrighteous in spite of his Prayer. Just as about such a person it will be apt to say that he dces not offer the Prayer at all, so about the person who vomits everything he eats, it will be apt to say that he does not eat his food at all. Precisely the same thing has been reported from the Holy Prophet and some great Companions and their followers. `Imran bin Husain reports that the Holy Prophet said: "He Whose Prayer did not restrain him from the evil and indecent acts, offered no Prayer at all." (Ibn Abi Hatim). -Ibn `Abbas has reported the Holy Prophet as saying: "The Prayer which did not restrain a person from the evil and indecent acts, led him further away from Allah." (Ibn Abi Hatim, Tabarani). A Hadith containing the same theme has been reported by Hasan Basri directly from the Holy Prophet (Ibn Jarir, Baihaqi). Another Hadith reported on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud is to the effect: "He who did not obey the Prayer, offered no Prayer at all, and obedience to the Prayer is that one should refrain from the evil and indecent acts." (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim). Several sayings to the same effect have been reported on the authority of 'Abdullah bin Mas`ud, `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Qatadah and A`amash, etc. Imam Ja`far Sadiq has said: "He who wants to know whether his Prayer has been accepted or not, should see how far his Prayer has restrained him from the evil and indecent acts. If he has been restrained from the evils, his Prayer has been accepted." (Ruh al Ma `ani).
Desc No: 79 This can have several meanings: (1) "That the remembrance of Allah (i.e. Prayer) is a thing of much higher value: it not only restrains from the evils, but, over and above that, it induces people to act righteously and urges them to excel one another in good acts," (2) "that Allah's remembrance in itself is a great thing: it is the best of acts: no act of man is greater in value than this. ` (3) "that Allah's remembrance of you is a greater thing than your remembrance of Him. Allah has said in the Qur'an: "So remember Me: I will remember you'." (Al-Baqarah: 156). Thus, when the servant remembers Allah in the Prayer, inevitably Allah also will remember him, and the merit of Allah's remembering the servant is certainly greater than the servant's remembering Allah. Besides these three meanings, there is another subtle meaning also, which the wife of Hadrat Abud Darda has explained. She says, "Allah's remembrance is not restricted to the Prayer, but, its sphere is much vaster. When a man observes a fast, or pays the Zakat or performs a righteous act, he inevitably remembers Allah. That is why the righteous act emanates from him. Likewise, when a man refrains from an evil act when an opportunity exists for it, even this also is the result of Allah's remembrance. Thus, the remembrance of Allah pervades the entire life of a believer."
29.46. And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better, save with such of them as do wrong; and say: We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender. (Pickthall)
29.46. Und streitet nicht mit den Leuten der Schrift, außer mittels dem, was besser ist, außer mit denjenigen, die von ihnen unrecht handeln, und sagt: "Wir glauben an das, was zu uns herabgesandt wurde und zu euch herabgesandt wurde, und unser Gott und euer Gott ist einer, und wir sind Ihm friedenmachend Ergebene." (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.46. Und streitet mit den Leuten der Schrift nur in bester Weise, außer denjenigen von ihnen, die Unrecht tun. Und sagt: "Wir glauben an das, was (als Offenbarung) zu uns herabgesandt worden ist und zu euch herabgesandt worden ist; unser Gott und euer Gott ist Einer, und wir sind Ihm ergeben´." (Bubenheim)
29.46. Debattiert mit den Schriftbesitzern nur auf die beste, weiseste Art, es sei denn, es geht um die Ungerechten unter ihnen. Sprecht: "Wir glauben an das, was uns und an das, was euch herabgesandt wurde. Unser und euer Gott ist Einer, Dem wir uns ergeben." (Azhar)
29.46. Und disputiert mit den Schriftbesitzern nicht, es sei denn auf die beste Art, außer mit denjenigen von ihnen, die Unrecht begingen, und sagt: ‚Wir verinnerlichten den Iman an das, das uns hinabgesandt wurde und euch hinabgesandt wurde, und unser Gott und euer Gott ist einer, und wir sind Ihm gegenüber Muslime. (Zaidan)
29.46. Und streitet mit den Leuten der Schrift nie anders als auf eine möglichst gute Art - mit Ausnahme derer von ihnen, die Frevler sind! Und sagt: "Wir glauben an das, was (als Offenbarung) zu uns, und was zu euch herabgesandt worden ist. Unser und euer Gott ist einer. Ihm sind wir ergeben (muslim)." (Paret)
29.46. Und streitet nicht mit dem Volk der Schrift; es sei denn auf die beste Art und Weise. Ausgenommen davon sind jene, die ungerecht sind. Und sprecht: "Wir glauben an das, was zu uns herabgesandt wurde und was zu euch herabgesandt wurde; und unser Gott und euer Gott ist Einer; und Ihm sind wir ergeben." (Rasul)
29.47. In like manner We have revealed unto thee the Scripture, and those unto whom We gave the Scripture aforetime will believe therein; and of these (also) there are some who believe therein. And none deny our revelations save the disbelievers (Pickthall)
29.47. Und derart haben Wir zu dir die Schrift herabgesandt, und diejenigen, denen Wir die Schrift gegeben haben, sie glauben daran, und von diesen gibt es manchen, der daran glaubt, und es bestreitet keiner Unsere Zeichen, außer den Glaubensverweigerern. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.47. Und so haben Wir das Buch zu dir hinabgesandt. Diejenigen, denen Wir die Schrift gaben, glauben daran. Und auch unter diesen da gibt es manche, die daran glauben. Nur die Ungläubigen verleugnen Unsere Zeichen. (Bubenheim)
29.47. So haben Wir dir das Buch herabgesandt. Die Schriftbesitzer glauben daran. Unter deinem Volk gibt es einige, die daran glauben. Nur die trotzigen Ungläubigen verleugnen Unsere Zeichen. (Azhar)
29.47. Und solcherart sandten WIR die Schrift hinab. Also diejenigen, denen WIR die Schrift zuteil werden ließen, verinnerlichen den Iman an ihn. Und von diesen gibt es manche, die den Iman an ihn verinnerlichen werden. Und Unsere Ayat leugnen nur dieKafir ab! (Zaidan)
29.47. Und so haben wir die Schrift (als Offenbarung) zu dir hinabgesandt. Diejenigen nun, denen wir (schon früher) die Schrift gegeben haben, glauben daran. Auch von diesen da glauben welche daran. Nur die Ungläubigen leugnen unsere Zeichen. (Paret)
29.47. Und somit haben Wir dir das Buch herniedergesandt, und so glauben diejenigen daran, denen Wir das Buch gegeben haben; und unter diesen sind einige, die daran glauben. Es sind aber nur die Ungläubigen, die Unsere Zeichen leugnen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 46 bis 47
And ( 80 ) do not dispute with the people of the Book except in the best manner, ( 81 ) -save with those who are wicked among them ( 82 ) ' and say to them, "We have believed in that which has been sent down to us as well as in that which had been sent down to you. Our God and your God is One, and to Him we have surrendered ( 83 ) (as Muslims). (O Prophet,) We have likewise sent down the Book to you: ( 84 ) therefore, those to whom We gave the Book before this, believe in it, ( 85 ) and so do many of these people, ( 86 ) and none but the disbelievers deny Our Revelations. ( 87 )
Desc No: 80 It should be noted that a little below in this Surah the people are being exhorted to migrate. At that time Habash was the only place of safety to which the Muslims could migrate, and Habash in those days was under the domination of the Christians. Therefore, in these verses the Muslims are being instructed as to how they should argue and discuss matters concerning religion with the people of the Book when such an occasion arises.
Desc No: 81 That is, "The discussion should be conducted rationally, in a civilized and decent language, so that the ideas of the other person may be reformed. The preacher's chief aim should be to appeal to the addressee's heart, convey the truth to him and bring him to the right path. He should not fight like a wrestler whose only object is to defeat his opponent. He should rather conduct himself like a physician who is ever cautious not to cause the patient's ailment to worsen by any of his own mistakes, and tries to cure him with the least possible trouble. This instruction bas been given here especially in connection with the conduct of a discussion with the people of the Book, but is a general instruction pertaining to the preaching of the religion and it has been given at several places in the Qur'an. For example, "O Prophet, invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and excellent admonition and discuss things with the people in the best manner." (AnNahl: 125). "O Prophet, goodness and evil are not alike. Repel evil with what is best. You will see that he. with whom you had enmity, has become your closest friend. ' (Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 34). "O Prophet, repel evil with what is best: We are fully aware of what they utter against you." (Al-Mu'minun: 96) "O Prophet, adopt the way of leniency and forbearance; enjoin what is good and avoid useless discussions with the ignorant people. If Satan ever excites you to anger, seek refuge in Allah."
Desc No: 82 That is, "With those who adopt an attitude of wickedness a different attitude may also be adopted according to the nature and extent of their wickedness. In other words, one cannot, and should not adopt a soft and gentle attitude towards all sorts of the people under all circumstances at all time, which might be mistaken for the weakness and meekness of the inviter to the Truth. Islam does teach its followers to be polite, gentle and reasonable, but it does not teach them to be unduly humble and meek so that they are not taken for granted by every cruel and wicked person."
Desc No: 83 In these sentences Allah Himself has provided guidance to the best method of discussion, which the inviters to the Truth should adopt. The method is this: "Do not make the error or deviation of the other person the basis and starting point of the discussion, but begin the discussion with those points of truth and justice which are common between you and your opponent. That is, the discussion should start' from the points of agreement and not from the points of difference. Then, arguing froth the agreed points, the addressee should be made to understand that, in the matter of the things in which you differ, your stand is in conformity with the agreed points whereas his stand is contradictory to them In this connection, one should bear in mind the fact that the people of the Book did not deny Revelation, Prophethood and Tauhid, like the polytheists of Arabia, but believed in these realities just tike the Muslims. After agreement on these basic things, the main thing that could become the basis of difference Between them could be that the Muslim would not believe in the Divine Scriptures sent down to them and would invite them to believe in the Divine Book sent down to themselves, and would declare them disbelievers if they did not believe in it. This would have been a strong basis of their conflict. But the Muslims had a different stand. They believed as true all those Books that were with the people of the Book, and then also had believed in the Revelation that had been sent down to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). After this it was for the people of the Book to tell the rational ground for which they believed in one Book sent by Allah and rejected the other. That is why Allah here has instructed the Muslims that whenever they have to deal with the people of the Book, they should tirst of all present before them this very point of view in a positive manner. Say to them: "We believe in the same God in Whom you believe and we are obedient to Him. We have submitted ourselves to all those Commands and injunctions and teachings that have come from Him, whether they were sent down to you, or to us. We are obedient servants of God and not of a country or a community or a race, that we should submit to God's Command when it is sent down in one place and reject it when it is sent down in another place. This thing has been repeated at several places in the Qur'an and particularly in relation to the people of the Book, it has been presented forcefully. For this,see AI-Baqarah: 4, 136, 177, 285; Al-i-`Imran: 84; An-Nisa': 136, 150 to 152, 162 to 164; AshShu'araa: 13.
Desc No: 84 This can have two meanings: (1) "Just as We had sent down the Books to the former Prophets, so We have sent down this Book to you"; and (2) "We have sent down this Book with the teaching that it should be believed in not by rejecting Our former Books but by affirming faith in all of them. "
Desc No: 85 The context itself shows that this dces not imply all the people of the Book but only those who were blessed with the right understanding and the knowledge of the Divine Scriptures, and were "the people of the Book ' in the we sense. When this last Book of Allah came before them, confirming His earlier Books, they did not show any stubbornness or obstinacy but accepted it sincerely as they had accepted the previous Books.
Desc No: 86 "These people": the people of Arabia. What it means to say is: The truth-loving people, whether they already possess a Divine Book or do not possess any, are affirming faith in it everywhere.
Desc No: 87 Here, "the disbelievers" imply those people who are not prepared to give up their prejudices and accept the truth, or those who reject the truth because they do not want their lusts and their unbridled freedom to be subjected to restrictions.
29.48. Wama kunta tatluu min qablihi min kitabinwala takhuttuhu biyamiinika idhan lairtabaalmubtiluuna
29.48. And thou (O Muhammad) wast not a reader of any scripture before it, nor didst thou write it with thy right hand, for then might those have doubted, who follow falsehood. (Pickthall)
29.48. Und du hast nicht vorher aus einer Schrift verlesen und sie nicht aufgeschrieben mit deiner Rechten, sonst hätten bestimmt die Taugenichtse Zweifel gehabt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.48. Und du hast vordem kein Buch verlesen und es auch nicht mit deiner rechten Hand niedergeschrieben. Sonst würden wahrlich diejenigen zweifeln, die (es) für falsch erklären. (Bubenheim)
29.48. Du hast vorher keine Bücher vorgetragen und mit deiner Rechten nicht geschrieben, sonst hätten die Verfechter des Falschen Grund zu zweifeln gehabt. (Azhar)
29.48. Und vor ihm hast du weder eine Schrift lesen, noch diese mit deiner Rechten schreiben können, sonst hätten die des Unwahren Verbreitenden daran Zweifel gehegt. (Zaidan)
29.48. Und du hast vordem noch keine Schrift gelesen und auch keine mit deiner Rechten abgeschrieben (wa-laa takhuttuhuu bi-yamienika). Sonst würden diejenigen, die (deine Verkündigung) für nichtig erklären, (über die Wahrhaftigkeit deiner Aussage erst recht) im Zweifel sein. (Paret)
29.48. Und nie zuvor hast du in einem Buch gelesen, noch konntest du eines mit deiner Rechten schreiben; sonst hätten die Verleugner daran gezweifelt. (Rasul)
29.50. And they say: Why are not portents sent down upon him from his Lord? Say: Portents are with Allah only, and I am but a plain warner. (Pickthall)
29.50. Und sie sagen: "Warum werden nicht auf ihn Zeichen von seinem Herrn herabgesandt?" Sag: Die Zeichen sind ja bei Allah, und ich bin ja bestimmt ein klarer Warner! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
29.50. Und sie sagen: "Wenn doch Zeichen von seinem Herrn auf ihn herabgesandt würden!" Sag: Über die Zeichen verfügt (allein) Allah . Und ich bin nur ein deutlicher Warner. (Bubenheim)
29.50. Sie sagen: "Warum wird ihm kein sinnfälliges, wunderbares Zeichen von seinem Herrn herabgesandt?" Sage: "Die Zeichen sind bei Gott. Ich bin nur ein aufklärender Warner." (Azhar)
29.50. Und sie sagten: „Würden ihm doch Ayat von seinem HERRN hinabgesandt!“ Sag: ‚Die Ayat sind nur bei ALLAH und ich bin doch nur ein erläuternder Warner.‘ (Zaidan)
29.50. Und sie sagen: "Warum sind (denn) auf ihn (zur Bestätigung seiner Sendung) keine Zeichen von seinem Herrn herabgesandt worden?" Sag: Über die Zeichen verfügt Allah allein. Ich bin nur ein deutlicher Warner. (Paret)
29.50. Und sie sagten: "Warum wurden keine Zeichen zu ihm von seinem Herrn herabgesandt?" Sprich: "Die Zeichen sind allein bei Allah, und ich bin nur ein deutlicher Warner." (Rasul)