Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
41.12. So führte Er sie als sieben Himmel in zwei Tagen aus und gab jedem Himmel seine Aufgabe ein. Und Wir haben den untersten Himmel mit Lampen geschmückt, und auch als Schutz. Das ist die Anordnung des Allmächtigen und Allwissenden.
33.43. Huwa alladhii yusalliiAAalaykum wamala-ikatuhu liyukhridschakum mina aldhdhulumatiila alnnuuri wakana bialmu/miniina rahiiman
33.43. He it is who blesseth you, and His angels (bless you), that He may bring you forth from darkness unto light; and He is Merciful to the believers. (Pickthall)
33.43. Er ist es, der euch segnet und Seine Engel, damit Er euch herausbringt aus den Finsternistiefen zum Licht, und Er ist mit den Gläubigen barmherzig (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.43. Er ist es, Der über euch den Segen spricht - und auch Seine Engel -, damit Er euch aus den Finsternissen ins Licht hinausbringt; und Er ist zu den Gläubigen Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
33.43. Er ist es, Der euch Seine Huld erweist, und die Engel beten für euch, auf dass Er euch aus der Finsternis zum Licht führe. Gott ist voller Barmherzigkeit für die Gläubigen. (Azhar)
33.43. ER ist Derjenige, Der euch Gnade erweist und Seine Engel erbitten sie für euch, damit ER euch von den Finsternissen ins Licht herausbringt. Und ER ist immer den Mumin gegenüber allgnädig. (Zaidan)
33.43. Er ist es, der - mit seinen Engeln - den Segen über euch spricht (yusallie `alaikum), um euch aus der Finsternis heraus ins Licht zu bringen. Er verfährt barmherzig mit den Gläubigen. (Paret)
33.43. Er ist es, Der euch segnet, und Seine Engel bitten (darum) für euch, daß Er euch aus den Finsternissen zum Licht führe. Und Er ist Barmherzig gegen die Gläubigen. (Rasul)
33.44. Their salutation on the day when they shall meet Him will be: Peace. And He hath prepared for them a goodly recompense. (Pickthall)
33.44. Ihre Begrüßung am Tag, wenn sie Ihm begegnen, ist: "Frieden!", und Er hat für sie edelmütige Belohnung vorbereitet. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.44. Ihr Gruß am Tag, da sie Ihm begegnen, wird sein: "Friede !" Und Er hat für sie trefflichen Lohn bereitet. (Bubenheim)
33.44. Ihr Gruss, wenn sie Ihm begegnen werden, wird "Friede!" sein, und Er hat für sie eine edle Belohnung. (Azhar)
33.44. Ihr Gruss am Tag, wenn sie auf Ihn treffen, ist Salam. Und ER bereitete für sie eine edle Belohnung. (Zaidan)
33.44. Am Tag, da sie ihm (im Jenseits) begegnen werden, werden sie mit "Heil!" begrüßt. Und er hat vortrefflichen Lohn für sie bereit. (Paret)
33.44. Ihr Gruß an dem Tage, da sie Ihm begegnen, wird sein: "Frieden!" Und Er hat für sie einen ehrenvollen Lohn bereitet. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 41 bis 44
O you who have believed, remember Allah much and glorify Him morning and evening. ( 78 ) He it is Who blesses you, and His angels pray for His blessings for you, so that He may bring you out of darkness into light: He is very Kind to the believers. ( 79 ) Their salutation on the day they meet Him will be "Peace", ( 80 ) and Allah has prepared for them an honourable reward.
Desc No: 78 This is meant to instruct the Muslims to the effect: When the Messenger of Allah is being showered with taunts and abuses by the enemies and his person being made the target of a propaganda campaign to frustrate his mission, the believers should neither listen to these absurd things unconcerned nor should become themselves also involved in the doubts and suspicions spread by the enemies nor should resort to abusive language in retaliation, but they should turn to Allah and remember Him more than usual as a special measure, The meaning of "remembering Allah much" has been explained in E.N. 63 above. 'To glorify Allah morning and evening" means to glorify Him constantly, to express His holiness and purity by word of mouth and not merely by counting beads on the rosary.
Desc No: 79 This is meant to make the Muslims realize this: 'The jealousy and malice of the disbelievers and hypocrites towards you is only due to the mercy that Allah has shown you through His Messenger. It is through him that you have been blessed with the faith, that you have come out from the darkness of unbelief and ignorance into the light of Islam, that you have developed the high moral and social qualities by virtue of which you stand distinguished above others. It is this which has filled the jealous people with malice and rage against the Messenger of Allah. However, in this state you should not adopt any unbecoming attitude which might alienate you from the mercy of Allah." The word Salat when used with the preposition 'ala by Allah in respect of the servants, it means mercy and kindness and compassion and when used by the angels in respect of the human beings, it means the prayer for mercy. That is, the angels pray to Allah to bless the human beings with His bounty and favours. Another meaning of yusalli 'alaikum is: "Allah biasses you with renown among the people and exalts you to a high rank so that the people begin to praise you and the angels begin to eulogize you."
Desc No: 80 This can have three meanings: (1) That Allah will Himself receive them with: Peace be upon you," as has been stated in Surah Ya Sin :58: "...they have been greeted with 'peace' from the Merciful Lord." (2) That the angels will greet them, as stated in Surah An-Nahl: 32: "This is the reward for those pious people whose souls are received in a pure state, by the angels, who welcome them, saying: 'Peace be upon you: enter into Paradise as the reward of your good deeds." (3) That they will greet one another among themselves, as stated in Surah Yunus:10 thus: `Therein their prayer will be `Glory to Thee, O Lord,' and their greeting: 'Peace be to you,' and the burden of their hymn: `Praise is for Allah alone, Lord of the universe."
33.48. And incline not to the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Disregard their noxious talk, and put thy trust in Allah. Allah is sufficient as Trustee. (Pickthall)
33.48. Und gehorche nicht den Glaubensverweigerern und den Heuchlern, und lasse es bewenden bei ihrem Verletzen, und vertraue auf Allah, und Allah genügt als Sachwalter. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.48. Und gehorche nicht den Ungläubigen und den Heuchlern; beachte nicht die Beleidigungen, die sie dir zufügen, und verlasse dich auf Allah. Und Allah genügt als Sachwalter. (Bubenheim)
33.48. Höre nicht auf die Ungläubigen und die Heuchler, übersieh ihre bösen Taten, und verlasse dich auf Gott! Gott genügt als Verwahrer. (Azhar)
33.48. Und höre nicht auf die Kafir und die Munafiq, laß ab von ihrer Schädigung und übe Tawakkul ALLAH gegenüber! Und ALLAH genügt als Wakil. (Zaidan)
33.48. Und gehorche nicht den Ungläubigen und Heuchlern (munaafiquun), laß das Ungemach, das sie dir zufügen, auf sich beruhen und vertrau auf Allah! Er genügt als Sachwalter. (Paret)
33.48. Und gehorche nicht den Ungläubigen und den Heuchlern und beachte ihre Belästigung nicht, und vertraue auf Allah; denn Allah genügt als Beschützer. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 45 bis 48
O Prophet, ( 81 ) We have sent you as a witness, ( 82 ) a bearer of good news and a warner, ( 83 ) an inviter to Allah by His leave ( 84 ) and a luminous lamp. Give good news to those who have believed (in you) that there are great bounties in store for them from Allah, so do not yield to the disbelievers and the hypocrites, disregard their persecution and put your trust in Allah: for Allah is sufficient for being entrusted with all one's affairs.
Desc No: 81 After admonishing the Muslims, Allah now addresses a few words of consolation to His Prophet, as if to say: `We have blessed you with such and such a high rank and raised you to an exalted place of honour. Your opponents will not be able to harm you in any way by their propaganda campaign of slander and calumny. Therefore, you should not take their mischief to heart, nor give any weight to their propaganda. You should continue doing the duties of your mission, and Iet them utter whatever nonsense they like. " Along with this, incidentally, the other people, both the believers and the unbelievers, also have been told that the person they have to deal with is not an ordinary man but a great personality, whom Allah has raised to the highest ranks of honour and glory.
Desc No: 82 The meaning of the Prophet's being a "witness" is very vast. It includes three kinds of evidence: (1) Verbal evidence, i.e. the Prophet should bear out the truth of the realities and principles on which Allah's Religion is based and tell the world plainly that they are the truth and all that is opposed to them is falsehood. He should rise to proclaim without hesitation and fear the Being of Allah and His Unity, the existence of the angels, the corning down of Revelation, the occurrence of life-after-death, the Hell and Heaven, all arc realities, even if they appear strange to the world, and the people mock the one presenting them, or call him a madman. Likewise, the Prophet should openly present before the people the concepts, values, principles and rules pertaining to morality and civilization and social life that God has revealed to him, and reject as wrong all the concepts and ways which are prevalent and are opposed to them, even if the whole world rejects them as wrong and violates them in practice. Similarly, the Prophet should proclaim as lawful what is lawful in Allah's Law even if the whole world regards it as unlawful, and should proclaim as unlawful whatever is unlawful in Allah's Law even if the world regards it as lawful and pure. (2) Practical evidence: That is, the Prophet in his own life should practically demonstrate all that he has been commissioned to present before the world. His life should be free from every shade of that which he calls evil, and his own character should clearly reflect that which he calls good; he should be the foremost in carrying out what he regards as obligatory, and most cautious in refraining from what he calls sinful. He should exert his utmost to enforce the code of life which he calls Divine. His own character and conduct should bear out how sincere and truthful he is in his invitation; and his own self should be such a model of his teaching that anyone who sees him should know what kind of a man he wants to produce by the Faith to which he invites the world, what kind of a character he wants to instil in him and what system of life he wants to be established through him in the world. (3) Evidence in the Hereafter That is, when the Court of Allah is established in the Hereafter, the Prophet should give evidence to prove that he had conveyed to the people the whole message, without making any alteration or change in it, that had been entrusted to him, and that he had shown no slackness in making the truth manifest before them, by word and by deed. On the basis of this evidence it will be determined what reward the believers deserve and what punishment the disbelievers deserve From this one can havc an idea of how great a responsibility had Allah placed upon the Holy Prophet by raising him to the position of a "witness", and how great should be the personality worthy of that high position. Evidently, there has been no slackness whatever on the part of the Holy Prophet in the matter of giving evidence with regard to the Faith, verbally as well as practically. That is why in the Hereafter he will be able to testify that he had made the Truth plain to the people, and that is how Allah's argument will be established against them; otherwise, if, God forbid, there had been any slackness on the pan of the Prophet in providing evidence, he could neither be a witness against them in the Hereafter nor could any case be established against the deniers of the truth. Some people havc tried to give a different interpretation to the word witness". They say that the Holy Prophet in the Hereafter will bear witness to the acts and deeds of the people. From this they conclude that the Holy Prophet is watching and witnessing the acts of all the people; otherwise he could not bear the witness. But according to the Qur'an this interpretation is absolutely wrong. The Qur'an tells us that Allah has arranged a different system for recording the acts of the people. For this purpose His angels are preparing the conduct-book of every person. (See in this connection Surah Qaf: 17-18, and Al-Kahf: 49). After this He will make the people's own limbs also to bear witness against them. (Ya Sin: 65, Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 20-21). As for the Prophets, they are not to testify to the acts of the people, but to give evidence to prove that they had conveyed the Truth to the people. The Qur'an clearly says: "On the Day when Allah will assemble all the Messengers, He will ask: 'What was the response you received?' They will answer, `We have no knowledge: You alone havc the full knowledge of all that is hidden'." (AI-Ma`idah: 109) In the same connection, the Quran says about the Prophet Jesus that when he will be questioned about the deviation of the Christians, he will say: "I was a witness to their conduct as long as I remained among them, but after You recalled me. You watched over them." (AI-Ma'idah: 117) These verses clearly show that the Prophets will not be witnesses in regard to the acts of the people. As to what they will bear witness to the Qur'an gives an equally clear answer: "O Muslims, We have made you a community of the 'Golden Mean' so that you may be witnesses in regard to mankind and the Messenger may be a witness in regard to you." (AI-Baqarah: 143) "(O Muhammad, warn them of) the Day when We shall call a witness from among every community to testify against it. And We shall call you to testify against these people." (An-Nahl: 89) This shows that on the Day of Resurrection the Holy Prophet's evident in its nature will not be any different from the evidence for bearing which the Holy Prophet's community and the witnesses in regard to every other community will be summoned. Evidently, if it be an evidence in regard to the acts, then the omnipresence of all of them also becomes necessary. And if these witnesses will be called to give evidence to confirm that the Creator's message had reached His creation, inevitably the Holy Prophet also will be called upon to give a similar evidence. The same is supported by the Hadith which Bukhari. Muslim, Tirmidhi. Ibn Majah, lmam Ahmad and others have related on the authority of 'Abdullah bin 'Mas'ud, 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas, Abu ad-Darda', Anas bin Malik and many other Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all), whose common theme is this: 'The Holy Prophet on the Day of Resurrection will sec some of his Companions bing brought, but instead of caning to him they will either be going or being pushed to the other side. Thereupon the Holy Prophet will say: 'O Allah, they are my Companions!' Allah will say: 'You do not know what misdeeds they committed after you'." This theme has been reported by numerous Companions and with so many chains of authorities that there remains no doubt about its authenticity. This proves that the Holy Prophet is not at all a witness to each individual of his community acid to each of his acts. As for the hadith which says that the acts of the people of his Ummah are presented before him, it does not in any way contradict this, because its purport is that Allah keeps him informed of the affairs of his Ummah, which does not mean that the Holy Prophet is actually witnessing the acts of every person.
Desc No: 83 One should note that a person's giving the good news of a good end for belief and righteous acts and the warning of an evil end for disbelief and evil acts, in his personal capacity, is a different thing, and another's being appointed by Allah as a bearer of the good news and a warner is quite another thing. The one who is appointed to this office by Allah necessarily possesses an authority to give the good news and administer the warnings due to which his good news and his warnings are invested with legality. His giving a good news for an act has the meaning that the Greatest of all Judges, Who has sent him, approves of the act and holds it worthy of a reward; so, it is certainly imperative or obligatory or commendable in nature, and its doer will surely get a reward. On the other hand, his giving a warning of an evil end for an act has the meaning that the Sovereign forbids that act; so, it is certainly sinful and unlawful, and its doer will surely be punished. The good news and warnings of the one who is not divinely appointed cannot ever be invested with such an authority.
Desc No: 84 Here also the same difference as pointed out above exists between the preaching of a common man and of a Prophet. As for the invitation to Allah, it is given, and can be given, by every preacher, but he is not appointed by Allah to do so. Contrary to this, a Prophet rises to call the people towards Allah by the leave of Allah. His call is not mere preaching but has also the support of the authority of the Lord of the Universe, Who sent him. That is why resistance and opposition to the inviter to Allah amounts to rebellion against Allah Himself precisely as resistance to a government official when he is performing official duty is regarded as hostile to the government itself. "
33.49. Ya ayyuha alladhiina amanuuidha nakahtumu almu/minati thumma tallaqtumuuhunnamin qabli an tamassuuhunna fama lakum AAalayhinna minAAiddatin taAAtadduunaha famattiAAuuhunna wasarrihuuhunnasarahan dschamiilan
33.49. O ye who believe! If ye wed believing women and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon. But content them and release them handsomely. (Pickthall)
33.49. Ihr, die glauben, wenn ihr die gläubigen Frauen heiratet, dann euch von ihnen scheidet, bevor ihr sie berührt habt, so gibt es für euch gegenüber ihnen keine Wartezeit, die ihr ihnen anrechnet, also findet sie ab und entlaßt sie in wohlanstehender Entlassung. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.49. O die ihr glaubt, wenn ihr gläubige Frauen heiratet und euch hierauf von ihnen scheidet, bevor ihr sie berührt habt, dann dürft ihr für sie keine von euch berechnete Wartezeit aussetzen; gewährt ihnen eine Abfindung und gebt sie auf schöne Weise frei. (Bubenheim)
33.49. O ihr Gläubigen! Wenn ihr gläubige Frauen heiratet und euch von ihnen trennt, bevor ihr sie berührt habt, dann habt ihr keine Wartezeit anzusetzen. Ihr sollt ihnen eine Scheidungs-Abfindung entrichten und sie im Guten gehen lassen. (Azhar)
33.49. Ihr, die den Iman verinnerlicht habt! Wenn ihr die iman-verinnerlichenden Frauen heiratet und dann euch von ihnen durch Talaq-Scheidung trennt, bevor ihr sie intim berührt habt, dann habt ihr sie zu keiner 'Idda zu verpflichten. Also gebt ihnen das ihnen Zustehende und scheidet euch von ihnen auf gütige Weise. 2 (Zaidan)
33.49. Ihr Gläubigen! Wenn ihr gläubige Frauen heiratet und sie hierauf entlaßt, bevor ihr sie berührt habt, dürft ihr für sie (im Fall ihrer Wiederverheiratung) keine Wartezeit ansetzen. Stattet sie dann aus und gebt sie auf eine ordentliche Weise frei! (Paret)
33.49. O ihr, die ihr glaubt! Wenn ihr gläubige Frauen heiratet und euch dann von ihnen scheiden lasset, ehe ihr sie berührt habt, so besteht für euch ihnen gegenüber keine Wartefrist, die sie einhalten müßten. Darum beschenkt sie und entlaßt sie auf geziemende Weise. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 49 bis 49
O you who have believed, when you marry the believing women, and then divorce them before you have touched them, ( 85 ) they do not have to fulfil a waiting term, whose completion you may demand of them; so provide them with something and send them off gracefully. ( 86 )
Desc No: 85 This sentence is explicit that the word nikah here has been used for the contract of marriage only. The lexicographers have greatly disputed over the real meaning of the Arabic word nikah. One section of them says that as a word it is common both for intercourse and for the contract of marriage. The second section says that in its meaning it is common for both. The third section opines that its real meaning is the contract of marriage and for intercourse it is used only figuratively. And the fourth section expresses the opinion that its real meaning is intercourse and for the contract of marriage it is used only figuratively. Each section has cited Arabic poetry in support of its view. But Raghib Isfahani has emphatically asserted this: "The real meaning of the word nikah is contract of marriage; it has been used for intercourse metaphorically. It is impossible that its real meaning be intercourse and may have been used for the contract of marriage only metaphorically." The argument he gives is that all the words that have been actually coined for intercourse in Arabic, or in other languages of the world, arc obscene and vulgar. No gentleman would like to utter them in a civilized gathering. Therefore, it is not possible that a society should use the word which has actually been coined for this act for marriage as a metaphor. For conveying this meaning only chaste words have been used in every language of the world and not obscene words. As far as the Qur'an and Sunnah arc concerned, nikah is a term, which either implies only contract of marriage, or intercourse after the contract of marriage; but it has nowhere been used for intercourse outside marriage. This kind of intercourse has been called zina (adultery) by the Qur'an and Sunnah and not nikah.
Desc No: 86 This is a unique verse which was sent down probably in the same period respecting some case of divorce, and so inserted in this context. This shows that it was sent down after the preceding and before the following discourse. Below is given a summary of the legal injunctions that have been derived from this verse:' (1) Although the word "believing women" has been used, which apparently may give the impression that the law enunciated in this verse is not applicable to the women of the people of the Book, yet all scholars are agreed that this very injunction is applicable to them also. That is, in case a Muslim has married such a woman, all the injunctions relating to her divorce, dower, waiting-period ('iddat) and provision at divorce are the same as of marriage with 'a believing woman. The scholars arc also agreed that Allah's mentioning the believing women here in particular is actually meant to tell the Muslims that only the believing women are suitable for them. That is, although it is permissible for them to marry Jewish and Christian women, it is not proper and commendable. In other words, the Qur'an seems to impress that Allah expects that the believers would marry only the believing women. (2) The word mas (to touch) here has been used for intercourse by implication. Thus, the verse apparently implies that if the husband has not had intercourse with the woman, even though he has had seclusion with her and has even touched her with the hand, she will riot have to observe the waiting-term ( iddat) in case of divorce. But the jurists, for the sake of precaution, have decreed that if they have had seclusion proper (i.e. seclusion during which intercourse could be possible), waiting-period will have to be observed if divorce is pronounced after it, and the waiting-period would be annulled only in case divorce was pronounced before they have had the seclusion. (3) The annulment of the waiting-period in case of divorce before the event of seclusion means that in this case the man forfeits his right to take the woman back as his wife, and the woman becomes entitled to marry anyone she likes immediately after the divorce. But it should be borne in mind that this applies only to the divorce which is pronounced' before the event of the seclusion. If a woman's husband dies before having had seclusion, the waiting-period that has to be observed after death will not be annulled, but she will have to pass the same waiting-period of four months and ten days as is obligatory for a married woman in normal conditions. ( 'Iddat is the waiting-period before the expiry of which a divorced woman or a widow is forbidden to remarry). (4) The words "they do not have to fulfil a waiting-period for you", show that the waiting-period is a right of the tnan on the woman. But it dces not mean that this is only the man's right. It, in fact, includes two other rights as well: the right of the children, and the right of Allah or of the Law. The man's right is on the ground that he has the right to take the woman back as his wife during the period, and also on the ground that the proof of the parentage of his children, which depends on the woman's being pregnant or otherwise, becomes established in the waiting-period. The reason for including the right of the children is that the proof of a child's parentage is necessary for the establishment of his legal rights and his moral status also depends on this that his parentage should not be doubtful. The reason for including the right of Allah (or the right of the Law) is that even if the people and their children become heedless of their rights, the Divine Law requires that their rights should be protected. That is why even if a man gives a warrant to a woman that after his death or after obtaining divorce from him, there will be no waiting-period binding on her from him, the Divine Law will in no case annul it. (5) "Provide them with something and send them away with kindness"; The intention of this injunction would be fulfilled by acting in either of the two ways: If the dower had been fixed at the time of marriage, and then divorce pronounced before the event of seclusion proper, payment of half of the dower will be obligatory, as enjoined in AI-Baqarah: 237. To give more than what is obligatory is not binding but certainly commendable. For instance, it is commendable that besides paying half of the dower the man should Iet the woman retain the bridal garments, or any other articles that he had sent her for the occasion of marriage. But if no dower had been fixed at the time of marriage, it is obligatory to pay her something before scnding her away, and this "something" should be according to the status and financial means of the man, as has been enjoined in AlBaqarah: 236. One section of the scholars hold that something in any case has to be paid in case of divorce as an obligation whether dower has been fixed or not. (6) "scnding off gracefullly" does not only mean that the woman should be provided with something on divorce but this also that separation should be adopted in a gentlemanly way, without any kind of vilification. If a man does not happen to like a woman, or there has been some other cause of complaint due to which he dces not want to keep the woman, he should divorcc her like a gentleman and send her away. He should not start mentioning her faults and relating his complaints against her before the people so as to also prejudice them against her. This instruction of the Qur'an clearly shows that annexing the enforcement of divorce to the permission of a local council or court is wholly against the wisdom and spirit of the Divine Law, for in that case there remains no chance of `sending her away gracefully", but defamation, revilement and vilification do inevitably result even if the man dces not so will. Moreover, the words of the verse also do not admit that the power of the man to divorce should be bound up with the permission of a local council or court. The verse is clearly giving the married man the power of divorce and placing on him alone the responsibility that if he wants to release the woman before touching her he must pay her half the dower as an obligation, or something else according to his means. From this the object of the verse clearly seems to be that in order to prevent divorce from being taken lightly the man should be placed under the burden of a financial responsibility so that he himself uses his power of divorce with sense, and there is no chance of an external interference in the internal affairs of the two families. (7) Ibn 'Abbas, Said bin al-Musayyib, Hasan Basri, 'AIi bin al-Husain (Zain al-'Abidin), Imam Shafe'i and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal have deduced from the words, 'when you marry...and then divorce ..." that divorce takes effect only when marriage has been contracted. Divorce before the contract of marriage ' is without effect. Therefore if a person says, "If I marry such and such a woman, or a woman of such and such a tribe or nation, or any other woman, she is divorced," it will be an absurd and meaningless thing; no divorce can take effect from this. The following Ahadith are presented in support of this view: "The son of Adam is not entitled to use his power of divorcc in respect of that which he dces not possess." (Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). And: "There is no divorcc before marriage." (Ibn Majah). But a great number of the jurists hold that this verse and these Ahadith apply in the case when a man says to a woman, who is not his wife, "You have divorce on you," or "I divorce you." Saying such a thing is no doubt absurd, and is of no legal consequence, but if he says, "If I marry you, you are divorced," this is not divorcing before the marriage, but the person is in fact declaring his intent that when the woman is married to him, she will stand divorced. Such a declaration cannot be absurd and without effect, but, as a matter of fact, whenever the woman is married to him, divorce will fall on her. The jurists who hold the view have further differed as to rite extent this kind of divorce will have effect. Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Muhammad and Imam Zufar hold that divorce will take place in any case whether a person specifics a woman or a tribe or a nation, or talks generally so as to say. 'Any woman whom I marry is divorced." Abu Bakr al-Jassas has cited the same opinion also from Hadrat 'Umar, 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Ibrahim Nakha'i, Mujahid and 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz (may Allah show mercy to them all). Sufyan Thauri and 'Uthman al-Batti say that divorce will take place only in case the person says, "If I marry such and such a woman, she is divorced." Hasan bin Salih, Laith bin Sa'd and 'Amir ash-Sha'bi, say that such a divorce will take place even if something is said in general terms provided that a particular class of the people has been mentioned; for instance, if the person has said. "If I marry a woman of such and such a family, or such and such a tribe, or such and such city or country or nation, she is divorced." Ibn Abi Laila and Imam Malik, disputing the above opinion, have added a condition that the time limit also should be determined. For example, if the man Said. " If I marry within this year or the ncxt ten years such and such a woman or a woman from such and such a class, she is divorced," divorce will take place, otherwise not. Imam Malik also adds that if the time limit is so long that the man is not expected to outlive it, Iris declaration will have no effect. "
33.50. Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyuinna ahlalna laka azwadschaka allatiiatayta odschuurahunna wama malakat yamiinuka mimmaafaa Allahu AAalayka wabanati AAammika wabanatiAAammatika wabanati khalika wabanatikhalatika allatii hadscharna maAAaka waimraatanmu/minatan in wahabat nafsaha lilnnabiyyi in aradaalnnabiyyu an yastankihaha khalisatanlaka min duuni almu/miniina qad AAalimna ma faradnaAAalayhim fii azwadschihim wama malakat aymanuhumlikayla yakuuna AAalayka haradschun wakana Allahughafuuran rahiiman
33.50. O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war, and the daughters of thine uncle on the father ' s side and the daughters of thine aunts on the father ' s side, and the daughters of thine uncles on the mother ' s side emigrated with thee, and a believing woman if she give herself unto the Prophet and the Prophet desire to ask her in marriage, a privilege for thee only, not for the (rest of) believers. We are aware of that which We enjoined upon them concerning their wives and those whom their right hands possess that thou mayst be free from blame, for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Pickthall)
33.50. Du, der Prophet, Wir haben dir deine Gattinnen gestattet, denen du ihre Entschädigungen gegeben hast, und die in deiner Hand sind, von denen, die Allah dir als Kriegsbeute gegeben hat, und die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern, und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind, und eine gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich selbst dem Propheten schenkt, wenn der Prophet sie heiraten möchte, insbesondere für dich unter Ausschluß der Gläubigen, -Wir wissen schon, was Wir ihnen zur Pflicht gemacht haben hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und derer in ihren Hand, - so daß es für dich keine Bedrängnis gibt, und Allah ist immer verzeihend, barmherzig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.50. O Prophet, Wir haben dir (zu heiraten) erlaubt: deine Gattinnen, denen du ihren Lohn gegeben hast, das, was deine rechte Hand (an Sklavinnen) besitzt von dem, was Allah dir als Beute zugeteilt hat, die Töchter deiner Onkel väterlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Onkel müt terlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, die mit dir ausgewandert sind; auch eine (jede) gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich dem Propheten (ohne Gegenforderung) schenkt und falls der Prophet sie heiraten will: Dies ist dir vorbehalten unter Ausschluß der (übrigen) Gläubigen - Wir wissen wohl, was Wir ihnen hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und dessen, was ihre rechte Hand (an Sklavinnen) besitzt, verpflichtend gemacht haben -, damit für dich kein Grund zur Bedrängnis bestehe. Und Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
33.50. O Prophet! Wir haben dir deine Ehefrauen, denen du ihre Morgengabe entrichtet hast, erlaubt, desgleichen, was du an Sklavinnen aus der Beute besitzt, die dir von Gott zugewiesen ist, auch die Töchter deines Onkels väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits und die Töchter deines Onkels mütterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, die mit dir ausgewandert sind und jede gläubige Frau, die sich dem Propheten ohne Morgengabe schenkt, wenn er sie heiraten will. Diese Selbstschenkung gilt nur dir allein, nicht den Gläubigen. Es ist bekannt, was Wir ihnen in Bezug auf Ehefrauen und Leibeigenen vorgeschrieben haben. Du sollst aber keine Bedenken haben. Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)
33.50. Prophet! Gewiß, WIR erklärten dir für halal deine Ehefrauen, denen du ihre Brautgabe gabst, und diejenigen, die dir gehören, von denen, die ALLAH dir durch den Krieg zuteil werden ließ, die Töchter deines Onkels väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits, die Töchter deines Onkels mütterlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, diejenigen, die mit dir Hidschra unternahmen, und eine iman-verinnerlichende Frau, wenn sie sich selbst dem Propheten schenkt, wenn der Prophet sie heiraten will, dieses gilt nur für dich alleine unter Ausschluss der Mumin – bereits wissen WIR, was WIR ihnen vorschrieben ihren Ehefrauen und denjenigen gegenüber, die ihnen gehören -, damit es für dich keine Unannehmlichkeit gibt. Und ALLAH ist immer allvergebend, allgnädig. (Zaidan)
33.50. Prophet! Wir haben dir zur Ehe erlaubt: deine (bisherigen) Gattinnen, denen du ihren Lohn gegeben hast; was du (an Sklavinnen) besitzt, (ein Besitz, der) dir von Allah (als Beute) zugewiesen (worden ist); die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind; (weiter) eine (jede) gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich dem Propheten schenkt und er (seinerseits) sie heiraten will. Das (letztere) gilt in Sonderheit für dich im Gegensatz zu den (anderen) Gläubigen. Wir wissen wohl, was wir ihnen hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und ihres Besitzes (an Sklavinnen) zur Pflicht gemacht haben. (Die obige Verordnung ist eine Sonderregelung für dich) damit du dich nicht bedrückt zu fühlen brauchst (wenn du zusätzliche Rechte in Anspruch nimmst). Und Allah ist barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
33.50. O Prophet, Wir erlaubten dir deine Gattinnen, denen du ihre Brautgabe gegeben hast, und jene, die du von Rechts wegen aus (der Zahl) derer besitzt, die Allah dir als Kriegsbeute gegeben hat, und die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind, und jedwede gläubige Frau, die sich dem Propheten schenkt, vorausgesetzt, daß der Prophet sie zu heiraten wünscht; (dies gilt) nur für dich und nicht für die Gläubigen. Wir haben bereits bekanntgegeben, was Wir ihnen bezüglich ihrer Frauen und jener, die sie von Rechts wegen besitzen, verordnet haben, so daß sich (daraus) keine Verlegenheit für dich ergibt. Und Allah ist Allverzeihend, Barmherzig. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 50 bis 50
O Prophet, We have made lawful to you those of your wives, whose dowers you have paid, ( 87 ) and those women who come into your possession out of the slavegirls granted by Allah, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, and of your maternal uncles and aunts, who have migrated with you, and the believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet if the Prophet may desire to marry her. ( 88 ) This privilege is for you only, not for the other believers. ( 89 ) We know what restrictions We have imposed on the other believers concerning their wives and slavegirls. (You have been made an exception) so that there may be no hindrance to you; ( 90 ) and Allah is AllForgiving, All Merciful.
Desc No: 87 This, in fact, is an answer to the objection of the people who said that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) forbade others to keep more than four wives at a time but had himself taken a fifth wife. This objection was raised because at the time the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Zainab, he already had four wives with him: 11) Hadrat Saudah whom he had married in the 3rd year before the Hijrah, (2) Hadrat 'A'ishah whom he married in the 3rd year before the Hijrah but who came to live with him in Shawwal, A.H. I, (3) Hadrat Hafsah whom he married in Sha'ban, A.H. 3, and (4) Hadrat Umm Salamah whom he married in Shawwal. A.H. 4. Thus, Hadrat Zainab was his fifth wife. Here Allah has answered the objection of the disbelievers and the hypocrites, as if to say, ¦O Prophet, We have made lawful for you all these five wives whom you have married by giving them their dowers." In other words, the answer means this: "It is We Who have imposed the restriction of four wives on others, and it is also We Ourselves Who have made Our Prophet an exception to the restriction. When We could impose the restriction, We could also make the exception." About this answer also one should note that it was not meant to satisfy the disbelievers and the hypocrites but those Muslims to whom the opponents of Islam were trying to impart evil suggestions. Since they believed that the Qur'an is Allah's speech and has been sent down in Allah's own words, Allah declared through a clear and decisive verse that the Prophet had not made himself an exception from the general law about four wives of his own accord, but the exception in regard to him had been decreed by Allah.
Desc No: 88 Besides making the fifth wife lawful for the Prophet, Allah in this verse also granted him the permission to marry a few other kinds of the women: (1) The woman who came into his possession from among the slave-girls granted by Allah. According to this the Holy Prophet selected for himself Hadrat Raihanah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Bani Quraizah, Hadrat Juwairiyah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Bani al-Mustaliq, Hadrat Safiyyah out of the prisoners of war captured at Khaiber, and Hadrat Mariah the Copt, who was presented by Maqauqis of Egypt. Out of these he set three of them free and married them, but had conjugal relations with Mariah on the ground of her being his slave-girl. In her case there is no proof that the Holy Prophet set her free and married her. (2) The ladies from among his first cousins, who emigrated along with him. The words "who emigrated with you"do not mean that they accompanied the Holy Prophet in his migration journey but this that they also had migrated in the way of Allah for the sake of Islam. The Holy Prophet was given the choice to marry any one of them he liked. Accordingly, in A.H. 7 he married Hadrat Umm Habibah. (Incidentally, in this verse it has been elucidated that the daughters of one's paternal and maternal uncles and aunts are lawful for a Muslim. In this regard the Islamic Law is different both from the Christian Law and from the Jewish Law. Among the Christians one cannot marry a woman whose line of descent joins one's own anywhere in the last seven generations, and among the Jews it is permissible even to marry one's real niece, i.e. daughter of one's brother or sister). (3) The believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet, i.e. who is prepared to give herself in marriage to the Prophet without a dower, and he may like to marry her. On account of this permission the Holy Prophet took Hadrat Maimunah as his wife in Shawwal, A.H. 7, but he did not think he should have conjugal relations with her without paying her the dower. Therefore, he paid her the dower even though she did not demand or desire it. Some commentators say that the Holy Prophet did not have any wife who had offend herself to him; but this in fact means that he did not keep any wife without paying her the dower although she offered herself to him.
Desc No: 89 If this sentence is taken to be related with the preceding sentence, it will mean that it is not permissible for any Muslim to take in marriage a woman who gives herself to him, without paying her the dower; and if it is taken to be related with the whole preceding passage, it will imply that the concession to marry more than four wives is only reserved for the Holy Prophet, not for the other Muslims. This verse also shows that certain commandments are specifically meant for the Holy Prophet to follow and are not applicable to the other Muslims. A study of the Qur'an and Sunnah reveals several such commandments. For example, the Tahajjud prayer was obligatory for the Holy Prophet but is voluntary for the Ummah. It is unlawful for him and his family to receive charities though it is not so for others. The inheritance left by hlm cannot be divided; as for the inheritance left by others relevant commandments have been given in Surah An-Nisa'. Keeping of more than four wives was made lawful for him though he was not enjoined to do equal treatment with them. He was permitted to marry a woman who gave herself to him without any dower, and after his death his wives wen forbidden for the Ummah. None of these privileges could be enjoyed by any other Muslim. Another special thing that the commentators have mentioned in this regard is that it was forbidden for the Holy Prophet to marry a woman from among the people of the Book though it is lawful for the Muslims to do so.
Desc No: 90 This is the reason why Allah made the Holy Prophet an exception to the general rule. "So that there may be no restraint on you" does not mean that he was, God forbid, a very lustful person, and therefore, he was permitted to marry several wives so that he might not feel any hindrance due to the restriction to four wives. This meaning will be understood only by the person who, blinded by prejudice, forgets that the Holy Prophet at the age of 25 married a lady who was 40 years old, and lived a happy, contented married life with her for full 25 years. Then, when she died, he marred another old lady Hadrat Saudah, who remained his only wife for the next four years. Now, no sensible and honest person can imagine that when he became over fifty-three he was suddenly filled with lust and needed to have more and more wives. In fact, in order to understand the meaning of "no restraint", one should, on the one hand, keep in view the great task whose responsibility Allah had placed on the Holy Prophct, and on the other, understand the conditions and circumstances under which he had been appointed to accomplish the great task. Anyone who understands these two things with an unbiased mind, will certainly realize why it was necessary to grant him freedom in respect of the wives and what 'hindrance" was there for him in the restriction to tour wives. The task entruststed to the Holy Prophet was that he should mould and chisel by all-round education and training an uncouth, uncultured nation which was not uncivilized only from the Islamic point of view but from a general viewpoint as well, into a highly civilized, refined and virtuous nation. For this purpose it was unbiased mind, will certainly realize why it was necessary to grant him freedom in respect of the wives and what "hindrance" was there for him in the restriction to four wives. The task entrusted to the Holy Prophet was that he should mould and chisel by all-round education and training an uncouth, uncultured nation which was not uncivilized only from the Islamic point of view but from a general viewpoint as well, into a highly civilized, refined and virtuous nation. For this purpose it was not enough only to train men but the training of the women also was equally necessary. However, the principles of social life and civilization which he had been appointed to teach forbade free mixing of the sexes together, and it was not possible for him to impart direct training to the womenfolk himself without violating this rule. Therefore, for imparting education to the women the only alternative left for him was that he should marry several women of different ages and mental capabilities and should prepare them by education and training to become his helpers, and then employ them to give religious instructions to the young, middle-aged and old women of the city and desert and teach them the new principles of morality and civilization. Moreover, the Holy Prophet had also been appointed to abolish the system of life of the pre-Islamic days of ignorance and replace it with the Islamic system of life practically. For the accomplishment of this task a conflict was inevitable with those who upheld the system of ignorance, and this conflict was being encountered in a country where the tribal system of life was prevalent with all its peculiar customs and traditions. Under these conditions, besides other devices, it was also necessary that the Holy Prophet should marry in different families and clans in order to cement many ties of friendship and put an end to enmities. Thus, the selection of the ladies whom he marred was to some extent determined by this object besides their personal qualities. By taking Hadrat 'A'ishah and Hadrat Hafsah to wife he further strengthened and deepened the relations with Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar. Hadrat Umm Salamah was the daughter of the family to which Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Walid belonged, and Umm Habibah was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. These marriages neutralized the enmity of these families to a large extent; so much so that after Umm Habibah's marriage Abu Sufyan never confronted the Holy Prophet on the battefield. Hadrat Safiyyah, Hadrat Juwairiah and Raihanah belonged to Jewish families. When the Holy Prophet married them, after setting them free, the hostile Jewish activities against him subsided. For according to the Arab traditions when the daughter of a clan or tribe was married to a person, he was regarded as the son-in-law of not only the girl's family but of the entire tribe, and it was disgraceful to fight the son-in-law. Practical reformation of the society and abolition of its customs of ignorance was also included among the duties of his office. Therefore, he had to undertake one marriage for this purpose also, as has been related in detail in this surah Ahzab itself. For these reasons it was essential that there should be no restriction for the Prophet in respect of marriage so that in view of the requirements of the great mission entrusted to him he could marry as many women as he wanted. This also brings out the error of the view of those people who think that polygamy is permissible only under special personal requirements and apart from these there can be no other object for which it may be permissible. Evidently, the reason for the Holy Prophet to marry more wives than one was not that the wife was sick, or barren, or that he had no male child. or that there was the question of the bringing up of some orphans. Without these restrictions he married all his wives either in view of the educational requirements, or for the reformation of society, or for political and social objectives. The question is, when Allah Himself has not kept polygamy restricted to a few particular needs, which arc being mentioned these days and the Messenger of Allah took several wives for many purposes other than these, how is another person entitled to propose some restrictions in the law and then claim that he is imposing these in accordance with the Shari'ah? As a matter of fact, the root cause for the imposition of these restrictions is the Western concept that polygamy is an evil in itself. That very concept has given rise to the idea that this unlawful thing can become lawful only in case of extreme circumstances. Now, however hard one may try to label this imported concept with Islam artificially. it is entirely alien to the Qur'an and ,Sunnah and the whole Muslim literature. "