38.44. And (it was said unto him): Take in thine hand a branch and smite therewith, and break not twine oath. Lo! We found him steadfast, how excellent a slave! Lo! he was ever turning in repentance (to his Lord). (Pickthall)
38.44. Und nimm mit deiner Hand ein Bündel, und schlage damit, und brich nicht den Eid! Wir haben ihn ja als einen geduldig Ausharrenden gefunden, wie wohltuend der Knecht, er war ja ein stets Umkehrender. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
38.44. Und: "Nimm in deine Hand ein Bündel (dünner Zweige) und schlag damit zu und sei nicht eidbrüchig." Gewiß, Wir fanden ihn standhaft. Welch ein trefflicher Diener! Er war immer wieder umkehrbereit. (Bubenheim)
38.44. Ihm wurde gesagt: "Nimm ein Bündel mit so vielen Stöcken in die Hand, wie du geschworen hast, schlage mit dem Bündel einmal, so wirst du nicht wortbrüchig!" Wir fanden ihn geduldig in der Not. Er war ein vortrefflicher Diener, der sich stets Gott zuwandte. (Azhar)
38.44. „Und nimm mit deiner Hand ein kleines Bündel, dann schlage mit ihm und sei nicht eidbrüchig!“ Gewiß, WIR fanden ihn einen sich in Geduld Übenden. Was für einen guten Diener. Gewiß, er war stets umkehrend. (Zaidan)
38.44. Und (wir sagten weiter zu ihm): "Nimm ein Bündel (Zweige) in die Hand und schlag damit zu (um auf diese Weise den Eid, den du abgelegt hast, einzulösen)! Und werde nicht eidbrüchig!" Wir fanden, daß Hiob geduldig war. Welch trefflicher Diener (Allahs)! Er war (wahrhaft) bußfertig. (Paret)
38.44. Und (Wir sprachen): "Nimm ein Bündel in deine Hand und schlage damit zu und werde nicht eidbrüchig." Wahrlich, Wir fanden ihn geduldig. (Er war) ein vortrefflicher Diener; stets wandte er sich (Allah) zu. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 41 bis 44
And make mention of Our servant Job ( 41 ) when he called upon his Lord, (saying), "Satan has afflicted me with great distress and torment. " ( 42 ) (We commanded him:) "Stamp your foot on the ground: this is cool water for washing and drinking. " ( 43 ) We restored to him his family and as many more with them, ( 44 ) as a mercy from Ourself, and an admonition for the men of understanding. ( 45 ) (And We said to him:) "Take a handful of straw and strike therewith: do not break your oath. " ( 46 ) We found him patient, an excellent servant, who turned to his Lord over and over again. ( 47 )
Desc No: 41 This is the fourth place in the Qur'an where the Prophet Job has been mentioned. Before this he has been mentioned in An-Nisa. 163, Al-An'am: 84 and AI-Anbiya': 83-84 above. For the details about him, please see E.N.'s 76 to 79 of Surah Al-Anbiya'
Desc No: 42 This does not mean that Satan has afflicted me with illness and brought distress upon me, but it means: "The affliction of the severities of illness, the loss of property and wealth, and the desertion of the near and dear ones, is not so great a torment and trouble for me as the temptation of Satan, who is exploiting my condition to despair me of my Lord and wants that I should turn ungrateful to Him and become desperate and impatient." This meaning of the lamentation of the Prophet Job is preferable for two reasons: (1) According to the Qur'an, Allah has granted Satan only the power of temptation: He has not given him the power to afflict with illness the worshippers of Allah and compel them to deviate from the way of service and obedience by causing them physical ailments. (2) In Surah AIAnbiya' when the Prophet Job puts before Allah his complaint about illness and disease, he does not mention Satan at all, but says only: "I have been afflicted with the disease and You are most Merciful."
Desc No: 43 That is, "As soon as he stamped his foot on the ground, a spring gushed forth by Allah's Command, drinking from which and washing with which was the remedy of the Prophet Job's disease." Most probably he was suffering from some skin disease. According to the Bible also: "Satan smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown. " (Job, 2: 7).
Desc No: 44 Traditions show that during this illness everyone except his wife had deserted the Prophet Job; even his children had turned away. To this Allah has alluded, saying: "When We granted him health, the whole family returned to him, and then We granted him even more children."
Desc No: 45 That is, in it there is a lesson for an intelligent man: "Neither should man forget God and become arrogant in good times nor despair of Him in bad times: Good fortune and misfortune are entirely in the Power of Allah, the One. If He wills He can change the best times of man into the worst times and the worst into the best. Therefore, a wise person should trust in Him alone in all sorts of circumstances and should pin all his hopes on Him."
Desc No: 46 A careful study of these words shows that the Prophet Job during illness had been annoyed with somebody (according to traditions, his wife) and sworn to beat him or her by giving so many stripes. When Allah restored him to health and the anger of the illness was gone, he became worried as how to fulfil the oath. For if he carried out the oath, he would be inflicting pain on an innocent person, and if he did not, he would be committing the sin of breaking the oath. Allah took him out of the difficult situation by the Command: "Take a broom ò containing as many sticks of straw as the number of the stripes you had sworn to give;then strike the person just once with the broom so as both to fulfil your oath and to avoid giving undue trouble to the person concerned. " Some jurists hold the view that this concession was specially meant for the Prophet Job, and some others think that other people also can take advantage of it. The first view has been cited by Ibn 'Asakir from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas and by Abu Bakr al-Jassas from Mujahid, and Imam Malik also held the same view. The second view has been adopted by Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, Imam Zufar and Imam Shafe' i. They say that if a person, for instance, has sworn to give his servant ten stripes, and afterwards combines ten whips and strikes him only once in a way that some part of each whip strikes him, his oath will be fulfilled. Several Ahadith show that the Holy Prophet, in order to inflict the prescribed punishment on a fornicator who was too iII or too weak to receive a hundred stripes, also adopted the method taught in this verse. 'Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas has related a tradition on the authority of Hadrat Said bin Sa'd bin 'Ubadah to the effect that a person from the tribe of Bani Sa`idah happened to commit fornication, and he was a sick man and a mere skeleton. Thereupon the Holy Prophet commanded: "Take a branch of the palm tree with a hundred twigs on it and strike him therewith once and for all. " (Ahkam al Qur 'an). In Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Tabarani, 'Abdur Razzaq and other collections of Hadith also there are several Ahadith supporting it, which conclusively proves that the Holy Prophet had devised this very method for inflicting the prescribed punishment on a sick or weak person. However, the jurists lay the condition that some part of every twig or piece of straw must strike the culprit, and even if only one stroke, it must also hurt the culprit; that is, it is not enough just to touch him but he must be struck with it. Here the question also arises that if a person has sworn to do something and afterwards he comes to know that it is improper, then what should he do? Then is a tradition from the Holy Prophet to the effect that in such a case one should do only that which is better, and the same is the atonement for the oath. Another tradition from him says that one should do something good instead of the improper thing and should atone for his oath. This verse supports this second tradition, for if keeping oneself from an improper thing had been the atonement for the oath, Allah would not have told the Prophet Job to strike the broom once and fulfil his oath, but would have said: "Do not do this improper thing, and your restraint itself is the atonement for your oath." This verse also shows that it is not necessary to carry out immediately what one has sworn to do. The Prophet Job had sworn an oath in the state of illness, and fulfilled it after complete recovery, and not immediately even after the recovery. Some people have regarded this verse as an argument for practising pretence under the Shari'ah. No doubt it was a pretence which the Prophet Job had been taught but it had been taught not for evading anything obligatory but for avoiding an evil. Therefore, in the Shari 'ah those pretences only are lawful, which are adopted to remove injustice and . sin and evil from one's own self or from another person, otherwise practice of pretence is highly sinful if it is employed for the purpose of making the unlawful Iawful, or evading the obligatory duties and righteous acts. For a person who practises pretence for such impious objects, in fact, tries to deceive God. For example, a person who transfers his wealth to another before the completion of a year on it, only for the purpose of evading payment of the Zakat on it, not only evades an obligatory duty, but also thinks that Allah will get deceived by this trickery and will consider him as relieved of his duty. The jurists who have mentioned such pretences in their books, do not mean that one should practise them in order to evade the Shari ah obligations, but they mean to point out that a judge or ruler cannot take to task a person who escapes the consequences of a sin under a legal cover for his affair is with Allah.
Desc No: 47 The Prophet Job has been mentioned in this context to impress the reader that when the righteous servants of Allah are afflicted with hardships and calamities, they do not complain of their distress to Allah but endure the tests and trials set by Him patiently and invoke only Him for help. They do not despair of God and do not turn to others for help if their distress is not removed after making invocations to God for some time, but they believe that whatever they will get, they will get only from Allah. Therefore, they remain hopeful of His mercy, no matter how long they might have to suffer the distress. That is why they arc honoured and blessed with the favours and bounties with which the Prophet Job was honoured and blessed in his life. So much so that if they get involved in a moral dilemma due to a state of agitation, Allah shows them a way out of it- in order to save them from evil, as He showed a way to the Prophet Job.
38.48. Waodhkur ismaAAiilawa-ilyasaAAa wadha alkifli wakullun mina al-akhyari
38.48. And make mention of Ishmael and Elisha and Dhul Kifl. All are of the chosen. (Pickthall)
38.48. Und erwähne Ismail und Aljasa und Dsu-l-Kifl, und alle sind welche von den Besten. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
38.48. Und gedenke Isma´ils, Alyasa´s und Du ´1-Kifls. Alle gehören zu den Besten. (Bubenheim)
38.48. Gedenke Ismaels, Elisas und Zu-l-Kifls! Sie alle gehören zu den Guten. (Azhar)
38.48. Und erwähne Isma'il, Alys' und Dhal-kifl! Und alle sind von den Besten. (Zaidan)
38.48. Und gedenke Ismaels, Elisas (al-Yasa`) und des Zuu l-Kifl! Alle gehören zu den Frommen (al-akhyaar). (Paret)
38.48. Und gedenke Ismaels, Elisas und Thu-l-Kifls; alle gehören sie zu den Besten. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 45 bis 48
And make mention of Our servants, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob: they were men of great power and insight. ( 48 ) We had chosen them because of a pure quality -the remembrance of the abode of the Hereafter. ( 49 ) Indeed, they are, in Our sight, included among the chosen, the righteous. And make mention of Ishmael and Elisha ( 50 ) and Dhul-Kifl: ( 51 ) they were all of the righteous.
Desc No: 48 The actual words in the Text mean "Those who possessed the hands and the insights." The hand, as we have explained above, implies power and capability. To describe these Prophets as "men of great power and insight" means that they were practical men: they possessed great power to obey Allah and to abstain from sin, and they had made great efforts for raising the Word of Allah in the world. "Insight" does not mean eye-sight but the vision of the heart and mind. They could sec and recognize the Truth: they did not live like the blind in the world, but they walked the straight path of guidance, in the full light of knowledge, with open eyes. In these words, there is a subtle allusion to this also that the people who commit evil, and have gone astray, arc in fact, deprived of the hands as well as the eyes. He only, who works in the cause of Allah, possesses the hands, and he, who distinguishes between the light of the Truth and the darkness of falsehood, only possesses the eyes.
Desc No: 49 That is, "The real cause for their success and eminence was that there was no tinge of-worldliness in their character: all their efforts, mental and physical, were directed towards the Hereafter. They remembered it themselves and urged others also to remember it. That is why Allah exalted them to such high ranks as have never been attained by those who remained absorbed in earning worldly wealth and prosperity. In this regard, one should also keep in view the subtle point that Allah here has only used the word ad-dar (that abode, or the real abode) for the Hereafter. This is meant to impress the truth that this world is no abode for man, but only a passage and a rest house, which man has to Ieave in any cast. The real abode is the abode of the Hereafter. He who works to adorn that abode is the man of insight and such a one should inevitably be a commendable person in the sight of Allah. As for him who in order to adorn his transitory abode in this rest house behaves in a way as to ruin his real abode in the Hereafter, is foolish, and naturally cannot be liked by Allah.
Desc No: 50 The Prophet AI-Yas`a has been mentioned only twice in the Qur'an, in Surah Al-An'am: 86 and here, without any detail about him; only his name appears in the chain of the Prophets. He was one of the major Prophets of Israel, belonged to Abel Meholah, a place on the river Jordan, and is well known as Elisha among the Jews and Christians. When the Prophet Elijah (peace be upon him) had taken refuge in the Sinai peninsula, he was commanded to return to Syria and Palestine for some important works, one of which was to prepare the Prophet Elisha for his successorship. Accordingly, when the Prophet Elijah came to his town, he found Elisha ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth. The Prophet Elijah passed by him and cast his mantle upon him, and he left the oxen and followed him. (I Kings, 19:15-21). He remained under training with him for 10 to 12 years. Then, when Allah recalled Elijah, he was appointed Prophet in his place. (2 Kings, oh.2). The Second Book of the Kings gives a detailed account of the Prophet Elisha (chs., 2 to 13), which shows that when the Israeli state of northern Palestine got lost in polytheism and idol-worship and moral evils, Elisha a pointed Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi, king of Israel against the royal dynasty due to whose misdeeds those evils had spread in Israel. Jehu not only put an end to Baal-worship, but also condemned to death every member of the wicked family, including its children. But in spite of this reformist revolution the evils that had taken root in Israel could not be completely eradicated, and after the death of the Prophet Elisha they assumed enormous propertions; so much so that the Assyrians begn to invade Samaria whenever they pleased. (For further details, see E.N. 7 of Surah Bani-Isra'il and E. N .'s 70, 71 of Surah As-Saaffat).
Desc No: 51 Dhul-Kifi also has been mentioned only twice in the Qur'an, in AlAnbiya': 85 and here. For our research about him see E.N. 81 of Al-Anbiya`.