Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
35.39. Er ist es, Der euch zu Nachfolgern auf der Erde gemacht hat. Wer nun ungläubig ist, dessen Unglaube lastet auf ihm. Und den Ungläubigen mehrt ihr Unglaube nur noch die Abscheu bei ihrem Herrn; und den Ungläubigen mehrt ihr Unglaube nur noch den Verlust.
33.31. And whosoever of you is submissive unto Allah and His messenger and doeth right, We shall give her reward twice over, and We have prepared for her a rich provision. (Pickthall)
33.31. Und wer von euch Allah und Seinem Gesandten ergeben ist und Rechtschaffenes tut, ihr geben Wir ihren Lohn zweimal, und Wir haben für sie edelmütige Belohnung vorbeitet. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.31. Und wer von euch Allah und Seinem Gesandten demütig ergeben ist und rechtschaffen handelt, der geben Wir ihren Lohn zweimal. Und Wir haben für sie ehrenvolle Versorgung bereitet. (Bubenheim)
33.31. Wer von euch Gott und Seinem Gesandten gegenüber jedoch gehorsam ist und gute Werke verrichtet, der werden Wir die doppelte Belohnung geben und ihr im Jenseits eine ehrenvolle Versorgung bereiten. (Azhar)
33.31. Und wer von euch ALLAH und Seinem Gesandten gehorcht und gottgefällig Gutes tut, (dieser) gewähren WIR ihr ihre Belohnung zweifach, und WIR bereiteten für sie ein edles Rizq. (Zaidan)
33.31. Wenn aber eine von euch Allah und seinem Gesandten demütig ergeben ist und tut, was recht ist, geben wir ihr (auch) ihren Lohn doppelt. Und wir haben für sie (im Jenseits) vortrefflichen Unterhalt (rizq kariem) bereit. (Paret)
33.31. Doch welche von euch Allah und Seinem Gesandten gehorsam ist und Gutes tut - ihr werden Wir ihren Lohn zweimal geben; und Wir haben für sie eine ehrenvolle Versorgung bereitet. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 30 bis 31
Wives of the Prophet, whoever among you commits a manifest indecency, will be doubly punished: ( 43 ) this is an easy thing for Allah. ( 44 ) And whoever among you obeys Allah and His Prophet, and does good works, We shall doubly reward her, ( 45 ) and for her We have prepared an honourable provision.
Desc No: 43 This does not mean that three was, God forbid, any chance of the Holy Prophet's wives committing an indecency, but this was meant to make them realize that they were the mothers of the Muslims; therefore, their responsibilities were accordingly very high, and so their moral conduct should be the purest. This is ,just like Allah's addressing the Holy Prophet to the effect: "If you committed shirk, all your works would be rendered vain." (Az-Zumar: 65). This also does not mean that there was, God forbid, any chance of the Holy Prophet's committing shirk, but this is meant to make the Holy Prophet realize, and through him the common Muslims, that shirk, is a most heinous crime which must be guarded against most judiciously.
Desc No: 44 That is, "You should not be under the delusion that your being the Prophet's wives will protect you from Allah's punishment, or that it will be difficult for Allah to call you to account on account of your high rank and position in the world."
Desc No: 45 The reason for giving a double punishment for a sin and a double reward for a good work is that those whom Allah honours with a high rank in society generally become the leaders of men and the majority of the people follow them for good or for evil. Thus, their evil does not remain their own evil but becomes the cause of a people's degeneration, and their goodness does not remain them own goodness but becomes the cause of the true success of many other people also. Therefore, when they commit evil they are punished for their own as well as for others degeneration, and whcn they do good they are not only rewarded for their own good works but also for this that they guided others also to do good. This verse also gives the principle that the greater the degree of prohibition and trust in respect of somebody and something the greater and more serious will be the crime of violating that prohibition and trust and the greater will be the punishment for it. For example, drinking in the mosque is a much morc serious crime than drinking privately in the house, and therefore, it will entail a severer punishment. Likewise, committing adultery with the prohibited relations is a far morc serious crime than committing it with another woman, and therefore, will call for a severer punishment.
33.32. Ya nisaa alnnabiyyilastunna kaahadin mina alnnisa-i iniittaqaytunna fala takhdaAAna bialqawli fayatmaAAaalladhii fii qalbihi maradun waqulna qawlanmaAAruufan
33.32. O ye wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like any other women. If ye keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft of speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease aspire (to you), but utter customary speech. (Pickthall)
33.32. Ihr, die Frauen des Propheten, ihr seid nicht wie irgendeine von den Frauen, - wenn ihr gottesfürchtig seid, so seid nicht entgegenkommend in der Rede, sonst macht der sich Hoffnung, in dessen Herz Krankheit ist, - und führt rechte Rede, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.32. O Frauen des Propheten, ihr seid nicht wie irgendeine von den (übrigen) Frauen. Wenn ihr gottesfürchtig seid, dann seid nicht unterwürfig im Reden, damit nicht derjenige, in dessen Herzen Krankheit ist, begehrlich wird, sondern sagt geziemende Worte. (Bubenheim)
33.32. O ihr Frauen des Propheten! Ihr seid nicht wie die anderen Frauen. Wenn ihr gottesfürchtig sein wollt, sprecht nicht auf eine weiche Art, sonst würde, wer böse Absichten hegt, nach euch trachten, sondern sprecht in geziemender Weise! (Azhar)
33.32. Ehefrauen des Propheten! Ihr seid nicht wie irgendeine (Gruppe) der Frauen, wenn ihr Taqwa gemäß handelt. Also meidet Schmeichlerisches beim Sprechen, damit nicht derjenige, in dessen Herzen Krankheit ist, begierig wird. Und sagt nur gebilligte Worte! (Zaidan)
33.32. Ihr Frauen des Propheten! Ihr seid nicht wie (sonst) jemand von den Frauen. Wenn ihr gottesfürchtig sein wollt, dann seid nicht unterwürfig im Reden (mit fremden Männern), damit nicht (etwa) einer, der in seinem Herzen eine Krankheit hat, (nach euch) Verlangen bekommt! Sagt (vielmehr nur), was sich geziemt! (Paret)
33.32. O Frauen des Propheten, ihr seid nicht wie andere Frauen! Wenn ihr gottesfürchtig sein wollt, dann seid nicht unterwürfig im Reden, damit nicht der, in dessen Herzen Krankheit ist, Erwartungen hege, sondern redet in geziemenden Worten. (Rasul)
33.33. And stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of ignorance. Be regular in prayer, and pay the poor due, and obey Allah and His messenger. Allah ' s wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing. (Pickthall)
33.33. Und bleibt in euren Häusern, und stellt eure Reize nicht heraus wie in der früheren Zeit der Unwissenheit, und richtet das Gebet ein und gebt die Zakat-Steuer und gehorcht Allah und Seinem Gesandten, Allah möchte, daß Er das Gräßliche von euch Weggehen läßt, ihr Angehörigen des Hauses, und Er euch völlig reinigt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.33. Haltet euch in euren Häusern auf; und stellt euch nicht zur Schau wie in der Zeit der früheren Unwissenheit. Verrichtet das Gebet und entrichtet die Abgabe und gehorcht Allah und Seinem Gesandten. Allah will gewiß nur den Makel von euch entfernen, ihr Angehörigen des Hauses, und euch völlig rein machen. (Bubenheim)
33.33. Bleibt in euren Häusern, (es sei denn, ihr geht zu einem von Gott erlaubten Zweck) und putzt euch nicht heraus, wie es in der Zeit der Unwissenheit üblich war! Verrichtet das Gebet, entrichtet die Zakat-Abgaben und gehorcht Gott und Seinem Gesandten! Hierdurch will Gott von euch, ihr Angehörigen des Hauses, die Unreinheit fernhalten und euch die höchste Reinheit gewähren. (Azhar)
33.33. Und haltet euch in euren Wohnstätten auf und wandelt nicht mit entblössten Reizen wie das reize-entblösste Wandeln der Dschahiliya-Zeit . Und verrichtet das rituelle Gebet ordnungsgemäß, entrichtet die Zakat und gehorcht ALLAH und Seinem Gesandten! ALLAH will doch nur von euch das Unreine wegnehmen - Ah-lalbait ! - und ER will euch höchstmöglich reinigen. (Zaidan)
33.33. Und bleibt in eurem Haus, putzt euch nicht heraus, wie man das früher im Heidentum zu tun pflegte, verrichtet das Gebet (salaat), gebt die Almosensteuer (zakaat) und gehorchet Allah und seinem Gesandten! Allah will (damit, daß er solche Gebote und Verbote erläßt) die (heidnische) Unreinheit (ridschs) von euch entfernen, ihr Leute des Hauses, und euch wirklich rein machen. (Paret)
33.33. Und bleibt in euren Häusern und prunkt nicht wie in den Zeiten der Dschahiliya und verrichtet das Gebet und entrichtet die Zakah und gehorcht Allah und Seinem Gesandten. Allah will nur jegliches Übel von euch verschwinden lassen, ihr Leute des Hauses, und euch stets in vollkommener Weise rein halten. (Rasul)
33.34. Waodhkurna ma yutlafii buyuutikunna min ayati Allahi waalhikmatiinna Allaha kana latiifan khabiiran
33.34. And bear in mind that which is recited in your houses of the revelations of Allah and wisdom. Lo! Allah is Subtile, Aware. (Pickthall)
33.34. Und erinnert euch an das, was in euren Häusern verlesen wird von den Zeichen Allahs und der Weisheit, Allah ist ja bestimmt feinsinnig, kundig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.34. Und gedenkt dessen, was in euren Häusern von den Zeichen Allahs und von der Weisheit verlesen wird. Gewiß, Allah ist Feinfühlig und Allkundig. (Bubenheim)
33.34. Behaltet, was in euren Häusern an Versen von Gott und an Weisheit vorgetragen wird! Gott ist gütig, und Er weiss um das Verborgene. (Azhar)
33.34. Und erinnert euch an das, was in euren Wohnstätten von ALLAHs Ayat und der Weisheit vorgetragen wird. Gewiß, ALLAH ist immer allgütig, allkundig. (Zaidan)
33.34. Und behaltet im Gedächtnis, was von den Versen Allahs und von der (göttlichen) Weisheit in eurem Haus verlesen wird! Allah ist (immer) gütig (inna llaaha kaana latiefan) und ist (über alles) wohl unterrichtet. (Paret)
33.34. Und gedenkt der Verse Allahs und der Weisheiten, die in euren Häusern verlesen werden; denn Allah ist Gütig, Allkundig. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 32 bis 34
Wives of the Prophet, you are not like the other women. ( 46 ) If you are Godfearing, do not talk in a soft voice lest the man of the diseased heart should cherish false hopes from you, but speak in an unaffected manner. ( 47 ) Stay in your houses, ( 48 ) and do not go about displaying your fineries as women used to do in the days of ignorance. ( 49 ) Establish the Salat, pay the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only intends to remove uncleanliness from you, O people of the Prophet's household, and purify you completely. ( 50 ) Remember the Revelations of Allah and the wise sayings which are recited in your houses. ( 51 ) Surely, Allah is the Knower of everything ( 52 ) and is All-Aware.
Desc No: 46 The verses from here to the end of the paragraph are those with which the Commandments of Purdah were introduced in Islam. In these verses though the wives of the Holy Prophet only have been addressed, the intention is to enforce reforms in all the Muslim houses. The object of addressing the Holy Prophet's wives particularly is that when a pure way of life will start from his house, it will be followed by the women of all other Muslim houses as well, because this house was looked upon by the Muslims as a model to follow. Some people, whcn they see that these verses have been addressed only to the wives of the Holy Prophet, assert that these Commandments were only meant for them. But when one reads what follows in these verses one feels that there is nothing which might have been meant particularly for the holy wives and not for the other Muslim women. Could Allah have intended only this that the holy wives alone should be fret from uncleanliness and they alone should obey Allah and His Prophet and they alone should offer the Salat and pay the Zakat? If this could not be the intention, then how could the Command for them to stay in their houses and avoid displaying the fineries and abstain from talking to the other men in an alluring voice be meant particularly for them to the exclusion of all other Muslim women? Is there any rational proof on the basis of which some Commands in one and the same context and series be regarded as general and some others as particular and special? As for the sentence, ¦You are not like the other women," it also dces not mean that the other women should come out in full make-up and should talk to the other men coquettishly and flirt with them, but "as for you, you should not adopt such a conduct. " The style, to the contrary, is such as if a gentleman would tell his child, `You are not like the common children of the street: you should not use abusive language." From this no sensible person would ever conclude that the speaker regarded only his own child using abusive language as bad; as for others he would not mind if they used abusive language.
Desc No: 47 That is, "There is no harm if the other man is spoken to in case of a genuine need, but on such an occasion the woman's tone and manner of speech should be such as does not let the other man think that he could cherish any false hope from her. There should be no undue softness in her tone, no allurement in her conversation, no consciously affected mellowness in her voice, which should excite the male hearer's emotions and encourage him to make advances. About such a manner of speech Allah clearly says that this dces not behove a woman who has any fear of God in her heart and desire to avoid evil. In other words, this is the way and manner of the wicked and unchaste woman's speech and not of the believing pious woman's speech: If this verse is read together with verse 31 of Surah An-Nur, in which Allah says: "They should not stamp the ground in walking Iest their hidden decoration is revealed," the intention of the Lord clearly seems to be that the wvmcn should not attract other men by their voice or the jingle of their ornaments unnecessarily and if at all they have to speak to the other men, they should speak to them in an un-affected tone and manner. That is why it is forbidden for the woman to pronounce the call to the Prayer. Moreover, if a woman is attending a congregational Prayer and the Imam commits a mistake, she is not permitted to say Subhan-Allah like the males but should only tap her hands to call the imam's attention to the error. Now just consider this: When Islam disallows the woman to talk to other men in a soft and sweet tone and even forbids her to produce her voice before the other men without a genuine need, will it approve her to appear on the stage and sing, dance, flirt and behave coquettishly? Will it permit her to sing love songs over the radio and excite the people's emotions by presenting sweet melodies full of obscene themes? Will it permit that she should play the roles of the wives and sweet-hearts of others in dramas? Or that the women should be made the airhostesses and be especially trained to charm and allure the passengers? Or that they should visit clubs and attend social functions and gatherings in full make-up and mix freely with men and have fun and a good time with them ?From which Qur'an has this culture been derived? For the Qur'an that was sent down by God there is to be found no hint as to the admissibility of this sort of culture.
Desc No: 48 The word qarna in the original is derived from qarar according to some lexicographers and from waqar according to others. In the first sense, it will mean: `Settle down, stick firmly;" and in the second sense: "Live peacefully, sit with dignity." In both the cases the verse means to impress that the woman's real sphere of activity is her home; she should carry out her functions within that sphere peacefully, and she should come out of the house only in case of a genuine need. This meaning is clear from the words of the verse itself and the Holy Prophet's Ahadith also impress it even more forcefully. Hafiz Abu Bakr Bazzar has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas that the women made a submission to the Holy Prophet, saying: "All kinds of virtues have been secured by the men: they fight and accomplish great deeds in the way of Allah. What should we do that we may also get a reward equal to that of the warriors?" The Holy Prophet replied: The one who sits in her house from among you; will attain the reward of the warriors." What he meant was : The warrior can fight confidently and with full peace of the mind in the way of Allah only when he is sure that all is well at home: his wife is there to look after the house and the children, and there is no cause for him to worry that she will betray him in his absence. The woman who will provide him this satisfaction and peace of the mind will be an equal partner with him in his fighting though she will be sitting back at home. According to another tradition that Bazzar and Tirmidhi have related on the authority of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas`ud, the Holy Prophet said: `The woman must remain veiled and concealed. When she comes out of her house, Satan stares at her. And she is closer to Allah's mercy when she is inside her house." (For further details, see E.N. 49 of Surah An-Nur). In the presence of such a clear and express command of the Qur'an, it is not at all permissible that the Muslim women should seek membership of the councils and parliaments; that they should run after social activities outside the house; that they should work side by side with men in the government offices, should get education along with boys in the colleges, serve as nurses in the male wards of hospitals, should be employed as hostesses in the aeroplanes and rail cars, and should be sent abroad for education and training. The greatest argument that is given in support of the permissibility of the women's outdoor activities is that Hadrat 'A'ishah had taken part in the Battle of the Camel. But the people who present this argument perhaps do not know what was Hadrat `A'ishah's own opinion in this regard. `Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal has related in his Zawa id az-Zuhd and Ibn Mundhir, Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ibn Sa'd in their own books the tradition from Masruq, saying that when Hadrat `A'ishah during her recitation of the Qur'an would reach this verse (wa qarna fi buyut-i kunna), she would start crying involuntarily; so much so that her head-wrapper would become wet, for this reminded her of the error that she had committed in the Battle of the Camel.
Desc No: 49 In this verse two important words have been used, which must be understood for the proper understanding of its intention. They are tabarruj and jahiliyyat al-ula. The word tabarruj in Arabic means to become manifest and appear openly before others. The Arabs use the word baraj for every conspicuous and elevated object. A burj (tower) is so called because of its prominence and elevation. A sailing-boat is called barijah, because its sails become.visible from a distance. The word tabarruj when used in respect of a woman will have three meanings: (1) that she should show the charms of her face and body before the people; (2) that she should display the adornments of her dress and ornaments before others; and (3) that she should make herself conspicuous by her gait and figure and coquetry. The same explanation of this word has been given by the leading lexicographers and commentators. Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Abi Nujaih say: "Tabarruj means to walk in a vain, alluring and coquettish manner." Muqatil says: ¦It means a woman's displaying of her necklaces, ear-rings and bosom. " AI-Mubarrad says: "That a woman should reveal her adornments which she should conceal. " Abu 'Ubaidah comments: "This that a woman should make herself conspicuous by display of her body and dress to attract the attention of men." The word jahiliyyat has been used at three other places in the Quran besides this, in Al-i `Imran: 154, where about those who shirk fighting in the way of Allah, it has been said: ¦They began to cherish about Allah thoughts of Ignorance Uahiljyyat) which were void of the truth," and in Al-Ma`idah: 50, where about those who want to be judged by their own law instead of the law of Allah, it has been said: "Do they desire to be judged by the laws of ignorance (Jahiliyyat)?" and in Al-Fath: 26, where the prejudice of the people of Makkah due to which they did not permit the Muslims to perform 'Umrah, has been called as "the haughty spirit of paganism ( jahiliyyat). " According to a Hadith once Hadrat Abu ad-Darda' in the heat of a quarrel abused another person in respect of his mother. When the Holy Prophet heard of it, he remarked: "You still have jahiliyyat in you. " According to another Hadith the Holy Prophet said: "Three things show jahiliyyat to taunt the lineage of another person, to take omens from the movement of the stars, and to mourn over the dead. " All these customs show that jahiliyyat in the Islamic terminology is every such conduct which goes against Islamic culture and civilization and Islamic morality and etiquette and Islamic way of thinking and behaviour. Thus, jahiliyyat al-ula would mean all those evils in which the Arabs of the pre-Islamic days and the people of the entire world were involved. This explanation makes it abundantly clear that what Allah forbids women is to move out of their houses showing off their physical charms and beauty. He instructs them to stay in their houses because their real sphere of activity is their home and not the world outside. However, if they have to move out of the house for an cut-door duty, they should not move out as the women used to do in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance. For it dces not behove the women of a Muslim society to walk out fully embellished to make their face and figure conspicuous by adornments and tight-fitting or transparent dresses, and to walk coquettishly. These are the ways of ignorance which Islam dces not approve. Now everybody can see for himself whether the culture which is being made popular in our country is the culture of Islam, according to the Qur'an, or the culture of ignorance.
Desc No: 50 The context in which this verse occurs makes it manifest that the word ahl al-bait (people of the house) here implies the wives of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace), because the address begins with: "O wives of the Prophet," and they are the addressees in the whole discourse preceding it as well as following it. Moreover, the word ahl al-bait in Arabic is used precisely in the sense in which the word "household" is used in English, which includes both a man's wife and children. No one would exclude the wife from the "household." The Qur'an itself has used this word at two other places besides this, and at both the wife is included in its sense, rather as the most important member of the family. In Surah Hud, whcn the angels give the Prophet Abraham the good news of the birth of a son, his wife exclaims: "Shall I bear a child now when I have grown too old, and this husband of mine has also become old?" The angels say: What! Are you surprised at Allah's decree, O people of Abraham's houschold? Allah's mercy and blessings are upon you." In Surah Al-Qasas, whcn the Prophet Moses reaches the Pharaoh's house as a suckling, and the Pharaoh's wife is in search of a suitable nurse for the child, the Prophet Moses' sister says, "Shall I tell you of a household whose people will bring him up for you and look after him well?" Thus, the Arabic idiom and the usage of the Qur'an and the context of this verse, 'all point clearly to the fact that the Holy Prophet's wives as well as his children are included in his ahl al-bait; rather the more correct thing is that the verse is actually addressed to the wives and the children become included in the household only because of the sense of the word. That is why according to lbn 'Abbas and 'Urwah bin Zubair and `Ikrimah, the word ahl al-bait in this verse implies the wives of the Holy Prophet. But if somebody says that the word ahl al-bait has been used only for the wives and none else can be included in it, it will also be wrong. Not only this that the word "household" includes all the members of a man's family, but the Holy Prophct has himself explained that this includes even himself. According to Ibn Abi Hatim, once when Hadrat `A'ishah was asked about Hadrat `Ali, she said, Do you ask me about the person who was among the most loved ones of the Holy Prophet and whose wife was the Holy Prophet's daughter and most beloved to him?" Then she related the event whcn the Holy Prophet had called Hadrat 'Ali and Fatimah and Hasan and Husain (may Allah be pleased with them all) and covered them all with a sheet of cloth and prayed: "O Allah, these are my houschold, remove uncleanness from them and make them pure." Hadrat 'A'ishah says, "I said: I also am included among your household (i.e. I may also be covered under the sheet and prayed for). " Thereupon the Holy Prophet replied" You stay out: you, . of course, are already included." A great many Ahadith bearing on this subject have been related by traditionists like Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Jarir, Hakim, Baihaqi, etc. on the authority of Abu Said Khudri, Hadrat 'A'ishah, Hadrat Anas, Hadrat Umm Salamah, Hadrat Wathilah bin Aqsa' and some other Companions, which show that the Holy Prophet declared Hadrat 'AIi and Fatimah and their two sons as his ahl al-bait. Therefore, the view of those who exclude them from the ahl al-bait is not correct. Similarly the view of those people also is not correct, who, on the basis of the above-cited Ahadith, regard the wives of the Holy Prophet as excluded from his ahl al-bait. In the first place, anything which has been clearly stated in the Quran cannot be contradicted on the basis of a Hadith. Secondly, these Ahadith also do not have the meaning that is put on them. As related in some traditions that the Holy Prophet did not cover Hadrat 'A'ishah and Hadrat Umm Salamah under the sheet of cloth which he put on the four members of his family, dces not mean that he had excluded those ladies from his "household." But it means that the wives were already included in ahl al-bait, because the Qur'an, in fact, had addressed them as ahl al-bait. The Holy Prophet, however, thought that the apparent words of the Qur'an might cause somebody the misunderstanding about these members that they were excluded from the ahl al-bait. Therefore, he felt the need for clarification in their case and not in the case of his wives. A section of the people have not only misconstrued this verse to the extent that they have made the word ahl al-bait exclusively applicable to Hadrat `AIi and Fatimah and their children to the exclusion of the holy wives, but have gone even further and concluded wrongly from its words "Allah only intends to remove uncleanliness from you and purify you completely", that Hadrat 'Ali and Fatimah and their children are infallable like the Prophets of Allah. They say that "uncleanliness" implies error and sin, and, as Allah says, these ahl al-bait have been purified of this, whereas the words of the verse do not say that uncleanliness has been removed from them and they have been purified. But the words are to the effect: "Allah intends to remove uncleanliness from you and purify you completely. " The context also does not tell that the object here is to mention the virtues and excellences of the Holy Prophet's household. On the contrary, they have been advised here what they should do and what they should not, because Allah intends to purify them. In other words, they have been told that if they adopted such and such an attitude and way of life, they will be blessed with cleanliness, otherwise not. However, if the words "Allah intends to remove uncleanliness from yon . . . " are taken to mean that Allah has made them infallable, then is no reason why all the Muslims who perform their ablutions before offering the Prayer are not held as infallable, because about them also Allah says: "But Allah wills to purify you and complete His blessings upon you." (Al-Ma'idah: 6)
Desc No: 51 The word wadhkurna in the original has two meanings: Remember and mention. According to the first meaning the verse would mean: "O wives of the Prophet, you should never forget that yours is the house from where the would is being instructed in Divine Revelations and Wisdom; therefore, your responsibility is very great. Let it not happen that the people might see specimens of ignorance in this very house." According to the second meaning, it would mean: "O wives of the Prophet, you should mention and relate before the people whatever you hear and see, for by virtue of your close and constant social association and attachment with the Prophet you will know and experience many such things which the other people. will not be able to know by any other means than you. " Two things have been mentioned in this verse: (1) The Revelations of Allah; and (2) the wise sayings. The revelations of Allah are the verses of Allah's Book, but hikmat (wisdom) is a comprehensive word which includes all those wise things which the Holy Prophet taught the people. This word may also imply the teachings of the Book of Allah, but there is no reason why it should be made exclusively applicable to them. It inevitably includes the wisdom that the Holy Prophet taught by his pure character and by his sayings besides reciting the verses of the Qur'an. Some people, only on the basis that the word ma yutla (that which is recited) has been used in the verse, make the assertion that the "Revelations of Allah" and "Wisdom" imply only the Qur'an, for the word "recitation" as a term is specifically used for the recitation of the Qur'an. But this reasoning is absolutely wrong. The use of the word "recitation" specifically as a term for the recitation of the Qur'an or the Book of Allah is the work of the people of the later ages. The Qur'an has not used this word as a term. In Surah AI-Baqarah: 102, this same word has been used for the incantation of the magical formulas which the satans falsely attributed to the Prophet Solomon and taught the people. ("They followed that which the satans recited attributing it to the kingdom of Solomon. ") This shows that the Qur'an uses this word in its lexical meaning, and dces not specify it for reciting the verses of the Book of Allah.
Desc No: 52 "Knower of everything" : Knower of even the most secret and hidden things. "
33.35. Lo! men who surrender unto Allah, and women who surrender, and men who believe and women who believe, and men who obey and women who obey, and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth, and men who persevere (in righteousness) and women who persevere, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty), and men who remember Allah much and women who remember Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward. (Pickthall)
33.35. Ja, die muslimischen Männer und die muslimischen Frauen, und die gläubigen Männer und die gläubigen Frauen, und die ergebenen Männer und die ergebenen Frauen, und die wahrhaften Männer und die wahrhaften Frauen, und die geduldig ausharrenden Männer und die geduldig ausharrenden Frauen, und die demütigen Männer und die demütigen Frauen, und die Spenden gebenden Männer und die Spenden gebenden Frauen, und die fastenden Männer und die fastenden Frauen, und die ihre Scham hütenden Männer und die sie hütenden Frauen, und die Allahs viel eingedenkseienden Männer und die viel eingedenkseienden Frauen, - Allah hat für sie Verzeihung und gewaltige Belohnung vorbereitet. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.35. Gewiß, muslimische Männer und muslimische Frauen, gläubige Männer und gläubige Frauen, ergebene Männer und ergebene Frauen, wahrhaftige Männer und wahrhaftige Frauen, standhafte Männer und standhafte Frauen, demütige Männer und demütige Frauen, Almosen gebende Männer und Almosen gebende Frauen, fa stende Männer und fastende Frauen, Männer, die ihre Scham hüten und Frauen, die (ihre Scham) hüten, und Allahs viel gedenkende Männer und gedenkende Frauen für (all) sie hat Allah Vergebung und großartigen Lohn bereitet. (Bubenheim)
33.35. Den Gottergebenen, den Gläubigen, den Andächtigen, den Ehrlichen, Geduldigen, Demütigen, den Spendenden, Fastenden, den Keuschen und denen, die unablässig Gottes gedenken, ob es Männer oder Frauen sind, hat Gott Vergebung und höchste Belohnung verheißen. (Azhar)
33.35. Gewiß, die islam-praktizierenden Männer und die islam-praktizierenden Frauen, die iman-verinnerlichenden Männer und die iman-verinnerlichenden Frauen, die gehorchenden Männer und die gehorchenden Frauen, die wahrhaftigenMänner und die wahrhaftigen Frauen, die sich in Geduld übenden Männer und die sich in Geduld übenden Frauen, die sich hingebenden Männer und die sich hingebenden Frauen, die spendenden Männer und die spendenden Frauen, die fastenden Männer und die fastenden Frauen, die sich keusch haltenden Männer und die sich keusch haltenden Frauen und die ALLAHs viel gedenkenden Männer und die ALLAHs viel gedenkenden Frauen, für diese hat ALLAH Vergebung und ge- 2 waltige Belohnung bereitet. (Zaidan)
33.35. Was muslimische Männer und Frauen sind, Männer und Frauen, die gläubig, die (Allah) demütig ergeben (qaanit), die wahrhaftig, die geduldig, die bescheiden (khaaschi`) sind, die Almosen geben, die fasten, die darauf achten, daß ihre Scham bedeckt ist, und die unablässig Allahs gedenken, - für sie (alle) hat Allah Vergebung und gewaltigen Lohn bereit. (Paret)
33.35. Wahrlich, die muslimischen Männer und die muslimischen Frauen, die gläubigen Männer und die gläubigen Frauen, die gehorsamen Männer und die gehorsamen Frauen, die wahrhaftigen Männer und die wahrhaftigen Frauen, die geduldigen Männer und die geduldigen Frauen, die demütigen Männer und die demütigen Frauen, die Männer, die Almosen geben, und die Frauen, die Almosen geben, die Männer, die fasten, und die Frauen, die fasten, die Männer, die ihre Keuschheit wahren, und die Frauen, die ihre Keuschheit wahren, die Männer, die Allahs häufig gedenken, und die Frauen, die (Allahs häufig) gedenken - Allah hat ihnen (allen) Vergebung und großen Lohn bereitet. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 35 bis 35
Most surely ( 53 ) the men and the women who have surrendered themselves to Allah; ( 54 ) who are believing, ( 55 ) obedient, ( 56 ) truthful, ( 57 ) and patient; ( 58 ) who bow down before Allah, ( 59 ) practise charity, ( 60 ) observe the fasts, ( 61 ) guard their private parts ( 62 ) and remember Allah much: ( 63 ) Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward. ( 64 )
Desc No: 53 Presentation of this theme immediately after the foregoing paragraph contains a subtle allusion to the faet that the -instructions given above to the Holy Prophet's wives are not exclusively meant for them but the Muslim society as a whole should reform itself in accordance with them.
Desc No: 54 "Who have surrendered themselves to Allah : Who have accepted Islam as a code of life for themselves, and have decided to follow it in their lives, and who have no wish to resist the Islamic way of life and thought, but have adopted the way of obedience and submission to it.
Desc No: 55 "Who are believing": Whose obedience is not merely outward nor unwilling but who sincerely regard the guidance given by Islam as based on the truth whose faith is that the way shown by the Qur'an and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) is the only right and straight way in following which alone lies their true success. That which has been declared as wrong by Allah and His Prophet is certainly wrong even according to their judgement and that which has been declared as right by Allah and His Prophet is certainly right even according to their thinking and sense. Psychologically and intellectually also they do not regard as improper any injunction that has been enjoined by the Qur'an and Sunnah, and do not remain on the lookout to change it somehow to suit their own desire or mould it according to the current trends of the world, avoiding at the same time the blame that they have effected a change in the Command given by Allah and His Prophet. The Holy Prophet has described the true state of faith in a Hadith in these words: "He who reconciled himself to Allah as his Lord and to Islam as his Way of Life and to Muhammad as his Messenger, has the true taste of Faith." (Muslim) In another Hadith, he has explained it thus: "None of you becomes a believer until the desires of his self become subordinate to what I have brought." (Sharh as-Sunnah)
Desc No: 56 That is, "They do not rest content with mere belief but are obedient practically also. They are not the sort of the people who would honestly believe that what Allah and His Messenger have commanded was true but would violate it in practice: that they would sincerely regard what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden as bad but would go on following the same in practical life."
Desc No: 57 That is, "They are truthful in their speech and honest in thou dealings. They do not deal in lies, deceptions, frauds and forgeries. They utter with their tongues only what their conscience approves as true. They practise and perfom only what they honestly find to be in accordance with righteousness and truth, and they arc honest in all their dealings with others."
Desc No: 58 That is, "They patiently and steadfastly bear and face all the obstacles, dangers, difficulties and losses that they might have to encounter in following the right way taught by Allah and His Messenger and in establishing Allah's Religion in the world; no fear and no temptation and no lust of the self can succeed in diverting them from the right way."
Desc No: 59 That is, "They arc free from pride, vanity and haughtiness: they havc full understanding of the reality that they arc servants and they havc no other position than that of servitude. Therefore, their hearts as well as their bodies remain bowed before Allah, dominated by fear of Him. They never display the attitude which is the hall-mark of the lives of those who are fearless of God and arc involved in arrogance. " From the sequence it appears that the mention of Khushu' (expression of humility) in particular along with the general attitude of the fear of God implies the Prayer, for the mention of the practice of charity and fast has been made just after it.
Desc No: 60 This does not only imply payment of the obligatory Zakat, but it also includes general charity. It means to say that they spend their wealth freely in the way of Allah and they are not at all niggardly in the matter of helping the servants of Allah as much as they can. No orphan and no sick or afflicted person, no weak or disabled person, no poor and needy one remains deprived of their support in their dwelling; and if there arises the need for monetary help for promoting the cause of Allah's Religion, they arc never miserly in expending their wealth for that purpose.
Desc No: 61 This includes both the obligarory and the voluntary fasts.
Desc No: 62 This has two meanings: (1) They refrain from adultery; and (2) they avoid nudity. One should also note that nudity dces not only mean being naked but it is also nudity to put on a thin dress which shows the body, or is so tight-fitting that it reveals all the outlines of the body.
Desc No: 63 "Remember Allah much" means that one should mention Allah's name in one way or other at all times in every business of life. Man cannot develop such a state of the mind unless the thought of God becomes deeply embedded in his heart. When this idea has passed beyond his conscious mind and settled deep in his subconscious and unconscious mind, then only he will remember and mention God's name in whatever he does and in whatever he says. He will begin with bismillah when he eats and say al-hamdu lillah when he finishes; he will remember Allah when he goes to bed, and mention Allah's name when he gets up. In his conversation also he will again and again pronounce bismillah, al-hamdu-lillalh, insha-Allah, ma sha Allah, etc. and ask for Allah's help in every matter, and thank Him for every blessing. He will seek His mercy in every affliction, and turn to Him in every trouble. He will fear Him on encountering every evil, and ask for His forgiveness when he happens to havc committed an error and will pray to Him for fulfilment of every need. In short, in every state and in every business of life his function will be to remember Allah. This. In fact, is the essence of the Islamic life. For all other acts of worship there is a prescribed time when they are performed, and one is free when one has performed them. But this is the worship which has no special time; it has to be performed constantly so that it links up the man's life with Allah and His service permanently. The other worships and religious acts themselves also become meaningful only when the heart of man remains inclined to Allah not only at the time when the act is actually being carried out but at all times when the tongue is uttering Allah's name constantly. In such a state as this worship and religious acts develop and flourish in a man's life precisely in the same manner as a plant grows in a congenial climate and environment. Contrary to this, the example of the religious services and worships which are carried out only on special times and occasions in the life which is devoid of this constant remembrance of Allah is of the plant which has been planted in an un-congenial climate, and which is growing only due to the special attention and care of the gardener. This very thing has been explained by the Holy Prophet in a Hadith, thus: "Mu'adh bin Anas Juhani relates that a person asked the Holy Prophet of Allah. who among those who fight in the way of Allah will get the highest reward? He replied: The one who remembers Allah the most. The man asked: Who among the observers of the fast will get the highest reward? He replied: The one who remembers Allah the most. The man then asked the same question about the offerer of the Prayer, the payer of the Zakat and charities and the performer of Hajj and the Holy Prophet in every case gave the same answer, saying: He who remembers Allah the most." (Musnad Ahmad)
Desc No: 64 This verse plainly tells what qualities and characteristics are of real worth in the sight of Allah. These are the basic values of Islam which have been compressed into one sentence. As regards these, there is no difference between the man and woman. However, as for their life-activity, the two sexes have separate spheres to function. The males have to function in some particular spheres and the females in some others. But if they possess these qualities and characteristics equally, Allah will raise them to equal ranks and bless them with equal rewards. It will in no way affect their rank and reward if one carried out household chores and the other performed the duties of caliphate and enforced the Shari'ah injunctions; one reared children in the house and the other went to the battlefield and fought for the sake of Allah and His religion. "
33.36. Wama kana limu/minin walamu/minatin idha qada Allahu warasuuluhuamran an yakuuna lahumu alkhiyaratu min amrihim waman yaAAsiAllaha warasuulahu faqad dalla dalalanmubiinan
33.36. And it becometh not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided and affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, be verily goeth astray in error manifest. (Pickthall)
33.36. Und es ist an keinem gläubigen Mann und an keiner gläubigen Frau, wenn Allah und Sein Gesandter eine Angelegenheit entschieden haben, daß es für sie eine Wahl in ihrer Angelegenheit gäbe, und wer sich Allah und Seinem Gesandten widersetzt, der ist schon ganz klar fehlgegangen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.36. Weder für einen gläubigen Mann noch für eine gläubige Frau gibt es, wenn Allah und Sein Gesandter eine Angelegenheit entschieden haben, die Möglichkeit, in ihrer Angelegenheit zu wählen. Und wer sich Allah und Seinem Gesandten widersetzt, der befindet sich ja in deutlichem Irrtum. (Bubenheim)
33.36. Es gebührt keinem Gläubigen - Mann oder Frau - wenn Gott und Sein Gesandter eine Entscheidung getroffen haben, eine eigene Wahl zu treffen. Wer sich Gott und Seinem Gesandten widersetzt, geht eindeutig irre. (Azhar)
33.36. Keineswegs gebührt es einem Mumin oder einer Mumina, wenn ALLAH und Sein Gesandter eine Angelegenheit bestimmten, dass es für sie noch eine Wahl in ihrer Angelegenheit gibt. Und wer sich ALLAH und Seinem Gesandten widersetzt, ist bereits mit eindeutigem Irrtum abgeirrt. (Zaidan)
33.36. Und weder ein gläubiger Mann noch eine gläubige Frau dürfen, wenn Allah und sein Gesandter eine Angelegenheit (die sie betrifft) entschieden haben, in (dieser) ihrer Angelegenheit (frei) wählen. Wer gegen Allah und seinen Gesandten widerspenstig ist, ist (damit vom rechten Weg) offensichtlich abgeirrt. (Paret)
33.36. Und es ziemt sich nicht für einen gläubigen Mann oder eine gläubige Frau, daß sie - wenn Allah und Sein Gesandter eine Angelegenheit beschlossen haben - eine andere Wahl in ihrer Angelegenheit treffen. Und der, der Allah und Seinem Gesandten nicht gehorcht, geht wahrlich in offenkundiger Weise irre. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 36 bis 36
It ( 65 ) does not behove a believing man and a believing woman that when Allah and His Messenger have given their decision in a matter, they should exercise an option in that matter of theirs; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Prophet, has indeed strayed into manifest error. ( 66 )
Desc No: 65 From here begin the verses which were sent down in connection with the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab.
Desc No: 66 Ibn 'Abbas, Qatadah, 'Ikrimah and Muqatil bin Hayyan say that this verse was sent down at the time when the Holy Prophet proposed Hadrat Zainab for Hadrat Zaid, and Zainab and her relatives did not agree. According to Ibn 'Abbas, when the Holy Prophet made the proposal, Hadrat Zainab said, "I am better than him in lineage." Ibn Sa'd says that she also said, "I do not approve him for myself. I am a Quraishite by birth. " The same sort of disapproval was expressed by her brother, 'Abdullah bin Jahsh, because Hadrat Zaid was a freed slave of the Holy Prophet and Hadrat Zainab was the daughter of his paternal aunt, Umaimah bint 'Abdul Muttalib. They did not like the Holy Prophet to propose a girl of a noble Quraishite family, who was none other than his own first cousin, for his freed slave. At this, this verse was sent down and on hearing it Hadrat Zainab and all her relatives yielded to the proposal at once. Then the Holy Prophet married them, paid ten diners and 60 dirhams from his own pocket as dower on behalf of Zaid, provided the bridal dress and sent some articles of food for domestic use. Though this verse was sent down on g special occasion, the injunction given in it is the cardinal principle of the constitutional law of Islam, and it applies to the entire Islamic system of life. According to it no Muslim individual or nation, or institution, or court or parliament or state, is entitled to use its own freedom of opinion in a matter in which Allah and His Prophet have already given a dceision. To be a Muslim means to surrender one's freedom of opinion and action before Allah and His Messenger. It would be a contradiction in terms if a person or a nation claimed to be Muslim and then reserved for itself the freedom of choice and action. No sensible person can think of combining the two contradictory attitudes together. The one who desires to remain a Muslim will inevitably have to bow down to the Command of Allah and His Prophet, and the one who is not inclined to bow will have to admit that he is not a Muslim. If he does not admit he will be regarded as a hypocrite both by God and by the people even though he might proclaim to be a Muslim at the top of his voice.
33.37. And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favor and thou hast conferred favor: Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear Allah. And thou didst hide in thy mind that which Allah was to bring to light, and thou didst fear mankind whereas Allah had a better right that thou shouldst fear Him. So when Zeyd had performed the necessary formality (of divorce) from her, We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The commandment of Allah must be fulfilled. (Pickthall)
33.37. Und als du zu dem gesagt hast, dem Allah wohltätig gewesen ist, und dem du wohltätig warst: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah!", und du hast in deiner Seele geheimgehalten, was Allah sichtbar machte, und du hast die Menschen gefürchtet, - und Allah hat mehr Recht, daß du Ihn fürchtest, -und als Zaid mit ihr das Gebotene abgeschlossen hatte, haben Wir dich sie heiraten lassen, so daß es für die Gläubigen keine Bedrängnis gibt wegen den Gattinnen ihrer Söhne Gerufenen, wenn sie mit ihnen das Gebotene abgeschlossen haben, und der Befehl Allahs wird ausgeführt (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.37. Und als du zu demjenigen sagtest, dem Allah Gunst erwiesen hatte und dem auch du Gunst erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah", und in deinem Inneren verborgen hieltest, was Allah doch offenlegen wird, und die Menschen fürchtetest, während Allah ein größeres Anrecht darauf hat, daß du Ihn fürchtest. Als dann Zaid keinen Wunsch mehr an ihr hatte, gaben Wir sie dir zur Gattin, damit für die Gläubigen kein Grund zur Bedrängnis bestehe hinsichtlich der Gattinnen ihrer angenommenen Söhne, wenn diese keinen Wunsch mehr an ihnen haben. Und Allahs Anordnung wird (stets) ausgeführt. (Bubenheim)
33.37. Du sagtest dem Mann, dem Gott Gnade erwiesen hatte und dem auch du Gunst erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Frau und sei gottesfürchtig!" Du hältst etwas geheim, was Gott kundgibt. Du fürchtest die Menschen und ihr Gerede. Gott ist es, Den du eher fürchten sollst. Und als (dein angenommener Sohn) Zaid nichts mehr bei ihr zu erreichen hoffte und sich von ihr trennte, verheirateten Wir sie mit dir, damit die Gläubigen keine Bedenken haben, die geschiedenen Frauen ihrer angenommenen Söhne zu heiraten. Gottes Entscheidung ist es, die geschieht. (Azhar)
33.37. Und (erinnere daran), als du demjenigen, dem ALLAH Wohltaten erwies und dem du Wohltaten erwiesen hast, sagtest: „Behalte deine Ehefrau und handle Taqwa gemäß ALLAH gegenüber!“ Doch du hast in deinem Inneren verheimlicht, was ALLAH offenlegen wird, und du hast dich vor den Menschen gefürchtet, während ALLAH doch mehr berechtigt ist, dass du dich vor Ihm fürchtest. Und nachdem Zaid an ihr kein Interesse mehr gehabt hatte (und sich von ihr geschieden hatte), ließen WIR dich sie heiraten, damit es keine Unannehmlichkeit für die Mumin wird, die (Ex-)Ehefrauen der nach ihnen Genannten zu heiraten, wenn diese kein Interesse mehr an ihnen haben (und sich von ihnen geschieden haben). Und ALLAHs Bestimmung wird immer umgesetzt. (Zaidan)
33.37. Und (damals) als du zu demjenigen, dem sowohl Allah als auch du Gnade erwiesen hatten, sagtest: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah!", und in dir geheimhieltest, was Allah (doch) offenkundig machen würde, und Angst vor den Menschen hattest, während du eher vor Allah Angst haben solltest! Als dann Zaid sein Geschäft mit ihr erledigt hatte, gaben wir sie dir zur Gattin, damit die Gläubigen sich (künftig) wegen (der Ehelichung) der Gattinnen ihrer Nennsöhne, wenn diese ihr Geschäft mit ihnen erledigt haben, nicht bedrückt fühlen sollten. Was Allah anordnet (amru llaahi), wird (unweigerlich) ausgeführt. (Paret)
33.37. Und da sagtest du zu dem, dem Allah Gnade erwiesen hatte und dem du Gnade erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Frau für dich und fürchte Allah." Und du verbargst das, was du in dir hegtest, das, was Allah ans Licht bringen wollte, und du fürchtetest die Menschen, während Allah es ist, Den du in Wirklichkeit fürchten sollst. Dann aber, als Zaid seine eheliche Beziehung mit ihr beendet hatte, verbanden Wir sie ehelich mit dir, damit die Gläubigen in Bezug auf die Frauen ihrer angenommenen Söhne nicht in Verlegenheit gebracht würden, wenn diese ihre ehelichen Beziehungen mit ihnen beendet haben. Und Allahs Befehl muß vollzogen werden. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 37 bis 37
O Prophet, ( 67 ) remember the time when you were saying to the man, ( 68 ) whom Allah as well as you had favoured, "Keep your wife and fear Allah. " ( 69 ) You were at that time keeping hidden in your heart that which Allah intended to reveal: you were fearing the people, whereas Allah has a greater right that you should fear Him. ( 70 ) So, when Zaid had fulfilled his desire of her, ( 71 ) We married (the divorced woman) to you ( 72 ) so that there remains no hindrance for the believers in regard to the wives of their adopted sons when they have fulfilled their desire of them. ( 73 ) And Allah's Command had to be carried out.
Desc No: 67 The discourse from here to verse 48 was sent down after the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab, and the hypocrites, the Jews and the mushriks had started a relentless propaganda campaign against him. While studying these verses one should bear in mind the fact that this Divine discourse was not meant for the instruction of the enemies who were engaged. in a wilful campaign of vilification and slander and falsehood to defame the Holy Prophet intentionally and to satisfy their rancour. But its real object was to protect the Muslims against the influence of their campaign and to safeguard them against doubts and suspicions. Evidently, the Word of Allah could not satisfy the unbelievers. It could give peace of mind only to those who knew and believed it to be Allah's Word. There was a danger that those righteous people also might be confused and influenced by the objections that were being raised by their enemies. Therefore, on the one hand, Allah removed all possible doubts from their minds, and on the other, taught the Muslims as well as the Holy Prophet himself how they should conduct themselves under the circrunstances.
Desc No: 68 It refers to Hadrat Zaid as has been mentioned clearly below. In order to understand how Allah had favoured him and how the Holy Prophet, it is necessary here to relate his story briefly. He was the son of Harithah bin Shurahbil, a person of the Kalb tribe, and his mother, Su'da bint Tha'labah, was from the Bani Ma'n, a branch of the Tay tribe. When he was eight years old, she took him along to her parents. There the people of Bani Qain bin Jasr raided their camp, plundered their good: and took some men prisoners, Hadrat Zaid included. Then they sold Zaid at the fair of 'Ukiiz near Ta'if. His buyer was Hakim bin Hizam, a nephew of Hadrat Khadijah. Hakim brought him to Makkah and presented him to his paternal aunt. When the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Khadijah he found Zaid in her service and was so impressed by his good manners and conduct that he asked him of her. Thus, this fortunate boy entered the service of the best of men, whom Allah, after a few years, was going to appoint a Prophet. Hadrat Zaid at that time was 15 years old. Afterwards when his father and uncle came to know that their child was at Makkah, they came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to return him in exchange for ransom. The Holy Prophet said, "I shall call the boy and leave it to him whether he would like to go with you or stay with me. If he chose to go, I would take no ransom but would Iet Trim go with you. However, if he chose to stay back, I am not the one who would turn out a person who would like to stay with me." They said, "This is perfectly right and just. Please ask the boy." The Holy Prophet called Zaid and asked him, Do you know these two gentlemen?" He said, "Yes sir, this is my father and this my uncle." The Holy Prophet then said, "Well, you know them as well as me. You have the choice to go with them, or stay with me if you so desire. " He said, "I have no wish to leave you and go with anyone else. " His father and uncle said, I 'Zaid, will you prefer slavery to freedom, and choose to stay with others in preference to your parents and family?" He replied, "After what I have seen of this person I cannot now prefer anything else of the world to him." Hearing the reply the father and uncle of Zaid were reconciled to his remaining with the Holy I Prophet. The Holy Prophet set Zaid fret immediately and proclaimed before a gathering of the Quraish in the Ka'bah, "Bear witness that hence-forth Zaid is my son: he will receive inheritance from me and I from him." Thereafter, he began to be called Zaid bin Muhammad by the people. All this happened before the Holy Prophet's advent as a Prophet. Then, when he was blessed with Prophethood by Allah, there were four persons who accepted his claim to it without a moment's hesitation as soon as they heard of it from him. They were Hadrat Khadijah, Hadrat Zaid, Hadrat 'AIi and Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Zaid was 30 years old then, and had already spent 15 years in the Holy Prophet's service. In the fourth year after Hijrah, the Holy Prophet marred him to his first cousin Hadrat Zainab, paid her dower on his behalf and provided them with necessary articles for setting up the house. This is to what Allah has alluded in the verse, saying: "Whom Allah as well as you had favoured. "
Desc No: 69 These words were said when the relations between Hadrat Zaid and Hadrat Zainab had become very strained, and after making repeated complaints Hadrat Zaid had finally told the Holy Prophet that he intended to divorce her. Although Hadrat Zainab had accepted to be married to him in obedience to Allah and His Messenger's command, she could not overcome her feeling that Zaid was a freed slave, who had been brought up by her own family, and she in spite of being the daughter of a noble Arab family, had been wedded to him. Due to this feeling she could never regard Hadrat Zaid as her equal in matrimonial lift, and this caused more and more bitterness between them. Thus after a little more than a year the marriage ended in divorce.
Desc No: 70 Some people have misconstrued this sentence to mean this: The Holy Prophet desired to marry Hadrat Zainab and wanted that Zaid should divorce her. But when Zaid came to the Holy Prophet and said that he wanted to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet stopped him from this only half-heartedly. At this Allaln said: 'You were keeping hidden in your heart that which Allah intended to reveal. The real meaning, however, is contrary to this. If this the sentence is read with verses 1, 2, 3 and 7 of this Surah, one can clearly see that in the very days when bitterness was increasing between Hadrat Zaid and his wife, Allah had hinted to His Prophet that when Zaid had divorced his wife, he would Inave to marry the divorced lady. But since the Holy Prophet knew what it meant to marry the divorced wife of the adopted son in the contemporary Arab society, and that too at a time when apart from a handful of the Muslims the entire country had become jealous of him, he was hesitant to take any step in that direction. That is why when Hadrat Zaid expressed his intention to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet said to him, `Fear Allah and do not divorce your wife." What he meant by this was that Zaid should not divorce his wife so that he was saved from facing the trial, otherwise in case the divorce was pronounced he would have to comply with the command, and thus provoke a severe storm of criticism and vilification against himself. But when the Holy Prophet deliberately forbade Zaid to divorce his wife so that he himself might be saved from what he feared would cause him defamatian, Allah found this below the high position that He wanted His Prophet to enjoy, whereas Allah intended to effect a great reform through this marriage of the Prophet. The words 'You were fearing the people, whereas Allah has a greater right that you should fear Him," clearly point to the same theme. The same explanation of this verse has been given by Imam Zain-ul-'Abedin Hadrat 'AIi bin Husain (may Allah be pleased with him). He says, Allah had indicated to His Prophet that Zainab would be included among his wives. But when Zaid complained about her to him, the Holy Prophet admonished him to fear Allah and keep his wife. At this Allah said to His Prophet, 'I had informed you that I would marry you to Zainab. But when you were forbidding Zaid to divorce his wife, you were hiding that which Allah was going to reveal'." (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Kathir on the authority of Ibn Abi Hatim). 'Allama Alusi also in his Ruh al-Ma ani has given the same meaning of it. He says, 'This is an expression of displeasure on abandoning the better course, which was that the Holy Prophet should have kept quiet, or should have told Zaid to do as he liked. The displeasure amounted to this: 'Why did you tell Zaid to keep his wife, whereas I had informed you beforehand that Zainab would be included among your wives?"
Desc No: 71 That is, Zaid divorced his wife and her waiting-period came to an end. The words "fulfilled his desire of her" by themselves give the meaning that Zaid was left with no desire attached to her. And this state of affairs does not appear on mere pronouncement of the divorce, because even during the waitingperiod the husband can take his wife back if he has any interest in her; and the husband also has this desire left with the divorced wife that it should become known whether she is pregnant or not. Therefore, the desire of her former husband with the divorced wife comes to an end only on the expiry of the waitingperiod.
Desc No: 72 These words are explicit that the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab not because of any personal desire but under the Command of Allah.
Desc No: 73 These words clearly indicate that Allah accomplished this social reform through the Holy Prophet to effect a great change which could not be enforced" by any other means. There was no way to put an end to the wrong customs that had become prevalent in Arabia in respect of the adopted relations but that Allah's Messenger himself should take initiative to abolish them. Therefore, Allah arranged this marriage not for the sake of adding a wife to the Holy Prophet's household but for enforcing an important social change.
33.38. Ma kana AAala alnnabiyyimin haradschin fiima farada Allahu lahusunnata Allahi fii alladhiina khalaw min qablu wakanaamru Allahi qadaran maqduuran
33.38. There is no reproach for the Prophet in that which Allah maketh his due. That was Allah ' s way with those who passed away of old and the commandment of Allah is certain destiny. (Pickthall)
33.38. Es sei gegen den Propheten keine Bedrängnis wegen dem, was Allah ihm zur Pflicht macht, nach dem Brauch Allahs unter denjenigen, die vorher davon gegangen sind, und der Befehl Allahs ist beschlossener Beschluß, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.38. Es besteht für den Propheten kein Grund zur Bedrängnis in dem, was Allah für ihn verpflichtend gemacht hat. (So war) Allahs Gesetzmäßigkeit mit denjenigen, die zuvor dahingegangen sind - und Allahs Anordnung ist ein fest gefaßter Beschluß (Bubenheim)
33.38. Der Prophet soll keine Bedenken haben wegen der Befehle Gottes, die ihn betreffen. Das ist Gottes Vorgehen bei den früheren Propheten. Was Gott befiehlt ist eine endgültige Entscheidung. (Azhar)
33.38. Keineswegs ist es für den Propheten eine Unannehmlichkeit in dem, was ALLAH ihm auferlegte. Dies ist ALLAHs Handlungsweise mit denjenigen, die vorher vergingen. Und ALLAHs Bestimmung ist eine festgelegte Bestimmung. (Zaidan)
33.38. Und der Prophet braucht sich wegen dessen, was Allah für ihn verordnet hat, nicht bedrückt zu fühlen. Auch bei denen, die früher dahingegangen sind, ist Allah so verfahren - was Allah befiehlt, hat Maß und Ziel (wa-kaana amru llaahi qadaran maqduuran) -, (Paret)
33.38. Es bringt den Propheten in keine Verlegenheit, was Allah für ihn angeordnet hat. Das war Allahs Vorgehen gegen jene, die vordem dahingingen, und Allahs Befehl ist ein unabänderlicher Beschluß (Rasul)
33.39. Who delivered the messages of Allah and feared Him, and feared none save Allah. Allah keepeth good account. (Pickthall)
33.39. Diejenigen, welche die Gesandschaften von Allah bekannt gemacht haben und Ihn gefürchtet haben und niemanden außer Allah gefürchtet haben, und Allah genügt zur Abrechnung. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.39. die Allahs Botschaften übermitteln, Ihn fürchten und niemanden fürchten außer Allah. Und Allah genügt als Abrechner. (Bubenheim)
33.39. Das sind die Propheten, die Gottes Botschaften verkünden, Gott fürchten und außer Gott keinen fürchten. Gott genügt als Abrechner. (Azhar)
33.39. Diese sind diejenigen, die ALLAHs Botschaften verkünden und Ehrfurcht vor Ihm haben, und sie fürchten sich vor keinem außer vor ALLAH. Und ALLAH genügt als Schutz-Gewährender. (Zaidan)
33.39. (bei denen, die früher dahingegangen sind und) die (einer nach dem andern) die Botschaften Allahs ausrichteten und ihn und sonst niemanden fürchteten. Allah rechnet (streng) genug ab. (Paret)
33.39. - jene, die Allahs Botschaften ausrichteten und Ihn fürchteten und niemanden außer Allah fürchteten. Und Allah genügt als Rechner. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 38 bis 39
There is no harm for the Prophet to do a thing which Allah has " ordained for him. ( 74 ) The same has been the Way of Allah with regard to all the Prophets who have gone before, and Allah's Command is an absolutely settled decree. ( 75 ) (This is the Way of Allah for those) who convey His messages, who fear Him alone and fear none but One God: Allah is enough to take account. ( 76 )
Desc No: 74 These words show that for the other Muslims such a marriage is just permissible but for the Holy Prophet it was a duty which Allah had imposed on him.
Desc No: 75 That is, "For the Prophets it has always been a law that whatever Command they receive from Allah, they have to act on it as a duty which they cannot in any case avoid. When Allah enjoins something on His Prophet, he has to accomplish it even if the whole world is deadly opposed to it."
Desc No: 76 The words in the Text havc two meanings: (1) That Allah is enough to counter every fear and danger; and (2) that Allah is enough to take account: none else but Allah should be feared for accountability.
33.40. Ma kana muhammadun abaahadin min ridschalikum walakin rasuula Allahiwakhatama alnnabiyyiina wakana Allahubikulli schay-in AAaliiman
33.40. Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is Aware of all things. (Pickthall)
33.40. Und Muhammad ist nicht Vater eines einzigen von euren Männern, sondern der Gesandte Allahs und das Siegel der Propheten, und Allah weiß von allem. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.40. Muhammad ist nicht der Vater irgend jemandes von euren Männern, sondern Allahs Gesandter und das Siegel der Propheten. Und Allah weiß über alles Bescheid. (Bubenheim)
33.40. Muhammad ist nicht der Vater irgend eines eurer Männer, sondern der Gesandte Gottes und der letzte der Propheten. Gott weiss alles. (Azhar)
33.40. Muhammad war nie der Vater eines eurer Männer, sondern er ist ALLAHs Gesandter und der Abschließende aller Propheten. Und ALLAH ist immer über alles allwissend. (Zaidan)
33.40. Muhammad ist nicht der Vater von (irgend) einem eurer Männer (auch wenn dieser sein Nennsohn ist). Er ist vielmehr der Gesandte Allahs und das Siegel der Propheten. Allah weiß über alles Bescheid. (Paret)
33.40. Muhammad ist nicht der Vater eines eurer Männer, sondern der Gesandte Allahs und der letzte aller Propheten, und Allah besitzt die volle Kenntnis aller Dinge. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 40 bis 40
(O people) Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets and Allah is the Knower of everything. ( 77 )
Desc No: 77 This one sentence arts at the root of all those objections which the opponents were raising in connection with this marriage of the Holy Prophet. Their first objection was that he had married his own daughter-in-law, whereas according to his own law the son's wife is forbidden for the father. This was answered by saying: "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men." That is, Zaid was not his real son, and so it was not unlawful to marry his divorced wife. Their second objection was that even if his adopted son was not his real son, it was not necessary that he should have marred his divorced wife. This was answered by saying: '' . . . but he is the Messenger of Allah." That is, it was his duty as the Messenger of Allah to put an end to all kinds of prejudices about a lawful thing which custom and tradition had made unlawful without good reason and declare it to be lawful once again. The point was stressed by saying: " ... and (he is) the last of the Prophets." That is, not to speak of a Messenger, no other Prophet would be raised after him, who could make up for a possible deficiency in the enforcement of a reform in the law and society that might have been left un-enforced in his time. Therefore, it had become all the more necessary that he should himself root out the custom of ignorance. Again, to further emphasize this point, it was said: "Allah has knowledge of everything. " that is, Allah knows best why it was imperative to get the custom of ignorance rooted out at that juncture through the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) rather than let it remain as it was. He knows that no other prophet would be coming after him in the future; therefore, if He did not abolish this custom through His Last Prophet, no other person after him would be able to abolish it for all the Muslims of the world for ever. Even if the later refomers would abolish it, no action of any one of them will havc the permanent and universal authority behind it so that the people of every country and every age might -start following it, and none of them would have a personality endowed with that holiness and sanctity that an action's being merely his way (Sunnah) might root out every feeling of aversion and abhorrence from the mind of the people. It is a pity that a section of the people in our age have given wrong interpretations of this verse and opened the way to a great mischief. We have therefore added a comprehensive appendix at the end of the commentary of this Surah for the explanation of the question of the Finality of Prophethood and the eradication of the misunderstanding spread by these people.