Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
22.65. Siehst du nicht, daß Allah euch (all) das, was auf der Erde ist, dienstbar gemacht hat, und (ebenso) die Schiffe, die nach Seinem Befehl auf dem Meer fahren? Und Er hält den Himmel, daß er nicht auf die Erde fällt, außer mit Seiner Erlaubnis. Gewiß, Allah ist zu den Menschen wahrlich Gnädig und Barmherzig.
34.21. Wama kana lahu AAalayhim minsultanin illa linaAAlama man yu/minu bial-akhiratimimman huwa minha fii schakkin warabbuka AAala kullischay-in hafiidhun
34.21. And he had no warrant whatsoever against them, save that We would know him who believeth in the Hereafter from him who is in doubt thereof; and thy Lord (O Muhammad) taketh note of all things. (Pickthall)
34.21. Und es gibt für ihn über sie keine Ermächtigung, außer damit Wir den zu unterscheiden wissen, der an das Jenseits glaubt, von dem, der darüber im Zwiespalt ist, und dein Herr bewahrt alles. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.21. Doch hatte er keine Macht über sie; (es geschah) nur, damit Wir in Erfahrung bringen, wer an das Jenseits glaubt, und (ihn unterscheiden) von demjenigen, der darüber im Zweifel ist. Dein Herr ist Hüter über alles. (Bubenheim)
34.21. Er hatte keine Macht über sie; allein Wir prüften sie, um zu erkennen, wer an das Jenseits glaubt und wer darüber im Zweifel ist. Dein Herr beobachtet alles genauestens. (Azhar)
34.21. Und er hatte doch über sie keinerlei Verfügung. Nur damit WIR den kenntlich machen, der den Iman an das Jenseits verinnerlicht, gegenüber dem, der darüber im Zweifel ist. Und dein HERR ist gewiss jeder Sache äußerst bewahrend. (Zaidan)
34.21. Er hatte allerdings keine Vollmacht über sie. Wir wollten (indem wir ihn zum Verführer werden ließen) nur in Erfahrung bringen, wer an das Jenseits glaubt, und wer darüber im Zweifel ist. Dein Herr gibt auf alles acht. (Paret)
34.21. Und er hatte keine Macht über sie; allein Wir wollten denjenigen, der ans Jenseits glaubte, vor dem auszeichnen, der Zweifel darüber hegte. Und dein Herr wacht über alle Dinge. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 18 bis 21
And We had made between them and the habitations which We had blessed, (other) conspicuous habitations and set between them their travelling distances: ( 31 ) "Travel on these ways night and day in complete security. " But they said, "Our Lord, make our journeys longer. " ( 32 ) They wronged their own selves. Consequently, We made them mere legends and scattered them utterly. ( 33 ) Surely there are Signs in this for every patient and grateful person. ( 34 ) In their case Iblis found his suspicions correct, and they all followed him except for a small group of the believers. ( 35 ) Iblis did not have any power over them, but whatever happened, it happened because We wanted to see who believed in the Hereafter and who cherished any doubt about it. ( 36 ) Your Lord is Watchful over everything. ( 37 )
Desc No: 31 "Blessed habitations": the lands of Syria and Palestine, which have been generally mentioned in the Qur'an by this title, as for instance, in AI-A'raf: 137, Bani Isra`il: 1, Al-Anbiya`: 71, 81. "Conspicuous habitations": habitations situated on the highway and not inside the country. It may also mean that the habitations were not very far apart but contiguous so that as the outlying areas of one habitation came to an end those of the other started coming into view. "Set...distances" implies that from the Yaman to the borders of Syria the whole journey passed through inhabited lands, and the distances between one station and another were known and determined. That makes the distinction between the journey through inhabited land and the journey through uninhabited desert area. In the desert the traveller continues to travel as long as he wills and halts when tired. Contrary to this, in settled areas as the distance between one habitation and the other is well known, the traveller can plan beforehand when he would break his journey, where he would have his midday rest and when he would stay for the night.
Desc No: 32 They may not have prayed thus in so many words. As a matter of fact, whoever is ungrateful to Allah for His blessings, oils Allah, as if to say that he is not worthy of those blessings. Likewise, the nation which abuses the bounties of Allah, in fact, prays to Him, as if to say, "Our Lord, withdraw Your blessings from us: we are not worthy of these ." Moreover, the words in the Text also seem to suggest that the Sabaeans perhaps regarded their large population as a calamity for themselves, and they also wanted like the other foolish people that their population should fall.
Desc No: 33 That is, "The people of Saba were so dispersed in all directions that their dispersion became proverbial. Even today when the Arabs have to mention the complate Dispersion of any people they refer to the people of Saba as an example. When Allah caused His blessings to be withdrawn from them, the different tribes of the Sabaeans started leaving their homes and migrating an other parts of Arabia. The Banu Ghassan went to settle in Jordan and Syria, the Aus and Khazraj in Yathrib, and the Khuza`ah in Tihamah near Jeddah. The Azd left for 'Uman and the Bani Lakhm and Judham and Kindah were also forced to give up their homes for other places. Thus, the "Sabaeans" ceased to exist as a nation and became a mere legend. "
Desc No: 34 In this context the "patient and grateful person" implies every such person (or persons) who dces not lose his balance after he has received blessings from Allah, nor exults at prosperity, nor becomes heedless of God Who has blessed him with these. Such a person can learn great lessons from the history of those people who adopted the way of disobedience after attaining opportunities for progress and prosperity and ultimately met with their doom.
Desc No: 35 History shows that in ancient times there lived among the Sabaeans a small group of the people, who believed in one God, apart from all other gods. The inscriptions that have been discovered in the ruins of Yaman as a result of modern archaeological research point to the existence of this small element. Some inscriptions of the period about 650 B.C. indicate that at several places in the kingdom of Saba there existed such houses of worship as were exclusively meant for the worship of dhu-samavi or dhu-samavi (i.e. Rabb as-Sama': Lord of the heavens). In some places this Deity has been mentioned as Makkan dhu-samavi (the King who is the Owner of the heavens). This remnant of the Sabaeans continued to live in Yaman for centuries afterwards. Thus, in an inscription of 378 A.D. also there is found the mention of a house of worship built in the name of Ilah dhu-semevi'. Then, in an inscription dated 465 A.D. the words are; Bi-nasr wa rida ilah-in ba'l samin wa ardin (i.e. with the help and support of that God Who is the Owner of the heavens and the earth). In another inscription of the period dated 458 A.D., the word Rahman has been used for the same God, the actual words being bi-rida Rahmanan (i. e. with the help of Rehman).
Desc No: 36 That is, `Iblis did not have the power to have forcibly misled these people to the way of God's disobedience although they had wanted to adopt His obedience. Allah had only given him the power that he may seduce and mislead them and make all such people his followers, who may like to follow him of their own accord. And Iblis was provided these opportunities for seduction so that the believers of the Hereafter were distinguished from those who entertained doubts about its coming. " In other words, this Divine statement makes the truth explicit that nothing in this world other than belief in the Hereafter can ensure man's adherence to the right way. If a man disbelieves that he is to be raised back to life after death and has to render an account of his deeds before his God, he will certainly be misled and go astray, for he will never be able to develop in himself the sense of .responsibility which alone can make him adhere to the right way. That is why the artifice of Satan by which he ensnares man is that he makes him heedless of the Hereafter. The one who escapes this satanic enticement can never agree that he should sacrifice the interests of his real everlasting life to the interests of the transient life of the world. On the contrary, the one who disbelieves in the Hereafter under the evil influence of Satan, or at least entertains doubts about it, can never be induced to withdraw from the cash bargain being made in this world only due to the apprehension that it might cause loss in some later life. Whoever has gone astray in the world, has gone astray only due to the denial of the Hereafter, or some suspicion about it; and whoever has adopted righteousness has done so because his righteous deeds have issued from his belief in the Hereafter.
Desc No: 37 To understand fully the allusions made in the Qur'an to the history of the Sabaeans, one should also keep in view the information that has been obtained through other historical sources about this nation. Historically, Saba' were a great nation of Southern Arabia. which comprised some large tribes. Imam Ahmad, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn 'Abd al-Barr and Tirmidhi have related from the Holy Prophet that Saba was the name of an Arab, from whose race issued the following tribes of Arabia: Kindah. Himyar, Azd, Ash ariyyin, Madhhij, Anmar (with its two branches: Khath'am and Bajilah), 'Amilah, Judham, Lakhm and Ghassan. Since antiquity this Arabian nation has been well known to the rest of the world. Ur inscriptions of 2500 B.C. mention it by the name of Sabom. Then in the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions and also in the Bible it has been mentioned several times. (See, for instance, Psalms 72:15; Jeremiah 6: 20; Ezekiel 27:22, 38: 13; Job 6: 19). The Greek and Roman historians and the geographer Theo-phrastus (288 B.C.) have mentioned it continuously for many centuries of the Christian era since before Christ. Its home was the south-western corner of the Arabian peninsula, now called al-Yaman. Its rise to prominence started in 1100 B.C. In the time of the Prophets David and Solomon the Sabaeans had become world fatuous as a wealthy people. In the beginning they were a sun-worshipping nation. Then, when their queen affirmed faith at the hand of the Prophet Solomon (965-926 B.C.) probably most of them became Muslims. But then in some unknown later period they again began to worship gods and goddesses tike Almaqah (the moon-god), 'A thtar (Venus), Dhat Hamim, Dhat Bad'an (the sun-god), Harmatam or Harimat and many others. Almaqah was their chief deity, and the kings made claim to the people's obedience as representatives of this deity. Many inscriptions have been unearthed in the Yaman, which show that the whole land abounded in the temples of these gods, especially of Almaqah, and thanks giving services for them were held at every important event. As a result of the modern archaeological researches about 3,000 inscriptions have been discovered, which throw a good deal of light on the history of this nation. Besides these, if the information yielded by the Arabian traditionists and the Roman and Greek historians is compiled, a detailed history of this nation can be prepared. According to this information the following are the important periods of its history: (1) The Pre-mid-seventh Century Period: In this period Mukarrib was the title of the Sabaean kings. Probably a synonym of Muqarrib, it signified that the kings regarded themselves as the link between men and gods; or, in other words, they were the priest-kings. Their capital was Sirwah, whose ruins are found at a day's journey to the west of Maa'rib, and are now called al-Kharibah. The foundations of the great Maa'rib dam were laid in this period: then the different kings extended it from time to time. (2) 650 B. C. to 115 B. C. : In this period the Sabaean kings discarded Mukarrib and adopted the title of Malik (king), which signified that theocracy was replaced by secular kingship. They left Sirwah and made Maa'rib their capital and extended it in every way. This place lay 3900 feet above the sea, and is some 60 miles east of San'a'. Even today its nuns bear evidence that it was once the centre of a highly civilized nation. (3) 115 B. C. to 300 A.D. : In this period the Sabaean kingdom fell under the domination of the tribe of Himyar, a more numerous tribe of Saba. They discarded Maa'rib and made their central place, Raydan, their capital, which later became known as Zafar. Its nuns can still be seen on a circular hill near the modern city of Yarim. Close by it there resides a small tribe by the name of Hinmar, perhaps the remnant of the great nation which was once well known throughout the world for its glory and grandeur. In the same period the word Yamanat and Yamanat began to be used for the first time for a part of the kingdom, which gradually became Yaman and the name of the entire land, which extends from `Asir to Aden and from Bab al-Mandab to Hadramaut. During this very period the decline of the Sabaean began. (4) 300 A.D. to the rise, of Islam :This is the period of the Sabaea's destruction. They started fighting civil wars, which provided occasion for external intervention. This resulted in the decline in their trade and their agriculture and even loss of political freedom. Taking advantage of the internal conflicts between the Himyarites and other tribes, the Abyssinians occupied the Yaman and ruled it briefly from 340 A.D. to 378 A.D. Then, though political freedom was restored, breaches began to appear in the great dam of Maa'rib, which in 450 or 451 A.D. led to the catastrophe occasioned by the "bursting of the dam" as has been referred to in verse 16 above. Although after it till the time of Abraha the dam was extensively repaired, the population that had dispersed could not be brought back, nor could the ruined system of irrigation and agriculture be restored. In 523 A.D., dhu-Nuwas, the Jewish king of the Yaman, carried out the great massacre of the Christians of Najran, which has been referred to in the Qur'an under "ashab al-ukhdud" (LXXXV: 4). In retaliation, the Christian kingdom of Abyssinia invaded Yaman and occupied the whole land. Later the Abyssinian governor of Yaman, Abrahah, in a bid to put an end to the central position of the Ka`bah and to bring the whole of western Arabia into the sphere of the ByzantineAbyssinian influence invaded Makkah in 570 or 571 A.D., a few days before the birth of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). The Abyssinian army was completely destroyed as alluded to under ashab al-fil in the Qur'an. At last, in 575 A.D. Yaman fell to the Iranians; their rule came to an end in 628 A.D. when their governor Badhan embraced Islam. The Sabaeans owed their prosperity to two main factors: agriculture and commerce. They had developed their agriculture by means of a wonderful irrigation system unknown in the ancient world except in Babylon. There were no natural rivers in their land; in the rainy season small hill-torrents rose on which they had built dams every where in the country and collected water in small lakes from which they had taken out canals to water their lands. This had virtually turned the whole country into a vast garden as mentioned in the Qur'an. The largest reservoir was the lake which had been formed by the construction of a dam on the opening in the Jabal Balaq near Maa`rib. But when Allah caused His favours to be turned away from them, the great dam burst in the mid-fifth century A.D. and the resultant floods went on breaking one dam after the other on the way, destroying the entire irrigation system, which could never again be restored. For commerce the Sabaeans had been blessed by God with the most favourable geographical position of which they took full advantage. For more than a thousand years they monopolised the means of trade between the East and the West. On the one hand, they received silk from China, spices from Indonesia and Malabar, fabrics and swords from India, negro slaves, monkeys, ostrich feathers and ivory from East Africa at their ports, and on the other, they transported this merchandise to the Egyptian and Syrian marts, to be supplied onward to Rome and Greece. Besides, they themselves were great producers of frankincense and myrrh and other perfumes, which were in great demand in Egypt and Syria and in Rome and Greece. Two great routes exiated for this international trade: the sea route and the land route. The maritime trade remained in the Sabaeans' control for more than a thousand years for they alone knew the mysteries of the Red Sea monsoons, breakers and rocks and the anchorages, and no other nation could risk navigation through these dangerous waters. Through this maritime route they took their trade goods to the harbours of Jordan and Egypt. The land routes from Aden and Hadramaut joined at Ma'arib, from where a highway led to Petra through Makkah, Jeddah, Yathrib, AI-`Ula, Tabuk and Aylah, forking at the northern end to Egypt and Syria. Along this land route, a number of Sabaean colonies had been established right from the Yaman to the borders of Syria, as mentioned in the Qur'an, and trade caravans passed by these day and night. The signs of many of these colonies still exist on this route from which the Sabaean and the Himyarite inscriptions are being discovered. After the first century after Christ Sabaean trade began w suffer a decline. When the Greek, and then the Roman, kingdoms were established in the Middle East, the citizens began complaining of the high prices that the Arabian traders were charging for the oriental goods because of their monopoly, and urged their governments to take the initiative to break their supremacy in the sea trade. Thus, in the beginning, Ptolemy II (985-246 B.C.), the Greek ruler of Egypt, reopened the Nile-Red Sea canal originally dug by Pharaoh Sesostris some seventeen centuries previously. Consequently, it was through this canal that the Egyptian fleet entered the Red Sea for the first time, but it could not succeed much against the Sabaeans. When Egypt fell to the Romans they brought a stronger merchant marine into the Red Sea and put a naval fleet at its back. The Sabaeans could not withstand this force. Consequently, the Romans set up their trade colonies at every seaport, arranged supplies for the ships and also stationed their military troops wherever possible. At last, the time came when Aden passed under the military occupation of the Romans. In this connection, the Roman and the Abyssinian kingdoms also entered secret pacts against the Sabaeans, which ultimately deprived this nation of its political freedom as well. After losing control over maritime trade the Sabaeans were left with trade over the land route only, but many factors combined to gradually break its back too. First, the Nabataeans ousted them from all the colonies of the upper Hejaz and Jordan, from Petra to Al-`Ula. Then in 106 A.D. the Romans put an end to the Nabataean kingdom and captured all the Syrian and Jordanian territories up to the Hejaz. After this Abyssinia and Rome jointly tried to ruin the Sabaean trade completely by taking advantage of their internal conflicts. That is why the Abyssinians intervened in the Yaman again and again, till at last they brought the whole land under their occupation. Thus, Allah's wrath caused this nation to be toppled from the heights of glory and prosperity into oblivion from which they were never able to rise again. There was a time when the Greeks and the Romans felt tempted when they heard of the legendary wealth of this people. Strabo writes, "The Sabaeans use gold and silver utensils and even the ceilings, walls and doors of their houses are bedecked with ivory, gold, silver and jewels." Pliny says, "The whole wealth of Rome and Persia is flowing into Sabaean hands. They are the richest people of the world today, and their fertile land abounds in gardens, crops and cattle." Artemidorus says, "These people roll in luxury. They burn cinnemon, sandalwood and other sweet smelling wood as fuel. " Likewise, other Greek historians relate that the passengers passing by their shores can smell the perfumes of their land in the merchant ships at sea. For the first time in history they built a skyscraper, called the castle of Ghumdan, on the hill top in San`a'. This citadel, according to the Arab historians, had twenty storeys, each storey being 36 feet high. Thus did they prosper and enjoy life as long as Allah favoured them with His bounties. At last, when they transgressed all limits in their ingratitude, the Almighty Allah also withdrew His attention, and they were so utterly destroyed as if they had never existed at all. "
34.22. Quli odAAuu alladhiina zaAAamtum minduuni Allahi la yamlikuuna mithqala dharratinfii alssamawati wala fii al-ardiwama lahum fiihima min schirkin wama lahuminhum min dhahiirin
34.22. Say (O Muhammad): Call upon those whom ye set up beside Allah! They possess not an atom ' s weight either in the heavens or the earth, nor have they any share either, nor hath He an auxiliary among them. (Pickthall)
34.22. Sag: Ruft zu denjenigen, die ihr vorgebt anstelle Allahs, - sie beherrschen nicht das Gewicht eines Sonnenstäubchens in den Himmeln und nicht auf der Erde, und sie haben an beiden keinen Anteil, und es gibt für Ihn unter ihnen keinen Unterstützer. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.22. Sag: Ruft diejenigen an, die ihr anstatt Allahs angebt. Sie verfügen nicht (einmal) über das Gewicht eines Stäubchens weder in den Himmeln noch auf der Erde. Und sie haben an ihnen beiden keinen Anteil, noch nahm Er sich unter ihnen jemanden, der Ihm Beistand leisten sollte. (Bubenheim)
34.22. Sprich: "Ruft die Gefährten an, die ihr anstatt Gottes für Gottheiten haltet!" Sie besitzen nichts, nicht einmal etwas im Gewicht eines Staubkorns weder in den Himmeln, noch auf Erden. Sie haben keinen Anteil an ihnen, und Gott nimmt keinen von ihnen als Helfer. (Azhar)
34.22. Sag: ‚Richtet nur Bittgebete an die, die ihr anstelle von ALLAH angebt! Sie verfügen nicht einmal über das Gewicht eines Stäubchens weder in den Himmeln, noch auf Erden. Sie haben an beiden keinerlei Beteiligung, und ER hat unter ihnen keinen Verstärkenden. (Zaidan)
34.22. Sag: Ihr könnt (noch so inständig) zu denen beten, die ihr an Allahs Statt (als Götter) ausgebt. Sie vermögen (auch) nicht (so viel wie) das Gewicht eines Stäubchens (auszurichten), weder im Himmel noch auf der Erde. Sie haben an Himmel und Erde keinen Anteil. Und Allah hat an ihnen keinen Helfer. (Paret)
34.22. Sprich: "Ruft doch jene an, die ihr vermutet neben Allah. Sie haben nicht einmal über das Gewicht eines Stäubchens in den Himmeln oder auf Erden Macht, noch haben sie einen Anteil an beiden, noch hat Er einen Helfer unter ihnen." (Rasul)
34.23. Wala tanfaAAu alschschafaAAatuAAindahu illa liman adhina lahu hattaidha fuzziAAa AAan quluubihim qaluu matha qalarabbukum qaluu alhaqqa wahuwa alAAaliyyu alkabiiru
34.23. No intercession availeth with Him save for him whom He permitteth. Yet, when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: What was it that your Lord said? They say: The Truth. And He is the Sublime, the Great. (Pickthall)
34.23. Und es nützt keine Fürsprache bei Ihm, außer für den Er sie erlaubt hat, bis, wenn der Schrecken aus ihren Herzen genommen wurde, sie sagen: "Was ist es, das euer Herr spricht?" Sie sagen: "Die Wahrheit, und Er ist der Hocherhabene, der Große!" (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.23. Auch nützt bei Ihm die Fürsprache nicht - außer, wem Er es erlaubt. Wenn dann der Schrecken von ihren Herzen genommen ist, sagen sie: "Was hat euer Herr ge sagt?" Sie sagen: "Die Wahrheit", und Er ist der Erhabene, der Große. (Bubenheim)
34.23. Es nützt keine Fürsprache bei Ihm, es sei denn, Er gibt einem die Erlaubnis dafür. Wenn der Schrecken von ihren Herzen gewichen ist, sprechen sie miteinander: "Was hat euer Herr gesagt?" Und sie werden antworten: "Die Wahrheit." Er ist der Höchste und der Größte. (Azhar)
34.23. Die Fürbitte nützt bei Ihm nicht, es sei denn, von dem, dem ER Erlaubnis dazu gewährt. Dann nachdem von ihren Herzen der Schrecken weggenommen worden war, sagten sie: „Was sagte denn euer HERR?“ Sie sagten: „Die Wahrheit!“ Und ER ist Der Allhöchste, Der Allgrößte. (Zaidan)
34.23. Und es nützt nichts, (am Tag des Gerichts) Fürsprache bei ihm einzulegen, außer wenn er für einen die Erlaubnis (dazu) gibt. Wenn dann schließlich (am Tag des Gerichts) der Schrecken aus ihren Seelen gewichen ist, sagen sie: "Was hat denn euer Herr gesagt?" Sie sagen: "Die Wahrheit". Und er ist der, der (unvergleichlich) erhaben und groß ist. (Paret)
34.23. Auch nützt bei Ihm keine Fürsprache, außer für den, bei dem Er es erlaubt, so daß, wenn der Schrecken aus ihren Seelen gewichen ist und sie sagen: "Was hat euer Herr gesprochen?" sie sagen werden: "Die Wahrheit." Und Er ist der Erhabene, der Große. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 22 bis 23
(O Prophet,) ( 38 ) say (to the mushriks), "Call those whom you worship as deities instead Of Allah. ( 39 ) They neither own an atom's weigh of anything in the heavens nor in the earth, nor have they anything to share in either, nor is any of them a helper of Allah. And no intercession before Allah can avail anyone except for the one for whom Allah permits it. ( 40 ) So much so that when dread is gone from their hearts, the people will ask (the intercessors), "What reply did your Lord give?" They will say, '`The right reply! And He is the Exalted, the Great! " ( 41 )
Desc No: 38 Until now the mushriks' wrong notions about the Hereafter have been dealt with. From here the discourse turns to the refutation of shirk itself.
Desc No: 39 That is, "Allah makes and un-makes the destinies of individuals and nations and kingdoms in ways as you have seen from the stories of the Prophets David and Solomon and the people of Saba. Now, you may invoke, if you so like, these self-made gods of yours to see whether they also possess the power to change someone's good fortune into misfortune and misfortune into good fortune. "
Desc No: 40 That is, "Not to speak of owning something, or being a partner in the ownership of something, or being a helper of Allah in any way, there exists no one in the universe, who of his own accord may intercede for someone before Allah. You are involved in the misunderstanding that there arc' some beloved ones of God, or some such powerful personalities, who can force and press God to accept their intercession, whereas the fact is that no one will dare utter a word of recommendation there without Allah's permission. Only such a one will be able to make his submissions, who is permitted by Allah to do so, and will intercede for him alone for whom permission for intercession is granted. (To understand the distinction between the Islamic concept of intercession and the polytheistic concept, see Yunus: 3, 18; Hud: 76, 105; Ta Ha: 109; Al-Anbiya': 28; AI-Hajj: 76).
Desc No: 41 Here a graphic picture has been drawn of the time when on the Day of Resurrection an intercessor will be seeking permission to intercede on behalf of another. It presents this scene: "After submitting the application for permission, both the intercessor and the intercessee are awaiting the reply in a state of restlessness and awe. At last, when the permission is granted and the intercessee perceives satisfaction in the face of the intercessor he feels a little comforted and asks the intercessor: `What reply has been received?' The intercessor says, 'The right reply: permission has been granted.' What is meant to be impressed is this: `O foolish people! Such will be the awe of the great Court of Allah ! How dare you entertain the notion that anybody will have you forgiven by his own power, or dare behave stubbornly and tell Allah: These are my favourites: they will have to be forgiven!"
34.24. Qul man yarzuqukum mina alssamawatiwaal-ardi quli Allahu wa-inna aw iyyakumlaAAala hudan aw fiidalalin mubiinin
34.24. Say: Who giveth you provision from the sky and the earth? Say: Allah. Lo! we or you assuredly are rightly guided or in error manifest. (Pickthall)
34.24. Sag: Wer versorgt euch von den Himmeln und der Erde? Sag: Allah, - und wir oder ihr sind ja bestimmt auf Rechtleitung oder in klarem Fehlgehen! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.24. Sag: Wer versorgt euch von den Himmeln und der Erde? Sag: Allah. Fürwahr, entweder wir oder ihr (die einen von uns) befinden sich in Rechtleitung oder in deutlichem Irrtum. (Bubenheim)
34.24. Sprich: "Wer versorgt euch aus den Himmeln und der Erde?" Sprich: "Gott. Wir sind, desgleichen ihr, entweder rechtgeleitet oder in eindeutigem Irrtum." (Azhar)
34.24. Sag: ‚Wer gewährt euch Rizq von den Himmeln und der Erde?‘ Sag: ‚ALLAH! Und gewiß, wir sind oder ihr seid doch entweder in Rechtleitung oder im eindeutigen Abirren.‘ (Zaidan)
34.24. Sag: Wer beschert euch (den Lebensunterhalt) vom Himmel und (von) der Erde? Sag: (Niemand anders als) Allah. Entweder sind wir rechtgeleitet, und ihr befindet euch offensichtlich im Irrtum, oder umgekehrt. (Paret)
34.24. Sprich: "Wer gibt euch Nahrung von den Himmeln und der Erde?" Sprich: "Allah. Entweder wir sind oder ihr seid auf dem rechten Weg oder in offenkundigem Irrtum." (Rasul)
34.26. Say: Our Lord will bring us all together, then He will judge between us with truth. He is the All knowing Judge. (Pickthall)
34.26. Sag: Unser Herr versammelt uns miteinander, dann legt Er zwischen uns gemäß der Wahrheit offen, und Er ist der Offenlegende, der Wissende! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.26. Sag: Zusammenbringen wird uns unser Herr, hierauf wird Er zwischen uns der Wahrheit entsprechend entscheiden. Er ist der wahrhaft gerechte Entscheider, der Allwissende. (Bubenheim)
34.26. Sprich: "Gott wird uns versammeln, euch und uns, und wird dem Recht nach zwischen uns entscheiden. Bei Ihm liegt die letzte Entscheidung, und Er hat das größte Wissen." (Azhar)
34.26. Sag: ‚Unser HERR wird uns zusammenbringen, dann gemäß der Wahrheit zwischen uns richten. Und ER ist Der Richtende, Der Allwissende.‘ (Zaidan)
34.26. Sag: Unser Herr wird uns (dereinst bei sich) versammeln. Hierauf wird er zwischen uns nach der Wahrheit entscheiden (yaftahu). Er ist es, der entscheidet (huwa l-fattaahu) und (über alles) Bescheid weiß. (Paret)
34.26. Sprich: "Unser Herr wird uns alle zusammenbringen, dann wird Er zwischen uns in Gerechtigkeit richten; und Er ist der beste Richter, der Allwissende." (Rasul)
34.27. Qul aruuniya alladhiina alhaqtumbihi schurakaa kalla bal huwa AllahualAAaziizu alhakiimu
34.27. Say: Show me those whom ye have joined unto Him as partners. Nay (ye dare not) ! For He is Allah, the Mighty, the Wise. (Pickthall)
34.27. Sag: Zeigt mir diejenigen, die ihr Ihm als Mitgötter habt hinzukommen lassen. Keineswegs! Vielmehr Er ist Allah, der Mächtige, der Weise! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.27. Sag: Zeigt mir diejenigen, die ihr Ihm als Teilhaber beigegeben habt. Keineswegs! Vielmehr ist Er Allah, der Allmächtige und Allweise. (Bubenheim)
34.27. Sprich: "Zeigt mir die Gefährten, die ihr Ihm als Teilhaber beigesellt habt! Doch nein! Er ist der Allmächtige, der Allweise." (Azhar)
34.27. Sag: ‚Zeigt mir diejenigen, die ihr Ihm an Partner beigeselltet?‘ Nein, mit Sicherheit! Nein, sondern ER ist ALLAH, Der Allwürdige, Der Allweise. (Zaidan)
34.27. Sag: Zeigt mir (doch) die (angeblichen Götter), die ihr ihm als Teilhaber beigegeben habt! Nein! Er (allein) ist Allah, der Mächtige und Weise. (Paret)
34.27. Sprich: "Zeigt mir jene, die ihr Ihm als Götter zur Seite gesetzt habt! Nichts! Er aber ist Allah, der Allmächtige, der Allweise." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 24 bis 27
(O Prophet), ask them, "Who gives you sustenance from the Heavens and the earth?" Say, "Allah ( 42 ) Only either we or you are on the Right Way or in manifest error. " ( 43 ) Say to them, "You will not be questioned for the errors we have committed, nor shall we be answerable for what you are doing. " ( 44 ) Say, "Our Lord will gather us together, then He will judge between us rightly. He is such a great Judge Who knows everything. " ( 45 ) Say to them, "Just show me those whom you have made associates-with Him. " ( 46 ) Nay, never! Allah alone is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
Desc No: 42 There is a subtle gap between the question and the answer. The addressees were the mushriks who not only did not disbelieve in the existence of Allah but also knew and believed that the keys of the provisions are in His hand. But in spite of this they held others also as Allah's associates in His work. Now when they were confronted with the question: `Who gives you sustenance from the heavens and the earth?" they were put in a tight comer. If they mentioned another beside Allah they would say a thing contrary to their own and their people's creed. If they showed stubbornness and said such a thing, they feared that their own people would immediately refute them. And if they acknowledged that Allah alone is their Sustainer, they would immediately be confronted with the next question:¦Then, why and what for have you made these others your gods?" When Allah is the Sustainer, why should these others be served and worshipped? Thus they stand confused and bewildered. Neither can they say that Allah alone is the Sustainer nor that another god is the sustainer. When the questioner sees that they do not make any answer, he himself answers his question and says, Allah."
Desc No: 43 This sentence contains an important point of the wisdom of preaching. The logical conclusion of the question and answer cited above would be that the one who serves and worships Allah should be on right guidance and the one who worships others beside Him should be misguided. Therefore, apparently, the conclusion should have been: `Then, we are rightly guided and you are misguided." But such a plain and straight reply, although correct and true, would not have been a wise thing from the point of view of preaching. For when a person is addressed and told plainly that he is misguided and the speaker claims to be rightly-guided himself, he will become obdurate and will never be inclined to accept and acknowledge the truth. As the Messengers of Allah are not sent only for the sake of speaking the plain truth, but are also entrusted with the duty of reforming the wrongdoers as tactfully as possible, Allah has not asked His Prophet to cell them plainly, after the question and answer, that they are all misguided and that he atone is rightly-guided. Instead of this, it was said: `Tell them: it has become clear that we regard as our Deity only Him Who is the Sustainer, and you have taken as deities those who are not sustainers. Now, it is not possible that both you and we should be on right guidance simultaneously. Only one of us can be rightly-guided, and the other inevitably will be misguided. Now it is for you to consider and judge who is being proved by reason to be in the right and who in the wrong. "
Desc No: 44 The about question had already made the listeners to think seriously, This additional sentence was meant to make them think even more seriously, as if to say, `It is in our own interest individually that we should consider and decide the question of guidance and misguidance rightly. For if we are misguided, we shall ourselves bear the consequences of our error; you will not be held answerable for it. Therefore, it is in our own interest that we should consider seriously, before adopting a creed, that we are not following a wrong way. Likewise, you also should think seriously for your own sake, not for our sake in any way, and make sure that you are not investing your life's capital in a false creed. For if you committed an error in this regard, you would be harming only your own selves and not us. "
Desc No: 45 This is the last and the strongest motive for the consideration of which the listeners' attention has been invited. It means to impress: "The thing is not only that there is the difference of the truth and the falsehood between you and us, but that both we and you have to be presented before our Lord, the Being Who knows the truth and is also fully aware of the affairs of each of us. There before Him not only will this thing be decided who, between you and us, was in the right and who in the wrong, but this issue also will be settled how we made every possible effort to make the truth plain to you, and how you opposed and resisted us in your antagonism to the truth. "
Desc No: 46 That is, "Before ever you take the great risk due to your reliance on these deities, just tell me here who among them is so powerful as to arise in the Court of Allah as your supporter and save you from His punishment. " "
34.28. Wama arsalnaka illa kaffatanlilnnasi baschiiran wanadhiiran walakinnaakthara alnnasi la yaAAlamuuna
34.28. And We have not sent thee (O Muhammad) save as a bringer of good tidings and a warner unto all mankind; but most of mankind know not. (Pickthall)
34.28. Und Wir haben dich nicht gesandt außer für die ganze Menschheit, als Ankünder und als Warner, aber die meisten Menschen wissen es nicht, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.28. Und Wir haben dich für die Menschen allesamt nur als Frohboten und Warner gesandt. Aber die meisten Menschen wissen nicht. (Bubenheim)
34.28. Wir haben dich zu allen Menschen als Verkünder froher Botschaft und Warner entsandt. Doch die meisten Menschen wissen es nicht. (Azhar)
34.28. Und nicht entsandten WIR dich außer für alle Menschen als Überbringer froher Botschaft und als Warner. Doch die meisten Menschen wissen es nicht. (Zaidan)
34.28. Und wir haben dich (mit der Offenbarung) gesandt, damit du den Menschen allesamt (? kaaffatan) (und nicht nur wenigen Auserwählten) ein Verkünder froher Botschaft und ein Warner seiest. Aber die meisten Menschen wissen (es) nicht. (Paret)
34.28. Und Wir haben dich nur als Bringer froher Botschaft und Warner für alle Menschen entsandt; jedoch die meisten Menschen wissen es nicht. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 28 bis 28
And (O Prophet,) We have sent you to the entire mankind as a' bearer of good news and a warner, but most people do not know. ( 47 )
Desc No: 47 That is, "You have not been sent as a Prophet for the people of this city, or this country, or this age alone, but for the people of the entire world and for ever, but your compatriots do not recognize your worth and they do not realize how great a person has been raised among them as a Prophet and how uniquely they have been blessed by Allah." The fact that the Holy Prophet has not been appointed a Prophet only for his own country or for his own age but for all mankind till Resurrection, has been stated at several places in the Qur'an. For instance, "And this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I should thereby warn you and all those whom it may reach." (AI-An'am: 19). "O Prophet, say: O mankind, I am a Messenger to all of you from Allah. " (Al-A'raf: 158). "O Prophet, We have sent you to be a real blessing for all the people of the world. " (Al-Anbiya' : 107) . "Highly blessed is He Who has sent down Al-Furqan to His servant so that he may be a warner to all mankind." (Al-Furqan: 1). The same thing has been stated by the Holy Prophet in a number of Ahadith in different ways. For example. "I have been sent to all mankind, the black as well as the white." (Musnad Ahmad: Marwiyat Abu Musa Ash ari). "I have been sent to all mankind as a whole, whereas cvery Prophet before me was only sent to his own people." (Musnad Ahmad: Marwiyat 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin 'As). "Before me cvery Prophet was specifically sent to his own people; but I have been sent for all mankind. " (Bukhari and Muslim: From Traditions related by Jabir bin 'Abdullah). "My appointment as d Prophet and Resurrection are like this. Saying this the Holy Prophet raised his two fingers." (Bukhari and Muslim). What he meant by this was : "Just as no third finger intervenes between these two fingers, so there is no prophethood between the and Resurrection. After me there will be Resurrection only, and I shall be the Prophet till Resurrectian."
34.30. Say (O Muhammad): Yours is the promise of a Day which ye cannot postpone nor hasten by an hour. (Pickthall)
34.30. Sag: Ihr habt das Versprechen eines Tages, von dem ihr nichts um eine Stunde verspätet und nicht vorausbringt! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
34.30. Sag: Für euch ist eine Verabredung auf einen Tag (festgelegt), von dem ihr (euer Schicksal) weder um eine Stunde hinausschieben noch vorverlegen könnt. (Bubenheim)
34.30. Sprich: "Ihr habt eine bestimmte Frist bis zu einem Tag, den ihr weder um eine Stunde vorverlegen noch hinaußchieben könnt." (Azhar)
34.30. Sag: ‚Für euch ist ein Termin eines Tages bestimmt, den ihr weder um eine Stunde hinauszögern könnt, noch vorverlegen.‘ (Zaidan)
34.30. Sag: Euch ist ein Tag als Termin gesetzt (mi`aad), hinter dem ihr (auch) nicht eine Stunde zurückbleiben, und dem ihr ebensowenig vorausgehen werdet. (Paret)
34.30. Sprich: "Euch ist die Frist eines Tages festgesetzt, hinter der ihr weder eine Stunde zurückbleiben noch ihr vorausgehen könnt." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 29 bis 30
These people say to you, "When will the promise (of Resurrection) be fulfilled if you are truthful?" ( 48 ) Say, "For you the appointment of a day is fixed, which you can neither hold back for an hour nor hasten on by an hour. " ( 49 )
Desc No: 48 That is, "When will the time come about which you say: `Our Lord will gather u: together, then He will judge between us rightly?' We have been denying you persistently and opposing you openly for so long. Why is not then the judgement being passed against us ?"
Desc No: 49 In other words, the reply means: "Allah's judgments arc not subject to your whims that He should be bound to do a thing at the time which you have fixed for it. He carries out His designs only according to His own discretion. You cannot understand how long is mankind to be allowed to function in this world in the scheme of Allah, how many individuals and how many nations are to be put to the test in different ways, and what Will be the right time for the Day of Judgment and summoning mankind of all ages for rendering their accounts. All this will be accomplished only at the time which Allah has fixed for it in His scheme of things. Your demands can neither hasten it on by a second nor your supplications can withhold it by a second. "