42.5. Takadu alssamawatuyatafattarna min fawqihinna waalmala-ikatuyusabbihuuna bihamdi rabbihim wayastaghfiruunaliman fii al-ardi ala inna Allaha huwaalghafuuru alrrahiimu
42.5. Almost might the heavens above be rent asunder while the angels hymn the praise of their Lord and ask forgiveness for those on the earth. Lo! Allah is the Forgiver, the Merciful. (Pickthall)
42.5. Fast brechen die Himmel von oben auseinander, und die Engel preisen mit dem Lob ihres Herrn, und sie bitten um Verzeihung für diejenigen auf der Erde. Wahrhaftig, es ist ja Allah, Er ist der Verzeihende, der Barmherzige. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.5. Beinahe brechen die Himmel auseinander von oben her. Und die Engel lobpreisen ihren Herrn und bitten (Ihn) um Vergebung für diejenigen, die auf der Erde sind. Ja sicherlich, Allah ist der Allvergebende und Barmherzige. (Bubenheim)
42.5. Die Himmel drohen vor Ehrfurcht von oben herab zu bersten. Die Engel lobpreisen ihren Herrn und bitten um Vergebung für die Erdenbewohner. Gott ist der Allvergebende, der Allbarmherzige. (Azhar)
42.5. Beinahe werden die Himmel sich von über ihnen spalten. Und die Engel lobpreisen mit dem Lob ihres HERRN und bitten um Vergebung für diejenigen auf Erden. Gewiß, ALLAH ist Der Allvergebende, Der Allgnädige. (Zaidan)
42.5. Schier brechen (in Anbetracht seiner Allmacht) die Himmel hoch droben auseinander. Und die Engel lobsingen ihrem Herrn und bitten (ihn) für die (Menschen), die auf der Erde sind, um Vergebung (ihrer Sünden). Allah ist es ja, der barmherzig ist und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
42.5. Fast neigen sich die Himmel, um von oben her zu brechen, (so) auch (wenn) die Engel ihren Herrn mit Seiner Lobpreisung verherrlichen und Vergebung für die auf Erden erflehen. Siehe, Allah ist wahrlich der Vergebende, der Barmherzige. (Rasul)
42.6. And as for those who choose protecting friends beside Him, Allah is Warden over them, and thou art in no wise a guardian over them. (Pickthall)
42.6. Und diejenigen, die sich anstelle Seiner Schutzfreunde nehmen, - Allah ist Hüter über sie, und du bist nicht über sie Sachwalter. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.6. Über diejenigen, die sich anstatt Seiner Schutzherren nehmen, ist Allah Hüter, und du bist nicht ihr Sachwalter. (Bubenheim)
42.6. Diejenigen, die anstatt Gottes Helfer genommen haben, werden von Gott genau beobachtet. Du bist für sie nicht verantwortlich. (Azhar)
42.6. Und über diejenigen, die sich anstelle von Ihm Wali nahmen, ist ALLAH äußerst bewahrend. Und du bist über sie kein Wakil. (Zaidan)
42.6. Diejenigen, die sich an seiner Statt Beschützer nehmen, haben Allah (selber) zum Hüter über sich. Du bist nicht ihr Sachwalter. (Paret)
42.6. Und jene, die sich Beschützer außer Ihm nehmen - Allah gibt auf sie acht; und du bist nicht ihr Wächter. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 6
Ha Mim 'Ain Sin Qaf. Likewise has Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise, been inspiring you and those (Messengers) before you. ( 1 ) Whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His. He is the High, the Great! ( 2 ) Near it is that the heavens should break asunder from above. ( 3 ) The angels are glorifying their Lord with His praise and begging forgiveness for those on the earth. ( 4 ) Listen! Allah is indeed AllForgiving, All-Merciful. ( 5 ) Those who have taken some others than Him as guardians ( 6 ) , Allah is watching them; you are not responsible for their conduct ( 7 ) .
Desc No: 1 The style of the opening verses by itself shows that in the background there are the misgivings, wonder and amazement which were being expressed at that time in every assembly, every meeting place, every street and every house and shop of Makkah at the message of the Holy Prophet and the themes of the Qur'an. The people said, "Wherefrom is this tnan bringing us new revelations everyday? The like of these we had never heard nor seen before. How strange that he rejects as false the religion that our forefathers have been following in the past, the religion that is still being followed by all of us, and the traditions and ways that have been prevalent in the country for so many centuries; and he says that the religion that he presents only is right and true." They said: `Had he presented even this new religion in a way as to substitute some of the falsehood he found in the ancestral paganism and prevalent customs with certain others which might be the result of his own thought, there could be a dialogue with him. But he says that what he recites is Divine Word. How can we accept this? Does God visit him, or dces he visit God? Or does some dialogue take place between him and God?" It is in the background of such expression of wonder and doubt that although the address is apparently directed to the Holy Prophet, the disbelievers have in fact been told: "Yes: these very things are being revealed by the Almighty, All-Wise Allah, and with the same themes has its Revelation been coming down to all the former Prophets." Lexically, wahi means "swift and secret instruction", i.e. an inspiration which is made with such haste and speed that none may know it except the inspirer and the one being inspired. As a term this word has been used for the guidance and instruction that is put in the mind of a man by Allah like a flash of lightning. What is meant to be said here is this: `There is no question of Allah's visiting somebody or somebody's visiting Allah and speaking face to face with Him. He is All-Mighty and All-Wise. Whenever He pleases to have a contact with a servant for the guidance and instruction of mankind, nothing can obstruct His will and intention, for He adopts the method of revelation for the purpose by His wisdom. " This very theme has been repeated in the last verses of the Surah with greater clarity and detail. As to the people's objection that the Holy Prophet was presenting strange and novel things, it has been said: There is nothing strange and novel in what Muhammmad (upon whom be Allah's peace) presents; Allah has been giving the same guidance and instruction to the Prophets who came before him in the world. "
Desc No: 2 These introductory sentences are not meant to be said merely in praise of Allah Almighty, but their each word has a deep link with the background in which these verses were sent down. The foremost basis of the objections of the people who were expressing wonder and doubts against the Holy Prophet and the Qur'an was that he was inviting them to Tauhid and they were being alarmed at this and saying that if Allah alone is the Creator, Sustainer and Ruler, what would be the position of their saints and holy men? At this it has been said: "This whole Universe belongs to Allah. How can therefore the godhead of another work and operate in the kingdom of the real Sovereign, particularly when those others whose godhead is acknowledged, are themselves also His subjects?" Then, it has been said: `He is the High, the Great!" That is, He is far above that somebody else should be equal to Him in rank and should became His associate in His Being, attributes, powers or rights. "
Desc No: 3 That is, "It is not a trivial matter that a creature should be joined in lineage with Allah and regarded as His son or daughter; another regarded as fulfiller of the needs and the answerer of the petitions so that the people should start invoking him for help; another taken as the maintainer of the entire world, and his devotees should start proclaiming that their holy saint heard the prayer of everyone at all places at all times and Games to his help and answers his petition; another invested with the authority to egjoin and prohibit things and declare them as lawful and unlawful, and the people should start obeying his commands, instead of the Commands of God, as if he alone was their God. These boldnesses against God arc such that they may well cause the heavens to break asunder. " (This same theme has also been presented in Surah Maryam: 88-91 above).
Desc No: 4 It means: `The angels shudder with disgust when they hear such nonsense being uttered by the people in respect of their Lord, and they regard it as a rebellion against Him." They say: `Glorified be Allah! No one can have the position that he should become an associate with Allah, Lord of the worlds, in Divinity and Command; there is none beside Him who may be our and all other servants' benefactor so that hymns be sung in his praise and he be thanked. " So, they feel that it is a grave crime being committed in the world, and it may provoke Allah Almighty's wrath any moment. Therefore, they implore Allah for mercy again and again for the dwellers of the earth, who have forgotten themselves and their God, and pray that they may yet be spared from the torment and given more respite to mend their ways.
Desc No: 5 That is , "It is only Allah's clemency, mercifulness and forgiveness that the people who have touched the extreme limits in disbelief, polytheism, atheism, sinfulness and tyranny, have been receiving respite after respite for years and years, even for centuries; yet they not only go on receiving their sustenance but arc also acclaimed as the great people of the world and they are provided with such adornments of the worldly life as cause the ignorant people the misunderstanding that this world perhaps has no God. "
Desc No: 6 The word auliya (sing. wall) as used in the Text is very comprehensive in meaning. The different beliefs and all sorts of diverse practices with regard to the false deities held and worshipped by the polytheistic people, have been described as "taking others as auliya' (guardians) instead of Allah" in the Qur'an. According to the Qur'an, a person takes such a one his wati: (1) whom he obeys in all matters, whose instructions he carries out and Whose ways and customs and rules he follows in all affairs of life (An-Nisa: 118-120; ALA'raf: 3, 27-30); (2) in whose guidance he has full faith, and who he thinks will lead him aright and save him from error and deviation (Al-Baqarah: 257, Bani Isra'il: 97, Al-Kahf: 17-50, AI-Jathiah: 19); (3) about whom he trusts he will protect him from the torment of God in the Hereafter if it really existed (An Nisa: 123, 173; Al-An'am: 51, Ar-Ra'd: 37, AI-'Ankabut: 22, AI-Ahzab: 65, Az-Zumar: 3); (4) about whom he has the belief that he helps him in the world in supernatural ways, protects him from disaster and afflictions, gets him jobs, blesses him with children, and fulfils his desires and all other needs. (Hud: 20, Ar-Ra'd: 16, Al-`Ankabut: 4l). At some places in the Qur'an the word wati has been used in one of these senses and at hers in all its meanings. The verse being commented upon is one of such verses. In it, taking others as guardians instead of Allah implies regarding them as one's patron and supporter and helper in all the four about-mentioned meanings.
Desc No: 7 "Allah is watching them": Allah sees whatever they arc doing and is recording their conduct. It is His responsibility to call them to account and punish them. As for the words "You are not responsible for their conduct", these have been addressed to the Holy Prophet. They mean: "Their destiny has not been placed under yow control so that you may burn to ashes anyone who does not listen to you, or depose him from power, or annihilate him." This, however, dces not mean that, God forbid, the Holy Prophet regarded himself as such, and this was said in order to remove his misunderstanding or self-conceit, but this was meant for the disbelievers. Although apparently the Holy Prophet himself is the addressee, the real object is to tell the disbelievers that the Prophet of Allah has made no such claims as were usually made by their so-called saints who posed to possess great spiritual powers. Among the ignorant people it is generally thought that the so-called "holy men" have the power to ruin the destiny of anyone who behaves insolently towards them in any way; so much so that even after their death if somebody happened to dishonor their grave, or if nothing else, only nursed an evil thought about them in his mind, they destroyed him completely. Such a thought is in most casts spread by the "holy men" themselves. As for the good men who do not themselves say any such thing, their names are exploited by some other clever people, who spread such thoughts about them in order to promote their business. In any case this is regarded as a necessary corollary of spirituality and piety among the common people that one should possess the powers of making and marring destinies. To destroy the spell of this same fraud, Allah is addressing His Holy Messenger, as if to tell the disbelievers: "You are no doubt Our Messenger and We have blessed you with Our Revelations, but yow duty is only to guide the people to the Right Path. Their destinies have not boon placed under yow control; they arc in Our hand; therefore, to watch over the deeds and acts of the servants and to punish or not to punish them is Our own responsibility."
42.7. And thus we have inspired in thee a Lecture in Arabic, that thou mayest warn the mother town and those around it, and mayest warn of a day of assembling whereof there is no doubt. A host will be in the Garden, and a host of them in the Flame. (Pickthall)
42.7. Und derart haben Wir dir einen arabischen Koran offenbart, damit du die Uransiedlung warnst, und wer um sie herum ist, und du vor dem Tag des Versammelns warnst, kein Zweifel daran, ein Teil ist im Paradiesgarten und ein Teil in der Feuerflamme. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.7. Und so haben Wir dir einen arabischen Qur´an (als Offenbarung) eingegeben, damit du die Mutter der Städte und diejenigen rings umher warnst, und damit du vor dem Tag der Versammlung warnst, an dem es keinen Zweifel gibt. Eine Gruppe wird im (Paradies)garten sein und eine Gruppe in der Feuerglut. (Bubenheim)
42.7. So haben Wir dir einen arabischen Koran offenbart, damit du die Menschen der Mutter der Städte, und in den umliegenden Gebieten warnst. Du sollst sie vor dem Tag der Versammlung warnen, der ohne Zweifel kommen wird. Dann teilen sich die Menschen in zwei Gruppen, die eine kommt ins Paradies und die andere in die Hölle. (Azhar)
42.7. Und solcherart ließen WIR dir einen arabischen Quran zuteil werden, damit du die Mutterortschaft und das, was um sie herum ist, warnst, und damit du vor dem Tag des Versammelns warnst, über den es keinerlei Zweifel gibt. Ein Teil ist in der Dschanna und ein Teil ist in der Gluthitze. (Zaidan)
42.7. Und so haben wir dir einen arabischen Koran (als Offenbarung) eingegeben, damit du die Mutter der Städte (umm al-quraa) und die Leute in ihrer Umgebung warnst, und damit du (deine Landsleute) vor dem Tag der Versammlung warnst (dem jüngsten Tag), an dem nicht zu zweifeln ist. Ein Teil wird (schließlich) im Paradies sein, ein anderer im Höllenbrand. (Paret)
42.7. Und so haben Wir dir den Qur'an auf Arabisch offenbart, auf daß du die Mutter der Städte warnest und alle rings um sie, und (auf daß) du (sie) vor dem Tag der Versammlung warnest, über den kein Zweifel herrscht. Eine Gruppe wird im Paradies sein und eine Gruppe im flammenden Feuer. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 7 bis 7
Yes: thus have We revealed to you, O Prophet, this Arabic Qur'an ( 8 ) so that you may warn those who dwell in the centre of habitations (i.e. Makkah) and around it, ( 9 ) and warn them of the Day of Gathering t ( 10 ) which is sure to come: one group shall go to Paradise and the other to Hell.
Desc No: 8 The same thing which had been said in the beginning of the discourse has been said again with greater emphasis, and by making mention of the "Arabic Qur'an", the listeners have been warned to the effect: "The Qur'an is not in any foreign language but in your own language: you can understand it yourself directly; study its themes and see for yourself that the pure and selfless guidance that is being given in it can be from none other than the Lord of the Universe."
Desc No: 9 That is, "Arouse them from slumber and warn them that there is nothing but destruction in store for them in consequence of the errors of morality and conduct in which they are involved and of the perverse principle on which they have ordered their individual and collective lives."
Desc No: 10 That is, "Tell them also that this destruction is not confined only to this world but the Day has to come when Allah will gather together all mankind and subject them to accountability. Even if a person escaped the evil consequences of his deviation and wickedness in the world, there will be no chance of his escape on that Day, and highly unfortunate is he, who is doomed to a tragic fate both in this world and in the Hereafter."
42.8. Walaw schaa Allahu ladschaAAalahumommatan wahidatan walakin yudkhilu man yaschaofii rahmatihi waaldhdhalimuunama lahum min waliyyin wala nasiirin
42.8. Had Allah willed, He could have made them one community, but Allah bringeth whom He will into His mercy. And the wrong doers have no friend nor helper. (Pickthall)
42.8. Und wenn Allah wollte, bestimmt hätte Er sie zu einer einzigen Gemeinschaft gemacht, aber Er läßt, wen Er will, eingehen in Seine Barmherzigkeit, und die Unrechthandelnden, für sie gibt es keinen Schutzfreund und keinen Helfer. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.8. Und wenn Allah gewollt hätte, hätte Er sie wahrlich zu einer einzigen Gemeinschaft gemacht. Aber Er läßt, wen Er will, in Seine Barmherzigkeit eingehen. Und die Ungerechten haben weder Schutzherrn noch Helfer. (Bubenheim)
42.8. Hätte Gott gewollt, hätte Er sie zu einer einzigen Nation gemacht. Er aber nimmt in Seine Barmherzigkeit auf, wen Er will, weiss Er doch (wie sich jeder für die Rechtleitung entscheidet). Die Ungerechten aber haben weder Beschützer noch Helfer. (Azhar)
42.8. Und hätte ALLAH gewollt, gewiss hätte ER euch zu einer einzigen Umma gemacht. Doch ER lässt in Seine Gnade eintreten, wen ER will. Und für die Unrecht-Begehenden gibt es weder Wali, noch Beistehenden. (Zaidan)
42.8. Und wenn Allah gewollt hätte, hätte er sie zu einer einzigen Gemeinschaft (umma) gemacht. Aber er läßt in seine Barmherzigkeit eingehen, wen er will. Und die Frevler haben (dereinst) weder Freund noch Helfer. (Paret)
42.8. Hätte Allah gewollt, hätte Er sie zu einer einzigen Gemeinde gemacht; jedoch läßt Er in Seine Barmherzigkeit ein, wen Er will. Und die Ungerechten werden weder Beschützer noch Helfer haben. (Rasul)
42.9. Ami ittakhadhuu min duunihi awliyaafaAllahu huwa alwaliyyu wahuwa yuhyii almawtawahuwa AAala kulli schay-in qadiirun
42.9. Or have they chosen protecting friends besides Him? But Allah, He (alone) is the Protecting Friend. He quickeneth the dead, and He is Able to do all things. (Pickthall)
42.9. Oder haben sie sich anstelle Seiner Schutzfreunde genommen? Also Allah, Er ist der Schutzfreund, und Er gibt den Verstorbenen Leben, und Er ist zu allem imstande. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.9. Oder haben sie sich anstatt Seiner Schutzherren genommen? Allah (allein) ist doch der Schutzherr. Er macht die Toten wieder lebendig, und Er hat zu allem die Macht. (Bubenheim)
42.9. Sie nahmen anstatt Seiner Beschützer. Doch Gott allein ist der Beschützer. Er ist es, Der die Toten zur Abrechnung auferweckt, und Er ist es, Dessen Allmacht alles umfasst. (Azhar)
42.9. Oder nahmen sie sich etwa anstelle von Ihm Wali?! Also ALLAH ist Der wahre Wali, und ER belebt die Toten, und ER ist über alles allmächtig. (Zaidan)
42.9. Oder haben sie sich an seiner Statt Freunde genommen, wo doch Allah der (einzig wahre) Freund ist? Er (allein) bringt die Toten (wieder) zum Leben und hat zu allem die Macht. (Paret)
42.9. Oder haben sie sich etwa Beschützer außer Ihm genommen? Doch Allah allein ist der Beschützer; und Er macht die Toten lebendig; und Er hat Macht über alle Dinge. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 8 bis 9
Had Allah so willed, He would have made all of them a single nation, but He admits into His mercy whomever He wills; and the wrongdoers have neither any protector nor helper. ( 11 ) What! Have (the foolish people) taken other guardians besides Him? Guardian is Allah alone: He alone gives life to the dead, and He has power over everything. ( 12 )
Desc No: 11 This theme has three objects in this context: First, it is meant to instruct and console the Holy Prophet, as if to say: "Do not grieve so much at the ignorance and deviation of the disbelievers of Makkah and their stubbornness and obduracy. It is Allah's will that man should be granted the freedom of choice and action: then whoever desires to have guidance should be given guidance, and whoever wants to remain. astray should be allowed to go astray. Had this not been Allah's will, there was no need whatever of sending the Prophets and the Book; for this only a creative hint of Allah Almighty's was enough: all human beings would have become as obedient as the rivers, mountains, trees, stones, and all other creatures. " (In this connection, please also see AI-An'am: 35-36, 107). Secondly, its addressees arc all those people who were involved in the confusion, and even now are, that if Allah really had wanted to show guidance to human beings and He did not like the differences of creed and practice that were prevalent among the people, and wanted to have the people adopt the way of the Faith and Islam, there was no need of the Revelation and the Book and the Prophethood. He could have easily achieved this object by creating everyone a believer and Muslim by birth. Another result of this confusion was also this reasoning: "When Allah has not done so, the different ways that we are following, are approved by Him, and whatever we are doing, is according to His wilt. Therefore, nobody has any right to object to it. " (To remove this misunderstanding also this theme has been mentioned at several places in the Qur'an. Please see Al-An'am: 112, 137, 148-149; Yunus : 99; Hud: 118-119; An-Nahl: 9, 35 and the relevant E.N.'s). Thirdly, its object is to make the believers realize the truth about the difficulties that one generally faces in the way of preaching religion and reforming the people. Those people who do not understand the reality of the God, given freedom of choice and will and of the resulting differences of temperament and methods, sometimes become despondent at the slow progress of the reformatory work and wish that some supernatural things should appear from Allah, which should change the hearts of the people, and are sometimes inclined to adopt unsound methods of bringing about reformation, owing to excessive enthusiasm. (For this object also this theme has occurred at some places in the Qur'an, for which see Ar-Ra'd: 31, An-Nahl: 91-93). To highlight these objects a very important theme has been expressed in these brief sentences. Allah's real vicegerency in the world and His Paradise in the Hereafter is not an ordinary blessing, which may be distributed over creatures of the rank of the earth and stones and donkeys and horses as a common blessing. This is indeed a special blessing and a blessing of a very high order for which even the angels were not considered fit. That in why Allah created man as a creature endowed with power and authority and placed vast means of His earth under his control and blessed him with these special powers so that he may pass through the test, success in which alone can entitle a servant to His blessings. This blessing, is Allah's own; no one has a monopoly over it, nor can anyone claim to have it on the basis of a personal right, nor has anyone the power to take it by force. He who presents service before Allah, who takes Him as his Guardian and comes under His protection, alone can have it. Then Allah blesses him with help, guidance and grace to pass this test, so that he may enter His Mercy. As for the unjust Tnan who turns away from Allah Himself and instead takes others as his patrons, Allah-Has no need that he should become his guardian by force. And the others whom He takes as his guardians do not possess any knowledge and power and authority that they may enable him to achieve success by dint of their guardianship of him.
Desc No: 12 That is, "Guardianship is not a thing of one's personal choice and satisfaction that one may take anyone one may please as one's guardian, and the other may also become ones real and true guardian and may do full justice to the function of guardianship. This is an actual reality, which does not change with the whims of the people; the Guardian is He Who is really the Guardian, whether someone regards and acknowledges Him as his Guardian or not, and the one who is not in reality the ,guardian is not the guardian, no matter whether someone continues to regard and acknowledge him as his guardian till the last moment. Now, as for the question: What is the proof of only Allah's being the real Guardian and of no one else's being the guardian? the answer is: Man's real Guardian can be the one who changes death into life, who has created a living man by breathing life into inorganic substances, and who also possesses the powers and authority to do full justice to the function of Guardianship. If there is such a one, apart from Allah, he may be made the guardian, and if He is Allah alone, then taking another beside Him as one's guardian is nothing but ignorance and folly and self-destruction.
42.10. And in whatsoever ye differ, the verdict therein belongeth to Allah. Such is my Lord, in Whom I put my trust, and unto Whom I turn. (Pickthall)
42.10. Und worüber ihr in etwas uneinig seid, so ist sein Urteil bei Allah. Dies ist Allah, mein Herr, auf Ihn vertraue ich, und zu Ihm wende ich mich hin, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.10. Und worüber ihr auch immer uneinig seid, das Urteil darüber steht Allah (allein) zu. Dies ist doch Allah, mein Herr. Auf Ihn verlasse ich mich, und Ihm wende ich mich reuig zu. (Bubenheim)
42.10. Alles, worüber ihr euch streitet, wird von Gott allein entschieden. So ist Gott, mein Herr, auf Den ich mich verlasse und zu Dem allein ich mich wende. (Azhar)
42.10. Und Jegliches, worin ihr uneins werdet, so unterliegt dessen Entscheidung ALLAH. Dieser ist ALLAH, mein HERR. Ihm gegenüber übe ich Tawakkul, und zu Ihm wende ich mich hin. (Zaidan)
42.10. Und wenn ihr über etwas uneins seid, steht die Entscheidung darüber Allah zu. So (zaalikum) ist Allah, mein Herr. (Er hat über alles zu entscheiden.) Auf ihn vertraue ich, und ihm wende ich mich (bußfertig) zu. (Paret)
42.10. Und über was immer ihr uneins seid, die Entscheidung darüber ruht bei Allah. Das ist Allah, mein Herr; auf Ihn vertraue ich, und zu Ihm wende ich mich. (Rasul)