Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
59.23. Er ist Allah, außer dem es keinen Gott gibt, der König, der Heilige, der Friede´, der Gewährer der Sicherheit, der Wächter, der Allmächtige, der Gewalthaber, der Stolze. Preis sei Allah! (Und Erhaben ist Er) über das, was sie (Ihm) beigesellen.
36.32. But all, without exception, will be brought before Us. (Pickthall)
36.32. Und daß alle insgesamt unbedingt vor Uns gegenwärtig gemacht werden? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
36.32. Und sie werden alle insgesamt bei Uns vorgeführt werden. (Bubenheim)
36.32. Alle Menschen werden samt und sonders vor Uns gebracht werden. (Azhar)
36.32. Und ausnahmslos gewiss werden allesamt Uns vorgeführt. (Zaidan)
36.32. Sie werden unweigerlich alle zusammen bei mir (zum Gericht) vorgeführt werden. (Paret)
36.32. Jedoch sie alle, allesamt versammelt, werden sicher vor Uns gebracht werden. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 28 bis 32
After him We did not send any army against his people from heaven nor was it needful for Us to send one. There only occurred a single blast and they all became extinct. ( 24 ) Alas for the servants! There came no Messenger to them but they scoffed at him. Have they not seen 110W many nations We have destroyed before them, and they never returned to them? ( 25 ) One day they will all be presented before Us!
Desc No: 24 These words contain a subtle satire. In their arrogance and pride of power and their strong antagonism towards the true faith, they thought they would annihilate the three Prophets and their followers, but, contrary to their plot, they were themselves annihilated by only one stroke of the Divine punishment.
Desc No: 25 That is, they were annihilated so completely that not a trace of them was left behind them. No one in the world even remembers them today. Their civilization as well as their race has become extinct.
36.35. Liya/kuluu min thamarihi wamaAAamilat-hu aydiihim afala yaschkuruuna
36.35. That they may eat of the fruit thereof, and their hand made it not. Will they not, then, give thanks? (Pickthall)
36.35. Damit sie von ihrer Frucht essen, - und ihre Hände haben es nicht gemacht! Also danken sie nicht? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
36.35. damit sie von seinen Früchten essen (können). Nicht ihre Hände haben sie geschaffen. Wollen sie denn nicht dankbar sein? (Bubenheim)
36.35. damit sie von den Früchten essen, die sie nicht mit eigenen Händen hervorgebracht haben. Wollen sie nicht Gott dafür danken? (Azhar)
36.35. damit sie von deren Früchten essen. Und doch nicht eigenhändig machten sie es. Erweisen sie sich nicht dankbar?! (Zaidan)
36.35. (Wir haben das alles für die Menschen gemacht) damit sie von dem, was sie davon ernten (min thamarihie), essen können. Es ist (unser und) nicht ihrer Hände Werk. Können sie denn nicht dankbar sein? (Paret)
36.35. damit sie von ihren Früchten essen; und ihre Hände schufen sie nicht. Wollen sie da nicht dankbar sein? (Rasul)
36.36. Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth groweth, and of themselves, and of that which they know not! (Pickthall)
36.36. Preis dem, der die Paarteile geschaffen hat, sie alle, von dem, was die Erde wachsen läßt und von ihnen selber, und von dem, was sie nicht wissen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
36.36. Preis sei Demjenigen, Der die Paare alle erschaffen hat von dem, was die Erde wachsen läßt, von ihnen selbst und von dem, was sie nicht wissen! (Bubenheim)
36.36. Gepriesen sei Der, Der Paare erschaffen hat von allem, was der Erde entsprießt, von den Menschen und von dem, was sie nicht wissen. (Azhar)
36.36. Gepriesen-erhaben ist Derjenige, Der die Zweiheiten allesamt erschuf von dem, was die Erde wachsen lässt, von ihrem Selbst und von dem, worüber sie keine Kenntnis haben. (Zaidan)
36.36. Gepriesen sei der, der alle (möglichen) Paare geschaffen hat: in der Pflanzenwelt, unter den Menschen selber und unter Wesen, von denen sie nichts wissen! (Paret)
36.36. Preis (sei) Ihm, Der die Arten alle paarweise geschaffen hat von dem, was die Erde sprießen läßt, und von ihnen selber und von dem, was sie nicht kennen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 33 bis 36
The ( 26 ) dead land is a Sign for these people. ( 27 ) We gave it life and produced grain from it, which they eat. We made gardens of date-palms and grapes in it and caused springs to gush out of it so that they may eat fruits thereof. It is not their hands which have made all this. ( 28 ) Do they. not then give thanks? ( 29 ) Glorified is He ( 30 ) Who created in pairs all species, whether of vegetable kingdom or of their own (i.e., human) kind, or of those things of which they know nothing. ( 31 )
Desc No: 26 Until now the disbelieves of Makkah were being warned and reproved for their denial of the truth and their attitude of antagonism which they had adopted towards the Holy Prophet. Now the discourse turns to the basic thing which was the actual cause of the conflict between them and the Holy Prophet, i . c. , the doctrine of Tauhid and the Hereafter, which the Holy Prophet was presenting and the disbelievers were refusing to acecpt. In this connection, some arguments have been given, one after the other, to make the people ponder over the realities, as if to say, "Observe these phenomena of the universe, which are ever present before you. Do they not point to the same reality, which this Prophet is presenting before you?"
Desc No: 27 "A Sign" : A Sign that Tauhid is the Truth and shirk the falsehood.
Desc No: 28 Another translation of this sentence can be: "......so that they may eat fruits thereof and what their own hands make." That is, the artificial kinds of food, which the people prepare from the natural products, e.g. bread, curry, jam, pickles, sauces and countless other things.
Desc No: 29 In these brief sentences the vegetable and plant life of the earth has been presented as an argument. Man is eating the products of the earth day and night and regards this as very ordinary. But if he considers it seriously, he will see drat the growth of rich crops and lush green gardens from the dry earth and the flowing in it of the springs and rivers is not a simple thing, which might be happening of itself, but there is a great wisdom and power and providence which is working behind it. Consider the reality of the earth. The substances of which it is composed do not possess any power of their own for growth. All these substances individually as well as after every sort of combination, remain inorganic, and thus do not possess any sign of life. The question is: How did it become possible for plant life to emerge from the lifeless earth? If one looks into it, one will see that there are some important factors without whose provision leforehand life here could not have coma into existence. First, in particular regions of the earth, on its outer surface, a layer was arranged of many such substances, which could serve as food for vegetation. This layer was kept soft so that the roots of the vegetation could spread in it and suck food. Secondly, a system of irrigation was arranged on the earth in different ways so that the food elements could get dissolved in water and absorbed by the roots . Thirdly, the atmosphere was arranged around the earth which protects it against the calamities of the sky, becomes a means of the rainfall, and possesses gases which are necessary for the life and growth of the vegetation. Fourthly, a relationship was established between the sun and the earth so as to provide proper temperature and suitable seasons for the vegetation. With the provision of these main factors (which in themselves are combinations of countless other factors), the coming to life of the vegetation becomes possible. After arranging the suitable conditions the seed of each species of the vegetation was so constituted that as soon as it received favourable soil, water, air and season, vegetable life should begin stirring within it. Besides, inside the same seed a system was so arranged that from the seed of every species a plant precisely of the same species should grow with all the characteristics of its own species and heredity. Then, in addition to this, another wonderful thing was done. Vegetation was not created in twenty, or fifty, or a hundred kinds but in countless species, and they were so made that they should fulfil the requirements of food, medicine and clothing and innumerable other needs of the countless kinds of animals and man, who were to be brought into being after the vegetation on the earth. Anyone who ponders over this wonderful arrangement, if he is not stubborn and prejudiced, will himself testify that all this could not have come about by itself. There is certainly a wise plan underlying it, according to which harmonies and relationships of the soil, water, air and season with respect to the vegetation, and harmonics and relationships of the vegetation with respect to the needs and requirements of animals and human beings have been determined, keeping in view the finest detail. No sensible person can imagine that these universal, all-embracing relationships could be a mere accident. This same subtle arrangement points to the fact that this cannot be the work of many gods. This is, and can only be, the work of One God, Who is the Creator and Lord of the earth, water, air, sun, vegetation, animals and mankind. If each of these had a separate god, it cannot be imagined that such a comprehensive and universal plan with such deep and wise relationship and harmony could be produced, and should have continued to work with such regularity for millions upon millions of years. After giving these arguments for Tauhid, Allah says: "Do they not then give thanks?" That is: "Are these people so thankless and ungrateful that they do not render thanks to that God Who has provided all this for their survival, but thank others for the blessings and favours done by Him ? Are they so wretched that instead of bowing before Him they bow before the false gods, who have not created even a blade of grass for them ?"
Desc No: 30 "Glorified is He": "He is free from every defect and fault, from every error and weakness, and that another one should be His associate and partner in His work." The Qur'an has generally used these words when refuting polytheistic beliefs, because every belief of shirk is, in fact, an imputation of some defect, some weakness and some fault to Allah. When a person says that Allah has an associate, he, in fact, thinks that either Allah is incapable of running and ruling His Kingdom alone, or He is under compulsion to make another His associate in His work. Or, some other beings are so powerful in themselves that they are interfering in God's administration and God is putting up with their interference. Or, God forbid, Allah has the weaknesses of the worldly kings, due to which He is surrounded by an army of ministers, courtiers, flatterers and beloved princes or princesses, and thus many powers of Godhead have become divided among them. Had there been no such notions of ignorance about Allah in the minds, there could be no question of any idea of shirk in the world. That is why it has been stated again and again in the Qur'an That Allah is free froth and exalted far above those defects and faults and weaknesses which the mushriks ascribe to Him."
Desc No: 31 This is still another argument for Tauhid. Here again certain realities of daily experience have been mentioned and it is suggested that man observes these day and night but does not ponder over them seriously, whereas they contain signs and pointers to the reality. The coming together of the man and woman is the cause of man's own birth. Procreation among the animals also is due to the combination between the male and the female. About vegetation also man knows that the law of sex is working in it. Even among the lifeless substances when different things combine with one another, a variety of compounds come into existence. The basic composition of matter itself has become possible due to the close affinity between the positive and the negative electric charges. This law of the pairs which is the basis of the existence of the entire universe, contains in itself such complexities and finenesses of wisdom and workmanship, and there exist such harmonies and mutual relationships between the members of each pair that an objective observer can neither regard it as the result of an accident, nor can he believe that many different gods might have created these countless pairs and matched their members, one with the other, with such great wisdom. The members of each pair's being a perfect match for each other and coming into being of new things with their combination itself is an explicit argument of the Creator's being One and only One. "
36.40. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit. (Pickthall)
36.40. Für die Sonne paßt es nicht, daß sie den Mond einholt, und die Nacht kommt nicht der Tageszeit zuvor, und jedes schwebt in einer Himmelssphäre. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
36.40. Weder ziemt es der Sonne, den Mond einzuholen, noch wird die Nacht dem Tag zuvorkommen; alle laufen in einer (jeweils eigenen) Umlaufbahn. (Bubenheim)
36.40. Weder darf die Sonne den Mond in seiner Bahn einholen, noch darf die Nacht dem Tag vorauseilen. Jeder Himmelkörper schwebt in seiner Bahn. (Azhar)
36.40. Weder die Sonne darf den Mond einholen, noch die Nacht den Tag ereilen. Und alle schweben in (bestimmter) Bahn. (Zaidan)
36.40. Und weder steht es der Sonne an, den Mond einzuholen, noch kommt die Nacht dem Tag zuvor. Alle (Gestirne) schweben an einem Himmelsgewölbe (falak). (Paret)
36.40. Weder hat die Sonne den Mond einzuholen, noch eilt die Nacht dem Tage voraus; und alle schweben auf einer Umlaufbahn. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 37 bis 40
Another Sign for them is the night: We remove the day from above it, and they are covered in darkness. ( 32 ) And the Sun: it is moving to its place of rest. ( 33 ) This is the decree of the All-Mighty, All-Knowing God. And the Moon: We have determined stages for it till it again becomes like an old dry palm-branch. ( 34 ) Neither is it possible for the Sun to overtake the Moon, ( 35 ) nor for the night to outstrip the day. ( 36 ) Each is gliding in its own orbit. ( 37 )
Desc No: 32 The alternation of the night and day also is one of those realities which man dces not regard as worthy of much attention only because it is a phenomenon of daily occurrence and experience; whereas if he considers how the day passes and how the night falls, and what is the wisdom in the passing of the day and in the falling of the night, he will himself realize that this is an obvious sign of the existence of an All-Powerful and All-Wise Allah and of His being One and only One. The day cannot pass and the night cannot fall until the sun hides from the earth. The great regularity which is found in the alternation of the day and night, was not possible unless the sun and the earth were bound in one and the same relentless system. Then the deep relationship which exists between the alternation of the day and night and the other creations on the earth clearly points to the fact that this system has been established deliberately by a Being with perfect wisdom. The existence on the earth, of the men and animals and vegetation, and even of water and air and different minerals, is in fact, the result of placing the earth at a particular distance from the sun, with the arrangement that the different parts of the earth should go on successively coming before the sun and hiding from it at definite intervals. If the distance of the earth from the sun had been a little longer, or a little shorter, or there had been a perpetual night on one side of it and a perpetual day on the other, or the alternation of the day and night had been much faster or much slower, or sometimes the day had appeared suddenly and sometimes the night without any system, no life could be possible on this planet, and even the form and appearance of the inorganic substances would have been much different from what it is now. If the mind's eye is not closed, one can clearly perceive in this system the working of a God, Who willed to bring into being this particular kind of creation on the earth and then established relevances, harmonies and relationships between the earth and the sun precisely in accordance with its needs and requirements. If a person regards the concept of the existence of God and His Unity as far removed from reason, he should think for himself and see how much farther removed should it be from reason to ascribe this wonderful creation to many gods, or to think that All this has happened sutomatically under some deaf and blind law of nature. When a person who can accept without question these latter unreasonable explanations, only on the baal: of conjecture and speculation, says that the existence of a system and wisdom and purpose is not a sufficient proof of the existence of God, it becomes difficult for us to believe whether such a person really feels the need and necessity of a rational proof, sufficient or insufficient in any degree whatever, for accepting any concept of creed in the world.
Desc No: 33 "Place of rest" may either mean the place where the sun will ultimately come to a halt, or the time when it will come to a halt. The true meaning of this verse can be determined only when man has attained the full and exact knowledge of the realities of the universe. But man's knowledge is such that it has boon changing in every age and what he seems to know today might change tomorrow. The people of the ancient times on the basis of their observations of the sun believed that it was moving round the earth. Then after further research and observation the view became that the sun was stationary and all the planets of the solar system were revolving round it. But this theory also did not last long. The later observations revealed that not only the sun but All the stars also are moving in a particular direction, at speeds of 10 to 100 miles per second. About the sun the modern astronomers hold the view that it is moving at a speed of 20 kilometres (about 12 miles) per second along with its whole family of the planets. (See "Star" and "Sun" in Encyclopedia Britannica).
Desc No: 34 That is, the phases of the moon go on changing throughout the month. 1t begins as a crescent, then goes on waxing every. day till it becomes the full moon on the 14th of the month. Then it starts waning every day till at last it returns to its original shape of the crescent. The same has been happening for millions of years with perfect regularity, and no change has ever occurred in the phases of the moon. That is why one can always calculate and find out exactly in what phase the moon will be on a particular day. If the movement of the moon had not been bound in a system, estimation of its phases would not have been possible.
Desc No: 35 This sentence can have two meanings and both are correct: (1) The sun does not have the power that it should draw the moon into itself, or enter its orbit and collide with it; and (2) the sun cannot appear in the times which have been appointed for the rising and appearing of the moon. It is not possible that the sun should suddenly appear on the horizon when the moon is shining at night.
Desc No: 36 Nor does this happen either that the night should approach before the appointed period of the day comes to an end, and should start spreading its darkness suddenly during the time when the day is meant to spread its light.
Desc No: 37 The word falak in Arabic is used for the orbit of the planets, and it gives a different meaning from the word sama' (sky). The sentence, "Each is gliding in its own orbit," points to four realities: (1) That not only the sun and the moon but all the stars and planets and celestial bodies are moving; (2) the falak, or orbit, of each one of them is separate; (3) that the orbits are not moving with the stars in them, but the stars are moving in the orbits; and (4) that the movement of the stars in their orbits is similar to the floating of something in a fluid. These verses are not intended to describe the realities of astronomy, but are meant to make man understand that if he looks around himself, with open eyes, and uses his common sense, he will find countless and limitless proofs of the existence of God and His Unity, and he will not come across a single proof of atheism and shirk. The vastness of the solar system in which our earth is included is such that its parent body, the sun, is 300,000 times bigger than the earth, and its farthest planet Neptune is at least 2,793 million miles distant from the sun. However, if Pluto is taken as the farthest planet, it revolves 4,600 million miles away round it. Notwithstanding this vastness, the solar system occupies a very insignificant part of a huge galaxy. The galaxy which includes our solar system has about 3,000 million suns in it, and its nearest sun is so distant from our earth that its light takes about four years to reach us. Then this galaxy also is not the whole universe. According to the investigations made so far, it has been estimated that it is one of about 2,000,000 spiral nebulae, and the nearest nebula is about a million light years away from the earth. As for the farthest celestial bodies which arc visible through the modern instruments, their light reaches the earth in about 100 million years. Even now it cannot be claimed that man has seen the whole universe. It is a small part of the Kingdom of God which man has yet been able to observe. It cannot be predicted how far and deep man will yet be able to see with greater and more efficient means of observation at his disposal. All the information that has been gathered so far about the universe proves that this whole world is trade up of the same substance of which our tiny earthly world is made, and the same law is working in the universe which is working in the world of our earth; otherwise it was not at All possible. that man should have made observations of the very distant worlds from the earth, measured their distances and estimated their movements. Is it not a clear proof of the fact that this whole universe is the creation of One God and the Kingdom of One Ruler? Then from the order and the wisdom and the excellence of workmanship and the deep relationships which are found in the hundreds of thousands of the galaxies and in the millions and billions of the stars and planets revolving in them no sensible person can imagine that all this has come about automatically. Is it possible that there should be no administrator behind this order and system, no sage behind this wisdom, no designer behind this design and work of art, and no planner behind this planning? "