42.11. The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He hath made for you pairs of yourselves, and of the cattle also pairs, whereby He multiplieth you. Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer. (Pickthall)
42.11. Der Erschaffer der Himmel und der Erde, Er hat für euch aus euch selber Paare gemacht und aus dem Weidevieh Paare, Er erzeugt euch dadurch, es gibt nichts Seinesgleichen, und Er ist der Hörende, der im Blick hat. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.11. (Er ist) der Erschaffer der Himmel und der Erde. Er hat euch aus euch selbst Gattinnen gemacht, und auch aus dem Vieh Paare, wodurch Er euch vermehrt. Nichts ist Ihm gleich; und Er ist der Allhörende und Allsehende. (Bubenheim)
42.11. Er ist der Schöpfer der Himmel und der Erde. Er hat euch aus euch selbst Gattinnen erschaffen. Auch für das Vieh hat Er aus seiner Art weibliche Tiere erschaffen. So vermehrt Er euch. Nichts ist Gott gleich. Er ist es, Der alles hört und alles sieht. (Azhar)
42.11. ER ist Der Schöpfer der Himmel und der Erde. ER machte für euch aus euch selbst Zweiheiten, sowie von den An'am Zweiheiten. ER lässt euch damit vermehren. Es gibt nichts Seinesgleichen! Und ER ist Der Allhörende, Der Allsehende. (Zaidan)
42.11. (Er ist) der Schöpfer von Himmel und Erde. Er hat euch (Menschen) und (auch) die Herdentiere zu Paaren gemacht und dadurch bewirkt, daß ihr euch (auf der Erde) verbreitet. Es gibt nichts, was ihm gleichkommen würde. Er ist der, der (alles) hört und sieht. (Paret)
42.11. Der Schöpfer der Himmel und der Erde - Er hat aus euch selbst Gattinnen für euch gemacht und Paare aus den Tieren. Dadurch vermehrt Er euch. Es gibt nichts Seinesgleichen; und Er ist der Allhörende, der Allsehende. (Rasul)
42.12. His are the keys of the heavens and the earth. He enlargeth providence for whom He will and straiteneth (it for whom He will). Lo! He is Knower of all things. (Pickthall)
42.12. Sein sind die Schlüssel der Himmel und der Erde, Er weitet die Versorgung aus, für wen Er will, und er mißt ab, Er weiß ja alles. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.12. Ihm gehören die Schlüssel der Himmel und der Erde. Er gewährt die Versorgung großzügig, wem Er will, und bemißt auch. Gewiß, Er weiß über alles Bescheid. (Bubenheim)
42.12. Er herrscht über die Himmel und die Erde. Er gibt dem einen mehr an Lebensunterhalt, dem anderen weniger. Sein Wissen umfasst alles. (Azhar)
42.12. Ihm gehören die Schlüssel der Himmel und der Erde. ER gewährt viel Rizq, wem ER will, und ER gewährt wenig. Gewiß, ER ist über alles allwissend. (Zaidan)
42.12. Er hat die Schlüssel von Himmel und Erde. Er teilt den Unterhalt reichlich zu, wem er will, und begrenzt (ihn auch wieder). Er weiß über alles Bescheid. (Paret)
42.12. Sein sind die Schlüssel der Himmel und der Erde. Er erweitert und beschränkt dem die Mittel zum Unterhalt, dem Er will. Wahrlich, Er ist der Allwissende aller Dinge. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 10 bis 12
lt ( 13 ) is for Allah to give judgement in whatever you may differ ( 14 ) . The same Allah ( 15 ) is my Lord: in Him did I put my trust, and to Him I turn. ( 16 ) He is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Who made for you pairs from your own kind, and pairs also of the cattle (from their own kind) so as to multiply you. There is nothing like Him in the universe: ( 17 ) He hears everything and sees everything. ( 18 ) To Him belong the keys of the treasures of the heavens and the earth: He gives abundantly to whomsoever He wills and sparingly to whomsoever He wills: He has knowledge of everything. ( 19 )
Desc No: 13 From here to the end of verse 12, though the whole discourse is a Revelation from Allah, the speaker is not Allah but the Holy Messenger of Allah. In other words, Allah Almighty is telling His Prophet to make this proclamation to the people. Such themes in the Qur'an sometimes begin with qul (say, O Prophet) and sometimes without it. only the style indicates that the speaker at a place is not Allah but Allah's Messenger. Even at some places though the words are Allah's, the speaker arc the believers, as for example in Surah AI-Fatihah; or, the speaker are the angels as in Surah Maryam: 64-65.
Desc No: 14 This is the natural and logical demand of Allah Almighty's being the Master of the Universe and His being the real Guardian. When Sovereignty and Guardianship belong to Him only inevitably He alone is also the Ruler, and it is for Him to judge human beings' mutual disputes and differences. Those who restrict it only to the Hereafter make a mistake. There is no argument to prove that Allah's position as a Ruler has no effect in this world but is meant only for the life hereafter. Likewise, those who restrict it only to beliefs and a few questions of "religious nature" are also in the wrong. The words arc general and they clearly proclaim Allah as having the sole right to judge all disputes and differences. According to them, just as Allah is the Master of the Day of Judgement in the Hereafter; so He is the best of Judges in this world too; and just as He is the Settler of the differences pertaining to beliefs as to what is the Truth and what is falsehood, so also in legal matters He is the Settler of differences as to what is pure for man and what is impure. what is lawful and desirable for him and what is forbidden and undesirable, what is evil and vicious in morals and what is good and virtuous, what arc the rights of the people in their mutual dealings and what are the right practices in social political and economic life and what arc wrong. On this very basis the Qur'an has declared this principle as the fundamental of law: "lf there arises any dispute between you about anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger. " (An-Nisa: 59). And: "It does not behove a believing man and a believing woman that when Allah and His Messenger have given their verdict in a mattcr, they should exercise an option in that matter of theirs." (AI-Ahzab: 36). And: ¦O people, follow what has been sent down to you from your Lord and do not follow other patrons beside Him." (AI-A'raf: 3). Then, in the context in which this verse has occurred, it gives another meaning also and it is: 'To decide differences is not only Allah's legal right on accepting or rejecting which depends man's being a believer or an unbeliever, but Allah, in fact, practically also is deciding between the truth and falsehood due to which falsehood and its worshippers are ultimately being destroyed and the truth and the faithful are being honoured and exalted, no mattcr how delayed the enforcement of this decision may seem to be. This theme occurs in verse 24 below, and has been expressed at several places above in the Qur'an. For this please see Ar-Ra'd: 17, 41; Ibrahim: 24-27; Bani Isra'il 81; AI-Anbiya': 18, 44; and the E N.'s.
Desc No: 15 "The same Allah", Who is the real Settler of disputes.
Desc No: 16 These arc two verbs one of which is in the past tense and the other in the present which contains the sense of perpetuity. In the past verb it was said: "In Him did I put my trust," i.e.. "I decided once and for all that as long as I live I have to rely on His help, on His guidance, on His support and protection, and on His decision." Then in the present verb it was said: "To Him I turn," i.e. "Whatever situation I face in lift, I turn only to Allah in it. I do not look towards others in an affliction or trouble or difficulty but invoke only Him for help; I Beck only His refuge when I face a danger and depend on His protection; I turn to Him' for guidance whenever I am confronted by a problem and seek its solution in His teaching and guidance; and I look up only to Him when I have a dispute with somebody with the belief that He alone will give the final decision, and have the faith that whatever decision He gives will be the right one. "
Desc No: 17 Literally, "Nothing is like His likeness," which implies this: Even if there were a likeness of Allah, nothing would be like it not to speak of being like unto Allah Himself.
Desc No: 18 That is, "At one and the same time He is hearing everybody and seeing everything in the Universe. "
Desc No: 19 These are the arguments to prove why Allah alone is the true Guardian and why putting trust in Him alone is right and correct and why He alone should be turned to in all matters. (For explanation, see An-Naml: 60-66, Ar-Rum: 20-22 and the E.N.'s). "
42.13. ScharaAAa lakum mina alddiini mawassa bihi nuuhan waalladhii awhaynailayka wama wassayna bihi ibrahiimawamuusa waAAiisa an aqiimuu alddiina walatatafarraquu fiihi kabura AAala almuschrikiina matadAAuuhum ilayhi Allahu yadschtabii ilayhi man yaschaowayahdii ilayhi man yuniibu
42.13. He hath ordained for you that religion which He commended unto Noah, and that which We inspire in thee (Muhammad), and that which We commended unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion, and be not divided therein. Dreadful for the idolaters is that unto which thou callest them. Allah chooseth for Himself whom He will, and guideth unto Himself him who turneth (toward Him). (Pickthall)
42.13. Er hat euch als Gesetz gegeben, von der Religion, was Er Nuh angewiesen hat, und das, was Wir dir offenbaren, und was Wir Ibrahim angewiesen haben und Musa und Isa: Richtet die Religion ein und spaltet euch nicht darin, - eine große Sache ist es für die Mitgöttergebenden, wozu du sie rufst. Allah wählt sich dafür, wen Er will, und Er leitet recht dazu, wer sich hinwendet. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.13. Er hat euch von der Religion festgelegt, was Er Nuh anbefahl und was Wir dir (als Offenbarung) eingegeben haben und was Wir Ibrahim, Musa und ´Isa anbefahlen: Haltet die (Vorschriften der) Religion ein und spaltet euch nicht darin (in Gruppen). Den Götzendienern setzt das schwer zu, wozu du sie aufrufst. Allah erwählt dazu, wen Er will, und leitet dazu, wer sich (Ihm) reuig zuwendet. (Bubenheim)
42.13. Euch hat Er als Religion verordnet, was Er Noah geboten hatte, was dir offenbart worden ist und was Wir Abraham, Moses und Jesus geboten haben. Ihr sollt die Religion aufrechterhalten und nicht darüber streiten. Die Ungläubigen sind zu überheblich, um das anzunehmen, wozu ihr sie aufruft. Gott erwählt, wen Er will und leitet zu Seinem Weg, wer sich andächtig und bussfertig Ihm zuwendet. (Azhar)
42.13. ER trug euch vom Din das auf, was ER Nuh zuwies, das, was WIR dir als Wahy zuteil werden ließen, und das, was WIR Ibrahim, Musa und 'Isa zuwiesen: „Haltet den Din ein und spaltet euch darin nicht!“ Etwas Schwerwiegendes für die Muschrik ist das, wozu du sie rufst. ALLAH bringt ihm (dem Din) nahe, wen ER will, und ER leitet zu ihm recht, wer sich hinwendet. (Zaidan)
42.13. Er hat euch als Religion verordnet (schara`a lakum mina d-dieni), was er (seinerzeit) dem Noah anbefohlen hat, und was wir (nunmehr) dir (als Offenbarung) eingegeben, und was wir (vor dir) dem Abraham, Moses und Jesus anempfohlen haben (mit der Aufforderung): "Haltet die (Vorschriften der) Religion (aqiemuu d-diena) und teilt euch nicht (in verschiedene Gruppen)!" Den Heiden kommt es (allerdings) schwer an, wozu du sie rufst. (Aber) Allah erwählt dazu, wen er will, und führt dazu (auf den rechten Weg), wer sich ihm (bußfertig) zuwendet. (Paret)
42.13. Er verordnete für euch die Religion, die Er Noah anbefahl und die Wir dir offenbart haben und die Wir Abraham und Moses und Jesus anbefohlen haben. Nämlich (die), in der Einhaltung der Religion treu zu bleiben und euch deswegen nicht zu spalten. Hart ist für die Götzendiener das, wozu du sie aufrufst. Allah erwählt dazu, wen Er will, und leitet dazu den, der sich bekehrt. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 13 bis 13
He has appointed for you the same Way of life which He had ordained for Noah and which (0 Muhammad) We have now revealed to you; and which We had already enjoined on Abraham and Moses and Jesus, stressing: "Establish this Way and be not divided in it. " ( 20 ) The same thing to which you (O Muhammad) are calling the mushriks has set them ill at ease. Allah chooses for Himself whomever He wills, and He guides to His Way only him who turns to Him (in penitence). ( 21 )
Desc No: 20 Here the same thing as already mentioned in the first verse has been further elaborated. It clearly states that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) is not the founder of any new religion, nor was any of the Prophets a founder of a separate religion, but it has been one and the same Religion which all the Prophets have been presenting from Allah from the very beginning, and the same is being presented by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). In this regard, the first name mentioned is of the Prophet Noah, who was the first Prophet after the Flood. After him the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) has been mentioned, who is the last of the Prophets; then the Prophet Abraham has been mentioned, whom the Arabs acknowledged as their guide, and last of all, the Prophets Moses and Jesus have been mentioned to whom the Jews and the Christians attribute their religions. This dces not mean that only these five Prophets had been enjoined this Religion, but what is meant to be said is that all the Prophets who came to this world, brought one and the same Religion and the names of the five illustrious Prophets have been mentioned only as examples through whom the world received the most well known codes of Divine Law. As this verse throws important light on Din (Religion) and its aim, it is necessary that we should study it to understand it well. Lexically, the word shara'a in shara'a !a kum (ordained for you) means to make the way. As a term it implies appointing a way, a code and a rule. Accordingly , in Arabic the words tashri' ` and shari'at and shari' arc understood as the synonyms of legislation and law and law giver respectively. This Divine legislation, in fact, is the natural and logical result of the fundamental truths which have been stated in verses l, 9 and 10 above: that Allah alone is the Owner of everything in the Universe, and He alone is man's real Guardian and it is for Him to judge the disputes that arise between human beings. Now, when Allah alone is the Owner and Guardian and Ruler, inevitably He alone is entitled to make the code of law for man and it is His responsibility that He should give this code of law to man. So, He has carried out His responsibility like this. Then the words min-ad-din (of the nature of din) denote that the way appointed by Allah is legislation pertaining to din. If the explanation of the word din that we have given in E.N. 3 of Surah Zumar above, is kept in view, there can be no difficulty in understanding that din means nothing but acknowledging the sovereignty and leadership of someone and obeying his commands. And when this word is used in the meaning of the way, it implies the way which man must regard as obligatory for himself to follow and the one appointing it as the one whom he ought to obey. On this basis, calling God-appointed Way as legislation pertaining to din clearly means that it is not merely recommendatory in nature or a mere counsel, but it is a law enjoined by the Master, which must necessarily be obeyed by the servants and disobedience of which is tantamount to rebellion, and the one who does not obey it, in fact, denies Allah's being the Sovereign and Ruler and his own position of a servant. " Then, it has been said that this legislation which pertains to din is the same as was enjoined on Noah. Abraham and Moses (peace be upon them all) and the same now has been enjoined on Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace). This contains several points: (1) That Allah did not send this legislation of His directly to every man, but appointed Whenever He deemed proper and necessary a person as His Messenger and consigned the legislation w him; (2) that this legislation has been the same from the beginning: it did not so happen that in one age one particular din was appointed for a nation, and in another age another and contradictory din was sent for another nation. Allah did not send many dins but on every occasion He sent one and the same din; (3) that it is an essential part of this din to acknowledge the apostleship of those men through whom the legislation has been sent and the Revelation in which the legislation has been couched, besides acknowledging the Sovereignty of Allah; and it is the demand of reason and logic too, that it should be a necessary part of it, for a man cannot obey this legislation at all unless he is satisfied that it is authentically from Allah. Then it has been said that the Prophets were given this legislation pertaining to din ", with the express instruction: "Aqim-ud-din "; "Establish this din", or "Keep this din established," as variously translated by Shah Waliullah, Shah Rafi'uddin and Shah `Abdul Qadir. Both these translations are correct, for iqamat means both to establish and to keep established, and the Prophets were appointed to perform both the functions. Their first duty was to establish this din wherever it was not established, and the second that they should keep it established after they had established it, or had found it already established in a place. Obviously, a thing can be kept established only when it has already been established, otherwise the primary requirement would be to establish it first, and then make continuous effort to keep it established. Here, two questions arise : First, what is the meaning of establishing the din? Second, what is din itself, which we have been enjoined to establish and then keep it established? Let us try to understand these questions well. The word iqamat (to establish) when used in respect of a material or physical object implies causing it to rise from the sitting or lying positions or assembling the scattered parts of a thing and raising it up high. But when iqamat is used in respect of a thing which is not material but spiritual in nature it dces not merely imply preaching it, but also acting according to it as best as one can, introducing it and enforeing it practically. For example, when we say that so and-so established his rule, it does not mean that he invited others to his government but that he subdued the people of the land and organised the different departments of the government in a way that the administration of the country began to function according to his orders. Similarly, when we say that courts have been established in the country, it means that judges have been appointed to do justice and they ate hearing the cases and giving judgements, and not that hymns in praise of justice arc being sung and the people being impressed. Likewise, when the Qur'an enjoins the establishment of the Prayer (Salat), it does not imply that one should merely preach and exhort others to the Prayer but that one should not only perform it oneself, observing all its conditions, but should also strive to make arrangement so that it becomes a' regular practice among the believers. There should be mosques, there should be arrangements for offering the Prayer collectively and for the Friday congregational Prayer, and for making calls to the Prayer punctually; there should be the Imams to lead the Prayers and the scholars to give sermons, and the people should visit the mosques regularly and punctually and make offering the Prayer an essential part of their daily routine. After this explanation, there should remain no difficulty in understanding that when the Prophets were enjoined to establish the din and to keep it established, it did not simply mean that they. should practise it themselves and not even this that they should preach it to others so that the people may accept its truth, but also that when the people have accepted it, steps should be taken to introduce and enforce the entire din practically among them so that they may start living according to it for ever afterwards. No doubt preaching is the primary necessary stage of this work without which there can be no second stage, but every intelligent person can himself see that in this Command preaching has not been made the object, but the real object is to establish the din and keep it established. Preaching is certainly a means to the end but not the end in itself, but nobody can say that it was the only and foremost object of the mission of the Prophets. Now, Iet us take the second question. When some people saw that the din which has been enjoined to be established is common among all the Prophets, and their shari'ahs have been different, as Allah Himself says: "We appointed for each community among you a law and a way of life", they formed the view that inevitably this din did not imply the shari' ah commandments, rules and regulations but only the acceptance of Tauhid, the Hereafter and the Book and the Prophethood and performance of certain acts of devotion to Allah, or at the most, it included some of the major moral principles which have been common to all the shari ahs. But this is a superficial view, which has been formed after having a cursory glance over the unity of religion and the difference of the shari'ahs. This is, however, a dangerous view, which if not corrected in time, may well lead to the separation between din (religion) and shari'ahs (law). It was this very view in, which St. Paul was involved, who presented the doctrine of the din (religion) without shari'ah (law), and corrupted the community of the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him). For, if shari'ah (law) is something separate from din (religion) and the command is only for establishing the din and not the shari'ah, inevitably the Muslims also, like the Christians, would regard the shari ah as unimportant and overlook its establishment as not being the real object by itself, and would remain content with only beliefs and a few important moral principles. Instead of determining the meaning of din from such speculations, Iet us turn to the Qur'an itself and see whether the din which we have . been enjoined here to establish unplies the beliefs and a few important moral principles only, or the shari'ah values and commandments as well. When we explore the Qur'an we find that what it regards as din includes the following things as well: (1) "And the only Command they were given was to worship Allah, making their din sincerely His, turning all their attention towards Him, and to establish the ,salat and to pay the Zakat.' this alone is the true and right din. " (Al-Bayyinah: 5). This shows that the Salat and the Zakat are included in this din. whereas the commandments .pertaining to both have been different in the different shari ahs. No one can say that in all the previous shari ahs the Salat has had the same form, the same elements, the same mumber of the rak ahs, the same direction of the giblah, the same times and the same other commands concerning it. Likewise, no one can claim also about the Zakat that in all the shari ahs the same has been the exemption limit, the same rates and the same injunctions concerning its collection and distribution. But in spite of the difference of the shari'ahs, Allah has regarded both these as part of din. (2) 'You are forbidden carrion and blood, the flesh of swine and of that animal which has been slaughtered in any other name than of Allah, and of the strangled animal, and of that beaten to death or killed by a fall or gored to death or mangled by a beast of prey---save of that you duly slaughtered while it was still alive - and of that which is slaughtered at (ungodly) shrines. It is also unlawfirl for you to try to find your fortune by means of divining devices, for all these things are sinful acts. Today the disbelievers have despaired of (vanquishing) your religion; therefore do not fear them but fear Me. Today I have perfected your din for you and completed My blessing on you and approved Islam as the din (way of life) for you." (AI-Ma'idah: 3). This shows that all these shari sh commandments are also din. (3) Fight with those from among the people of the Book, who do not believe in Allah nor in the Last Day; who do not make unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful, and do not adopt the right din as their din. " (At-Taubah: 29). This shows that besides belief in Allah and the Hereafter it . is also din to accept and follow the Commands about the lawful and the unlawful, which have been given by Allah and His Messenger. (4) "The woman and the man guilty of fornication, flog each one of them with a hundred stripes, and let not any pity for them restrain you in regard to a matter prescribed in the din of Allah, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day." (An-Nur: 2). "It did not behove Joseph to seize his brother by the king's din. " (Yusuf: 76). This shows that the criminal law is also din. If a man follows the criminal law prescribed by God, he is a follower of God's din and if he follows a king's law, he is a follower of the king's din. These are the four specimens in which the shari'ah commandments have been described as din in clear words. But, besides these, a careful study shows that the eradication of the sins for which Allah has held out the threat of Hell (e.g. adultery, taking of interest, killing of a believer, consuming the property of the orphan, taking possession of the other peoples properties in unlawful ways etc.), and the crimes which become the cause of God's torment, e.g. sodomy (the act of Lot's people) and dishonesty in business dealings (as practised by the Prophet Shu'aib's people) should necessarily be included in din, for if din cannot save one from Hell and Allah's torment, what use could it be ? Likewise, those shari'ah commandments also should be part of the din violation of which has been regarded as cause of entry into the Fire, e.g. injunctions relating to inheritance, after stating which it has been said: "And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses the limits prescribed by Him, Allah will cast him into the Fire wherein he will have a disgraceful torment." (An-Nisa: 14,). Likewise, the prohibition of those things whose prohibition Allah has mentioned with great emphasis and absoluteness, e.g. prohibition of the mother, sister and daughter and prohibition of wine, theft, gambling, false evidence, etc. if not included in the establishment of the din, it would mean that Allah has given some unnecessary Commands also, which are not meant to be introduced and enforced. Similarly, establishing those things which Allah has made obligatory, e g. fasting and pilgrimage; cannot be excluded from the establishment of din only on the pretext that the 30 fasts of Ramadan had not been enjoined in the previous shari ah, and pilgrimage to the Ka'bah was enjoined only in the Shariah which was inherited by the Ishmaelite branch of the Prophet Abraham's progeny. As a matter of fact, the misunderstanding was caused only because the verse: "We appointed for each community among you a law and a way of life", has been misconstrued to mean that since the shari'ah appointed for every community was separate. and the command given was only to establish the din (way of life) which was common to all the Prophets, the establishment of the shari ah was not included in the establishment of the din, whereas the real meaning of this verse is just the opposite of it. If the context (vv. 41-50) in which this verse has occurred in Surah AI-Ma'idah is studied carefully, it will be seen that the correct meaning of this verse is: Whatever shari 'ah was given by Allah to the community of a Prophet, was the din for that community, and the establishment of the same din was the object during his Prophethood. And since now is the period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad's Prophethood, the shari ah which has been given to the Ummah of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) is the din of this time, and to establish the same is to establish the din. As for the difference of the shari ah, it does not mean that the shari 'ahs sent by God were mutually contradictory, but it means that in their details there have been some differences owing to the different environments, take, for instance, the Prayer and the Fast. The Prayer has been obligatory in all the shari' ahs, but the giblah of all the shari ahs was not the same, and there was a difference in its times and rakahs and elements as well. Likewise, the Fast was obligatory in every shari'ah, but the 30 fasts of Ramadan were not there in the other shari ahs. From this it is not correct to conclude that the Prayer and the Fast as such are included in the establishment of din but performing the Prayer in a particular way and observing the Fast at a particular time is excluded from it. However, the correct conclusion that one can draw is: To perform the Prayer and observe the Fast according to the rules and procedures that had been appointed for the people in the shari'ah of every Prophet amounted to establishment of din in his time. In the present age the establishment of the din is that these acts of worship be performed according to the procedures enjoined in the Shari 'ah of the Prophet Muhammad. The same is true about all other Shari'ah commandments as well. Whoever studies the Qur'an carefully will see that this Book does not envisage that its adherents will live as subjects of the disbelievers and will pass a religious lift under them, but it openly proclaims that it will have its own rule established; it demands from its followers that they should struggle with their lives for the intellectual, cultural, Iegal and political supremacy of the true Faith; and it gives them a programme for the reformation of human life, the major part of which can be acted upon only when political power and authority is in the believers' hand. As stated by itself, the object of this Book's being sent down is: "We have sent down this Book to you with the Truth so that you may judge between the people in accordance with the light that Allah has shown you. " (An-Nisa: 105). The Commandments given in this Book about the collection and distribution of the Zakat expressly envisage a government who should be responsible for collecting the Zakat and distributing it among the deserving people according to a laid down procedure. (At-Taubah;60,103). The prohibition of interest that has been enjoined in this Book aad the declaration of war that has been made against those who do not abstain from taking interest (AI-Baqarah: 27_5-279) can be enforced only when the political and economic system of the country is entirely in the believers' hand. The Law of Retribution for murder (AI-Baqarah: 178), cutting off of the hand for theft (AI-Ma'idah 38) and carrying out of the prescribed punishment for adultery and calumny (An-Nur: 2-4) have not been enjoined on the assumption that the believers will remain subject to the police and courts of the disbelievers. The Command to fight the disbelievers (AlBaqarah: 190, 216) has not been given with the idea that the followers of this din will carry out this Command by getting enlisted in the army of disbelief. The command to take Jizyah from the followers of the former Books (At-Taubah: 29) has not been given on the assumption that the Muslims will take Jizyah from them while being their subjects and will be responsible for their protection. And this thing is not true only about the Madinite Surahs; in the Makkan Surahs as well a discerning eye can clearly see that the scheme envisaged from the very beginning was of Islam's supremacy and dominance and not of Islam's and the Muslims' subjugation under an un-Islamic rule. See, for instance, Bani Isra`il: 76-89; AlQasas: 85-86; Ar-Rum: 1-6; As-Saaffat: 171-179; Suad: Introduction, v. 11 and E.N. 12 on it. Above all, this misinterpretation clashes with the great work that the Holy Prophet himself accomplished during the 23 years of his Prophethood. Who can deny the fact that he subdued entire Arabia by means of both preaching and the sword and established in it a full fledged system of government with a detailed law, covering all aspects of life, from beliefs and rites of worship to personal conduct, collective morality, culture and civilization, economic and social life, politics and judiciary, peace and war. If this entire work of the Holy Prophet is not accepted as a commentary of the Command of "iqamat din " (establishment of din) which, according to this verse, he had been enjoined to undertake like all other Prophets, then it could have one of the two meanings: That earlier, God forbid, the Holy Prophet should be blamed that he had been appointed only to preach and teach beliefs and a few important moral rules but he exceeded his mandate and established a government of his own whim and laid down a code of law, which was different from the common law of the Prophets as well as in excess of it; or that Allah should be blamed that after having made the abovementioned declaration in Surah Ash-Shura. He went back on His own word, and made His Last Prophet do something which was not only much over and about and different from the objective of "iqamat din " as stated in this Surah but on the completion of this mission He also made this declaration, contrary to His first declaration: "Today I have perfected your din for you." (Al-Ma'idah:3). May Allah keep us safe from this! Apart from these two, if there is any third alternative,, which makes this-interpretation of "iqamat din" plausible and also does not lay any blame on Allah or His Messenger, we would like to know it. After giving the Command for "iqamat din ", the last thing that Allah has stated in this verse is this: La tatafarraqu fi-hi: "Do not create schisms in the din: Be not divided in it" Creating schisms in din implies that one should introduce something new in religion for which there exists no sound basis, and then should insist that belief and unbelief depend on the acceptance of the innovation, and should separate along with those who have accepted it from those who have not accepted it. This new thing can be of several kinds: (1) To introduce something entirely new into din; (2) to exclude from din something which actually belonged to it; (3) to tamper with the fundamentals of din by misinterpretations and introduce new beliefs and novel practices; and (4) to distort the din by making changes of fundamental nature in it, for example, by reducing what was important in it to un-important, by rAlsing what was at most permissible to the position of imperative and obligatory, even to the position of the most fundamental pillar of Islam. Owing to such innovations, divisions first appeared in the communities of the Prophets; then gradually the creeds of the sects developed into wholly separate and mutually exclusive religious systems whose followers now do not have any idea that once they all belonged to one and the same origin. These divisions have nothing to do with the permissible and reasonable difference of opinion which naturally takes place among the scholars when they are engaged in understanding and studying the injunctions and fundamentals of the din for the purpose of deriving and extracting points of law, and for which there is room in the words of the Book of Allah itself owing to the considerations of lexicon, idiom and rules of grammar. (For a detAlled discussion of this subject, see Al-Baqarah: 213, Al'Imran: 19, 50; An-Nisa: 171, Al-Ma'idah: 77; Al-An'am; 159; An-Nahl: 118124; Al-Anbiya': 9293; Al-Hajj: 67; Al-Mu'minun: 53-54; Al-Qasas: 53; ArRum: 32 and the E.N.'s) 2).
Desc No: 21 Here the same thing as stated in vv. 8-9 above, has been reiterated, and we have explAlned it in E.N. 11 above. The object of repeating it here is as if to say: ¦You are presenting the clear highway of religion before them but the foolish people, instead of appreciating the blessing, are becoming annoyed over it. But even among them there are the people of their own tribe, who are turning to Allah. and Allah also is drawing them closer to Himself. But one should understand that Allah's bestowal of His blessings is not blind: He draws only him towards Himself who is inclined to be drawn and not him who urns away from Him. " "
42.14. Wama tafarraquu illa minbaAAdi madschaahumu alAAilmu baghyan baynahum walawlakalimatun sabaqat min rabbika ila adschalin musamman laqudiyabaynahum wa-inna alladhiina uurithuu alkitaba minbaAAdihim lafii schakkin minhu muriibin
42.14. And they were not divided until after the knowledge came unto them, through rivalry among themselves; and had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from thy Lord for an appointed term, it surely had been judged between them. And those who were made to inherit the Scripture after them are verily in hopeless doubt concerning it. (Pickthall)
42.14. Und sie hatten sich nicht gespalten, außer nachdem das Wissen zu ihnen gekommen war, aus Neid untereinander, und wenn nicht ein Wort vorausgegangen wäre von deinem Herrn, zu einer festgesetzten Frist, bestimmt wäre zwischen ihnen entschieden, und diejenigen, denen nach ihnen die Schrift vererbt wurde, bestimmt sind sie in zweifelndem Zwiespalt über ihn. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.14. Und sie spalteten sich erst, nachdem das Wissen zu ihnen gekommen war - aus Mißgunst untereinander. Und wenn es nicht ein früher ergangenes Wort von deinem Herrn auf eine festgesetzte Frist gäbe, so wäre wahrlich zwischen ihnen entschieden worden. Gewiß, diejenigen, denen die Schrift nach ihnen zum Erbe gegeben wurde, sind darüber in starkem Zweifel. (Bubenheim)
42.14. Die Anhänger der früheren Gesandten wurden erst uneins, nachdem ihnen das Wissen zuteil geworden war. Sie wurden dazu durch Neid und Haß getrieben. Wenn nicht ein Wort von deinem Herrn zuvor gefallen wäre, das ihnen bis zu einer bestimmten Frist (dem Jüngsten Tag) Aufschub gewährt, wäre es um sie geschehen. Diejenigen, denen das Buch nach ihnen zum Erbe gegeben wurde, sind darüber in verwirrendem Zweifel. (Azhar)
42.14. Und sie spalteten sich nicht, außer nachdem das Wissen zu ihnen gekommen war - aus Übertretung einander gegenüber. Und gäbe es kein von deinem HERRN bereits gefälltes Wort bis zu einer festgelegten Frist, würde unter ihnen bestimmt 3 gerichtet. Und gewiß, diejenigen, denen die Schrift nach ihnen vererbt wurde, haben über sie doch einen Verdacht schleichenden Zweifel. (Zaidan)
42.14. Und erst nachdem das Wissen zu ihnen gekommen war, teilten sie sich - in gegenseitiger Auflehnung - (in verschiedene Gruppen). Und wenn es nicht ein Wort von deinem Herrn gäbe, das bereits vorliegt (und ihnen) auf eine bestimmte Frist (Aufschub gewährt), wäre zwischen ihnen (schon) entschieden worden. Diejenigen, die nach ihnen die Schrift als Erbe erhalten haben, hegen darüber bedenklichen Zweifel. (Paret)
42.14. Und sie zerfielen erst dann in Spaltung, nachdem das Wissen zu ihnen gekommen war; denn unter ihnen (entstand) selbstsüchtiger Neid. Und wäre nicht bereits ein Wort von deinem Herrn über eine bestimmte Frist ergangen - wäre gewiß zwischen ihnen entschieden worden. Wahrlich, jene, denen nach ihnen das Buch zum Erbe gegeben wurde, befinden sich in bedenklichem Zweifel darüber. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 14 bis 14
The people became divided only after the Knowledge had come to them ( 22 ) just because they wanted to wrong one another. ( 23 ) Had your Lord not already issued the Word to defer their punishment till an appointed time, the matter would surely have been settled between them. ( 24 ) And the fact is that those who were made to inherit the Book after them, are involved in a disquieting doubt concerning it. ( 25 )
Desc No: 22 That is, "The divisions were created not because Allah had fAlled to send the Prophets and the Books, and therefore, the people could not know the Right Way and so invented their own separate religions, sects, schools of thought and systems of life, but divisions appeared after knowledge had come to them from Allah. Therefore, Allah is not responsible for it, but the people who abandoned the clear principles of religion and commands of the Shari'ah and created their own creeds and religions arc themselves responsible for it."
Desc No: 23 That is, "The motive for creating the divisions was not good, but they resulted from the desire for ostentation, love of an independent entity, mutual rivalry and stubbornness, the urge to humiliate and defeat one another, and greed for worldly wealth and position. When the clever and ambitious saw that if the godly people followed the true religion honestly, there would only be One God before whom the people would bow, there would be one Messenger whom they would acknowledge as. their guide and leader, there would be one Book which they would turn to and there would be a clearly defined creed and code of life which they would be following. In such a system there could be no place of distinction for themselves, on the strength of which they could have their own leadership flourish so that the people should rally round them, and bow to them and also make rich offerings to them. This was the real cause which became the motive of the invention of new creeds and philosophies, new ways and rites of worship and new systems of life, and diverted a large part of humanity from the highway of Divine Religion and misled them into blind alleys. Then the mutual disputes of the factions and their religious, economic and political conflicts gave rise to intense bitterness, which in turn led to bloodshed and violence among humanity. "
Desc No: 24 That is, all such people who were guilty of inventing false systems and followed them would have been annihilated in the world itself by a torment, and only the righteous ones allowed to survive, which should have indicated as to who was a follower of the Truth and who of falsehood in the sight of Allah. But Allah has deferred this plain decisions till Resurrection, for after such a decision in the world, the trial of mankind becomes meaningless.
Desc No: 25 It means: After the passage of the time of every Prophet and his closest followers when the Divine Book reached the later generations, they did not receive it with faith and conviction but were involved in doubts and suspicions and confusions about it. There were many causes for this state of affairs, which can be easily understood by a study of the case of the Torah and the Gospel. The earlier generations have not conveyed both these Books to the later generations well preserved in their original state and in their original words and language. They mixed up the Divine Word in them with the human word in the form of their commentary, history, verbal traditions and juristic hair-splitting. They made their translations prevail until the original was lost and only the translations remained. Their historical authenticity also was ruined; so much so that nobody now can say with certainty that the Book in his hand is the same that the world had once received through the Prophet Moses or the Prophet Jesus. Then their elders in the different periods of history initiated such discussions on religion, divinity, philosophy, law, physics, psychology and sociology and invented such systems of thought that the people were lost in them and it became impossible for them to decide as to which was the straight highway of the Truth among the countless crooked ways. And since the Divine Book did not exist in its original, reliable state. they could neither turn to any authority that could help them to distinguish the truth from falshood.
42.15. Unto this, then, summon (O Muhammad). And be thou upright as thou art commanded, and follow not their lusts, but say: I believe in whatever Scripture Allah hath sent down, and I am commanded to be just among you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. Unto us our works and unto you your works; no argument between us and you. Allah will bring us together, and unto Him is the journeying. (Pickthall)
42.15. Und zu diesem also rufe sie, und bleibe aufrecht stehen, wie dir befohlen ist, d folge nicht ihren eigenen Launen, und sag: Ich glaube an das, was Allah herabgesandt hat an Schrift, und mir ist aufgetragen, daß ich gerecht handele zwischen euch, Allah ist unser Herr und euer Herr, für uns unsere Taten und für euch eure Taten, kein Argument zwischen uns und zwischen euch, Allah versammelt uns, und bei Ihm ist das endgültige Sein. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.15. Darum rufe du auf und verhalte dich recht, wie dir befohlen wurde. Und folge nicht ihren Neigungen und sag: Ich glaube an das, was Allah an Büchern herabgesandt hat, und mir ist befohlen worden, unter euch gerecht zu handeln. Allah ist unser Herr und euer Herr. Uns unsere Werke und euch eure Werke. Es gibt keine (gemeinsame) Beweisgrundlage zwischen uns und euch. Allah wird uns zusammenbringen. Und zu Ihm ist der Ausgang. (Bubenheim)
42.15. Zu diesem (Glauben, dem einheitlichen Glauben,) sollst du aufrufen. Bleibe standhaft auf dem rechten Weg, wie dir befohlen worden ist! Folge nicht ihren Launen, sondern sage: "Ich glaube an alles, was Gott an Schriften herabgesandt hat. Mir ist befohlen worden, Gerechtigkeit unter euch walten zu lassen. Gott ist unser Herr und euer Herr. Unsere Werke gelten uns und eure Werke gelten euch. Keinen Streit soll es mit Argumenten und Gegenargumenten zwischen uns und euch geben. Gott wird uns alle versammeln und zwischen uns richten. Zu Ihm allein kehren alle zurück." (Azhar)
42.15. Dazu mache Da'wa, halte es ein, wie es dir geboten wurde, folge nicht ihren Neigungen und sage: „Ich verinnerlichte den Iman an das, was ALLAH von der Schrift hinabsandte, und mir wurde geboten, unter euch Gerechtigkeit walten zu lassen. ALLAH ist unser HERR und euer HERR. Uns sind unsere Handlungen und euch sind eure Handlungen. Es gibt keinen Wortstreit zwischen uns und euch. ALLAH wird uns zusammenbringen, und zu Ihm ist das Werden.“ (Zaidan)
42.15. Darum ruf (die Menschen auf den Weg deines Herrn) und halte geraden Kurs (wa-staqim), wie dir befohlen worden ist! Und folge nicht ihren (persönlichen) Neigungen, sondern sag: Ich glaube an (all) das, was Allah an (Offenbarungs) Schriften herabgesandt hat! Und mir ist befohlen worden, ich solle Gerechtigkeit unter euch walten lassen. Allah ist (gleichermaßen) unser und euer Herr. Uns kommen (bei der Abrechnung) unsere Werke zu, und euch eure Werke. Wir brauchen nicht (weiter) mit euch zu streiten. Allah wird uns (dereinst bei sich) versammeln. Bei ihm wird es (schließlich alles) enden. (Paret)
42.15. Zu diesem (Glauben) also rufe (sie) auf. Und bleibe aufrichtig, wie dir befohlen wurde, und folge ihren persönlichen Neigungen nicht, sondern sprich: "Ich glaube an das, was Allah an Buch herabgesandt hat, und mir ist befohlen worden, gerecht zwischen euch zu richten. Allah ist unser Herr und euer Herr. Für uns unsere Werke und für euch eure Werke! Kein Beweisgrund ist zwischen uns und euch. Allah wird uns zusammenbringen, und zu Ihm ist die Heimkehr." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 15 bis 15
Because of this, therefore, 0 Muhammad, you should call them to the same Way, and hold fast to it yourself as you have been commanded, and do not follow their whims. ( 26 ) Say to them, "I have believed in whatever Book Allah has sent down, ( 27 ) and I have been commanded to do justice between you. ( 28 ) Allah is our Lord as well as your Lord. For us are our deeds and for you your deeds. ( 29 ) There is no dispute between us. ( 30 ) Allah shall gather us all together one day and to Him we shall all return. "
Desc No: 26 That is, "Do not make any change nor effect any increase or decrease in this religion only to please them. Do not resort to any compromises with the misguided people on the principle of "give and take": Do not make any room in the Religion for their whims, prejudices and practices of ignorance in the hope that they would embrace Islam. Let the one who wants to accept, accept the original, pure Religion of God, as sent down by Him, straight forwardly; otherwise let him go and enter any hell that he chooses for himself. The Religion of God cannot be changed for the sake of the people; if the people are desirous of their own wellbeing and true success, Iet them change their ways and mould themselves according to it. "
Desc No: 27 In other words, "I am not like those schismatic people who believe in some Books sent down by God and disbelieve in others; I believe in every Book sent down by Him. "
Desc No: 28 This pithy sentence has several meanings: (1) "I have been appointed to discard the schisms and adopt true impartiality: I do not like to harbour prejudice in favour of one and against the other schism: I have one and the same kind of relationship with all human beings, and it is the relationship of justice and equity. I am a companion and supporter of everyone who follows the truth, whether he is an utter stranger for me, and an opponent of everyone who follows falsehood, whether he is a neighbour or a close kinsman. (2) `There is no place of distinction for anybody in the system of truth, which I have, been appointed to present before you. It honours everyone equally. It does not contain separate sets of the rights for the kindred and the stranger, the big and the small, the poor and the rich, the noble and the humble. Whatever is good in it is good for everyone; and whatever is sinful and unlawful and criminal in it is sinful, unlawful and criminal for everybody. In its just system, there is no exception oven for my own self. " (3) "I have been appointed to establish justice in the world. I have been entrusted with the mission of doing justice between the people and should put an end to their excesses and injustice, which are prevalent in your society." Besides, there is a fourth meaning also of this sentence, which remained hidden in Makkah life but became clear after emigration to Madinah, and it was: "I am a judge appointed by God: I am responsible to do justice between you. "
Desc No: 29 That is, "Each one of us is himself responsible and accountable for his deeds. If you do good, you will yourself profit by its good results, and not we. If we do evil, we ourself shall bear all its evil consequences and not you. The same thing has been stated in AI-Baqarah: 139, Yunus: 41, Hud: 35, and Al-Qasas: 55 above.
Desc No: 30 That is, "We have done our best in conveying to you the message in a rational way. Now there is no use wrangling and disputing; therefore, even if you try to have a dispute with us, we have no desire to join in." "
42.16. Waalladhiina yuhadschdschuunafii Allahi min baAAdi ma istudschiiba lahu hudschdschatuhumdahidatun AAinda rabbihim waAAalayhim ghadabunwalahum AAadhabun schadiidun
42.16. And those who argue concerning Allah after He hath been acknowledged, their argument hath no weight with their Lord, and wrath is upon them and theirs will be an awful doom. (Pickthall)
42.16. Und diejenigen, die über Allah disputieren, nach dem, was davon beantwortet wurde, ihr Argument ist entkräftet bei ihrem Herrn, und auf ihnen ist Zorn, und für sie gibt es harte Strafe. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.16. Diejenigen, die über Allah streiten, nachdem auf Ihn gehört worden ist, deren Beweisgrundlage wird bei ihrem Herrn widerlegt; auf ihnen liegt Zorn, und für sie wird es strenge Strafe geben. (Bubenheim)
42.16. Diejenigen, die weiter über Gott debattieren, nachdem der Glaube an Gott angenommen worden ist, deren Argumente sind bei ihrem Herrn nichtig. Sie ziehen sich großen Zorn und eine schwere Strafe zu. (Azhar)
42.16. Und diejenigen, die über ALLAH disputieren, nachdem Ihm gefolgt wurde, ihr Disput ist wertlos bei ihrem HERRN, auf ihnen ist Zorn und für sie ist eine harte Peinigung bestimmt. (Zaidan)
42.16. Diejenigen, die über Allah streiten, nachdem man (nun einmal). auf ihn (und seinen Ruf zum Heil) gehört hat (? min ba`di maa studschieba lahuu), deren Beweisführung gilt bei ihrem Herrn nichts. Über sie kommt (der) Zorn (Allahs), und sie haben (dereinst) eine schwere Strafe zu erwarten. (Paret)
42.16. Und diejenigen, die über Allah streiten, nachdem Er gehört worden ist, deren Beweisführung vor ihrem Herrn ist nichtig; auf ihnen ist Zorn, und ihnen wird eine strenge Strafe zuteil sein. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 16 bis 16
After Allah's invitation has been accepted, those who dispute (with those who have accepted it) concerning Allah's religion, ( 31 ) their argument is absurd in the sight of their Lord, and on them is His wrath and for them there is a severe punishment.
Desc No: 31 This is an allusion to the state of affairs that was being experienced in Makkah at that time almost daily. Whenever it became known about somebody that he had become a Muslim, the people would start treating him mercilessly: they would worry and vex him, would neither Iet him have peace in the house nor in the street nor in society; wherever he went, they would start an endless discussion with the object to somehow make him abandon Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) and return to the same creed of ignorance which he had rejected.
42.17. Allah it is who hath revealed the Scripture with truth, and the Balance. How canst thou know? It may be that the Hour is nigh. (Pickthall)
42.17. Allah ist es, der die Schrift herabgesandt hat mit der Wahrheit und die Waage, und was läßt dich wissen, daß vielleicht die Stunde nahe ist? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.17. Allah ist es, Der das Buch mit der Wahrheit herabgesandt hat, und (auch) die Waage. Was läßt dich wissen? Vielleicht ist die Stunde nahe. (Bubenheim)
42.17. Gott ist es, der das Buch mit der Wahrheit und der Gerechtigkeit herabgesandt hat. Wie kannst du wissen, ob vielleicht die Stunde des Gerichts nahe ist? (Azhar)
42.17. ALLAH ist Derjenige, Der die Schrift wahrheitsgemäß hinabsandte sowie Almizan . Und was lässt dich wissen?! Vielleicht liegt die Stunde doch nahe. (Zaidan)
42.17. Allah ist es, der die Schrift mit der Wahrheit herabgesandt hat, und (der auch) die Waage (herabgesandt hat, damit für Recht und Gerechtigkeit gesorgt werde). Wer weiß, vielleicht steht die Stunde (des Gerichts) nahe bevor? (Paret)
42.17. Allah ist es, Der das Buch mit der Wahrheit und der Gerechtigkeit herabgesandt hat. Und wie kannst du es wissen: vielleicht steht die Stunde nahe bevor? (Rasul)
42.18. Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those who believe are fearful of it and know that it is the Truth. Are not they who dispute, in doubt concerning the Hour, far astray? (Pickthall)
42.18. Es wollen sie diejenigen beschleunigen, die nicht an sie glauben, und diejenigen, die glauben, sind erschrocken wegen ihr, und sie wissen, daß sie die Wahrheit ist. Sind nicht bestimmt diejenigen, welche die Stunde bestreiten, in weitem Fehlgehen? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.18. Diejenigen, die nicht an sie glauben, wünschen, sie zu beschleunigen. Diejenigen aber, die glauben, sind besorgt wegen ihr und wissen, daß sie Wirklichkeit ist. Doch eben diejenigen, die über die Stunde streiten, befinden sich wahrlich in tiefem Irrtum. (Bubenheim)
42.18. Die Ungläubigen, die sie verleugnen, wollen sie angeblich schnell haben; die Gläubigen aber fürchten sie und wissen, dass das die Wahrheit ist. Die Zweifler, die die Stunde des Jüngsten Gerichts bestreiten, sind weit abgeirrt. (Azhar)
42.18. Eile sie betreffend fordern diejenigen, die den Iman an sie nicht verinnerlichen. Doch diejenigen, die den Iman verinnerlichten, fürchten sich vor ihr und wissen, dass sie zweifelsohne die Wahrheit ist. Ja! Gewiß, diejenigen, die über die Stunde streiten, sind doch in weitem Irregehen. (Zaidan)
42.18. Diejenigen, die nicht an sie glauben, wollen sie eilends haben. Diejenigen aber, die glauben, ängstigen sich vor ihr und wissen, daß sie eine Tatsache (und nicht eine bloße Drohung) ist. Diejenigen, die über die Stunde streiten, sind ja völlig im Irrtum. (Paret)
42.18. Diejenigen, die nicht an sie glauben, wünschen sie zu beschleunigen; die aber, die (an sie) glauben, haben Furcht vor ihr und wissen, daß es die Wahrheit ist. Wahrlich, diejenigen, die an der Stunde zweifeln, sind weit in die Irre (gegangen). (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 17 bis 18
It is Allah Who has sent down this Book with the truth and the Balance; ( 32 ) and what will make you understand that the Hour of J judgement might well have drawn near at hand? ( 33 ) Those who do not believe in its coming, seek to hasten it, but those who believe in it, dread it, and know that it is sure to come. Note it well that those who dispute concerning the coming of the Hour, in order to create doubts about it, have gone far astray.
Desc No: 32 Mizan (Balance): the Shari ah of Allah, which, like a balance, brings out clearly the distinction between the right and the wrong, the Truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, and righteousness and wickedness. In verse 15 above, the Holy Prophet has been made to say: "I have been commanded to do justice between you." Here, it has been told that with this Holy Book the "Balance" has come by which justice will be established.
Desc No: 33 That is, "The one who is inclined to mend his ways, must mend his ways forthwith: he should not lose. time under the delusion that the Hour of lodgement is yet far off. Man cannot be sure whether he will be able to take another breath or not: his present breath may be his last. "
42.20. Man kana yuriidu hartha al-akhiratinazid lahu fiiharthihi waman kana yuriidu harthaalddunya nu/tihi minha wama lahu fiial-akhirati min nasiibin
42.20. Whoso desireth the harvest of the Hereafter, We give him increase in its harvest. And Whoso desireth the harvest of the world, We give him thereof, and he hath no portion in the Hereafter. (Pickthall)
42.20. Wer die Ernte des Jenseits möchte, für den mehren Wir seine Ernte, und wer die Ernte dieser Welt möchte, Wir geben ihm davon, und es gibt für ihn im Jenseits keine Zuteilung. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
42.20. Wer immer die (Ernte) des Saatfeldes für das Jenseits haben will, dem mehren Wir noch (die Ernte) in seinem Saatfeld. Und wer die (Ernte) des Saatfeldes für das Diesseits haben will, dem lassen Wir etwas davon zukommen, für den wird es aber im Jenseits keinen Anteil geben. (Bubenheim)
42.20. Wer die Ernte des Jenseits anstrebt, dem vermehren Wir sie; und wer nur die Ernte des Dießeits anstrebt, dem geben Wir davon, doch am Jenseits hat er keinen Anteil. (Azhar)
42.20. Wer die Ernte des Jenseits anstrebt, dem vermehren WIR seine Ernte. Und wer die Ernte des Dießeits anstrebt, dem lassen WIR davon zuteil werden, und für ihn gibt es dann im Jenseits keinen Anteil. (Zaidan)
42.20. Wenn einer das Feld des Jenseits bestellen möchte, lassen wir ihm dabei noch mehr (an jenseitigen Gütern) zukommen (als er an sich zu erwarten hätte). Wenn aber einer das Feld des Diesseits bestellen möchte, geben wir ihm (etwas) vom Diesseits, während er am Jenseits keinen Anteil hat. (Paret)
42.20. Dem, der die Ernte des Jenseits begehrt, vermehren Wir seine Ernte; und dem, der die Ernte dieser Welt begehrt, geben Wir davon, doch am Jenseits wird er keinen Anteil haben. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 19 bis 20
Allah is very Kind to His servants: ( 34 ) He gives whatever He pleases to whom He wills: ( 35 ) He is the All-Powerful, the All-Mighty. ( 36 ) Whoever seeks the harvest of the Hereafter; We do increase his harvest; and whoever seeks the harvest of this world, We do give kiln of it here, but in the Hereafter he will have no share whatever. ( 37 )
Desc No: 34 The word "Kind" cannot fully convey the meaning of the word "Latif" as used in the original. This word contains two meanings: First, that Allah is very Kind and Compassionate to His servants; second, that He is a subtle observer and keeps in view even their minutest and most ordinary needs, which none else can see, and He fulfils them in such ways that they themselves do not perceive as to which need of theirs has been fulfilled at what time and by whom. Then the "servants" here dces not imply only the believers but all servants. That is, Allah is Kind and Compassionate to all His servants. "
Desc No: 35 It means: The demand of His general kindness and compassion is not this that all the servants should be given everything equally. For although He is providing for each and every one from His treasures, there is no equality and uniformity in the measure of His provisions. He has given one thing to one and another to another: He has provided someone with something in a greater measure and another with another thing more generously.
Desc No: 36 That is, "His system of providence is functioning undo His own might. No one .has the power to change it or take away something forcibly from Him, or prevent Him from providing for somebody."
Desc No: 37 Two of the truths have been mentioned in the previous verse, which we arc observing everywhere at all times: (1) That Allah is Kind and Compassionate to all His servants; ard (2) that the measure of His provisions is not the same for everybody, but it varies from man to tnan. Now, in this verse it is being told that although the partial differences in kindness and measures of Provisions are countless, there is also a difference of fundamental nature, which is: there is one kind of the provision for the seeker of the Hereafter and of another kind for the seeker of the world. This is a very important truth which has been stated here briefly. Let us mderstand it fully, for it helps every man to determine his attitude to life. Both the seeker of the Hcreafter and the seeker of the world have been likened to the farmer in this verse, who labours persistently hard right from the time he prepares the soil till the time his crop is ready for harvesting. He puts in all his labour so that he may reap and gather the crop of the seeds he sowed. But hecause of the difference of the intention and objective and also the difference of the attitude and conduct, to a large extent, a vast difference takes place between the famer who sows for the Hereafter and the farmer who sows for this world. Therefore, Allah has ordained different results and consequences of the labours of each, although the place of activity of both is this very earth. As to the farmer who is sowing for the Hereafter, Allah has not said that he will get no share from the world. The world, in a more or less measure, he will get in any case. for he also has a share in the common provisions being bestowed by Allah, and every person, good or bad, is getting his sustenance here. But Allah has not given him the good news of the harvest of this world but that his harvest of the Hereafter will be increased, for he is a seeker of the same, and is concerned about his end there There are several ways in which this harvest can be increased; for example, as he will go on doing righteous deeds with sincere mentions, he will be blessed with the grace to do more and more righteus deeds and his breast will be opened out for more and more good works. When he will make up his mind to adopt pure means for thieving pure aims, he will be blessed with pure means only and Allah will not Iet it so happen that all doors to goodness he closed and only doors to evil to remain open for him. Above all, his each good work, however small and insignificant, will at least be increased ten times over in the Hereafter, and there is no limit to this increase. Allah will increase it hundreds of thousands of tithes for whomever He may please As for the one who is only sowing for this world, and is not at all concerned about the Hereafter, Allah has plainly told him of two of the results of his labours: (11 That, however hard he may struggle and strive. he will not get the whole of what he is trying for, but only a fraction of it, which Allah has ordained for him; and (2) that whatever he has to get, he will get only in this world: there is no share for him in the good things of the Hereafter.