Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
7.38. Er (Allah) sagt: "Tretet ein unter Gemeinschaften von den Ginn und den Menschen, die schon vor euch dahingegangen sind, ins (Höllen)feuer." Jedesmal, wenn eine Gemeinschaft eintritt, verflucht sie die vorhergehende´. Wenn sie dann alle darin eingeholt werden, sagt die letzte von ihnen in Bezug auf die erste: "Unser Herr, diese da haben uns in die Irre geführt. So gib ihnen eine mehrfache Strafe vom (Höllen)feuer!" Er sagt: "Jeder bekommt das Mehrfache, aber ihr wißt (es) nicht."
43.4. And lo! in the Source of Decrees, which We possess, it is indeed sublime, decisive, (Pickthall)
43.4. Und er ist ja in der Urschrift vor Uns, bestimmt hoch, weise. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
43.4. und gewiß, er ist in der Urschrift des Buches bei Uns wahrlich erhaben und weise. (Bubenheim)
43.4. Er ist bei Uns, im Ur-Buch (Umm al-Kitâb) erhaben und voller Weisheit. (Azhar)
43.4. Und gewiß, er ist in der Mutterschrift bei Uns zweifelsohne hoch, weise. (Zaidan)
43.4. Sie gilt in der Urschrift (umm al-kitaab) (in der alles, was in der Welt existiert und geschieht, verzeichnet ist) bei uns als erhaben und weise. (Paret)
43.4. Und wahrlich, er ist bei Uns in der Mutterschrift hochgehoben (und) voller Weisheit. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 4
Ha-Mim. By this lucid Book, We have made it an Arabic Qur'an so that you (O people) may understand it. ( 1 ) And, in fact, it is inscribed in Umm al-Kitab, ( 2 ) a Book truly sublime and full of wisdom with Us. ( 3 )
Desc No: 1 The object of taking an oath by the Qur'an is to impress this fact: "We are the Author of this Book and not Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace)," and the attribute of the Qur'an chosen for the oath is that it is a "lucid Book". To swear by the Qur'an itself with its this attribute in order to impress that the Qur'an is Divine Word by itself implies this: "O people, this is an open Book before you. Read it intelligently. Its clear and un-ambiguous themes, its language and literary style, its teaching which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, all arc testifying to the fact that none but the Lord of the Universe could be its Author. " Then the sentence: '"We have made it an Arabic Qur'an so that you may understand it." has two meanings:(1) "It is not in any foreign tongue but in your own language; therefore, you can have no difficulty in assessing its value and worth. Had it been in a non-Arabic language, you could have offered the excuse that you could not determine its being Divine, or otherwise, for you did not understand it. But you cannot offer this excuse about this Arabic Qur'an. Its each word is clear to you: its each passage and discourse, both in language and in theme, is plain for you. Now you may see it for yourself whether this could be the word of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) or of some other Arab." (2) "We have sent this Book in Arabic because We are addressing the Arabs, who can only understand an Arabic Qur'an. The person who disregards this expressly rational ground for sending down the Qur'an in Arabic and regards it as the word of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) instead of Divine Word only because Muhammad's mother tongue is also Arabic, commits a grave injustice. " (To understand this second meaning, please see Surah Ha-Mim As-Sajdah: 44 and its E.N.'s).
Desc No: 2 "Umm al-Kitab": the "Original Book": the Book from which all the Books sent down to the Prophets have been derived. In Surah AI-Waqi`ah the same thing has been described as Kitab-um-Maknun (the hidden and preserved Book) and in Surah AI-Buruj 22 as Lauh-i Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet), that is, the Tablet whose writing cannot be effaced, which is secure from every kind of interference. By saying that the Qur'an is inscribed in Umm al-Kitab, attention has been drawn to an important truth. Different Books had been revealed by Allah in different ages to different Prophets for the guidance of different nations in different languages, but all these Books invited mankind to one and the same Faith: they regarded one and the same thing as the Truth; they presented one and the same criterion of good and evil; they propounded the same principles of morality and civilization; in short, they brought one and the same Din (Religion). The reason was that their source and origin was the same, only words were different; they had the same meaning and theme which is inscribed in a Source Book with Allah, and whenever there was a need, He raised a Prophet and sent down the same meaning and subject-matter clothed in a particular diction according to the environment and occasion. Had Allah willed to raise the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be His peace) in another nation instead of the Arabs, He would have sent down the same Qur'an in the language of that nation. In it the meaning and content would have been expressed according to the environments and conditions of the people and land; the words would have been different and the language also different but the teaching and guidance the same basically, and it would be the same Qur'an though not the Arabic Qur'an. This same thing has been expressed in Surah Ash-Shu`ara, thus: "This (Book) has been revealed by the Lord of the worlds. The trustworthy Spirit has come down with it upon your heart so that you may become one of those who are (appointed by God) to warn (the people) in plain Arabic language; and this is also contained in the scriptures of the former peoples." (vv. 192-196). (For explanation, see Ash-Shu`ara: 192196 and the E.N.'s on it).
Desc No: 3 This sentence is related both to Kitab-i mubin and to Umm al-Kitab. Thus, it is in praise of boththe Qur'an and the Original Book from which the Qur'an has been derived. This praise is meant to impress the fact that if a person dces not recognize the true worth of this Book and dces not benefit from its wise teachings because of his own folly, it would be his own misfortune. If someone tried to degrade it and found fault with it, it would be his own meanness. It cannot become worthless on account of someone's lack of appreciation of it, and its wisdom cannot be eclipsed by anyone's throwing dust at it. This is by itself a glorious Book, which stands exalted by its matchless teaching, miraculous eloquence, faultless wisdom and the sublime personality of its great Author. Therefore, none can succeed in minimizing its value and worth. In verse 44 below the Quraish in particular and the Arabs in general have been told that the revelation of the Book for which they are showing such lack of appreciation had provided them a unique opportunity of honour, which if they lost, would subject them to a severe accountability before God. (Please see E.N. 39 below).
43.8. Then we destroyed men mightier than these in prowess; and the example of the men of old hath gone (before them). (Pickthall)
43.8. Also haben Wir die stärkeren von ihnen an Angriffsgeist vernichtet, und das Beispiel der Früheren ist vergangen, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
43.8. So haben Wir solche vernichtet, die eine stärkere Gewalt hatten als diese. Und vollzogen hat sich das Beispiel an den Früheren. (Bubenheim)
43.8. Wir haben ungläubige Völker vernichtet, die noch mächtiger als siewaren. Wir haben das Beispiel der früheren Ungläubigen bereits angeführt. (Azhar)
43.8. So richteten WIR diejenigen zugrunde, die noch gewalttätiger als sie waren. Und das Gleichnis der Früheren kam bereits vor. (Zaidan)
43.8. Doch wir ließen (Generationen) zugrunde gehen, die größere Draufgänger (aschaddu batschan) waren als sie. Schon in der Vorzeit ist es bei den früheren (Generationen) ähnlich zugegangen (wa-madaa mathalu l-auwaliena). (Paret)
43.8. Darum vertilgten Wir die, die mächtiger als diese waren, und das (abschreckende) Beispiel der Früheren ist zuvor ergangen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 5 bis 8
Now, should We despair and stop sending this Admonition to you only because you are a people who have transgressed (all limits)? ( 4 ) Many a Prophet have We sent among the ancient peoples, too. Never did it so happen that a Prophet came to his people and they did not mock him. ( 5 ) So, We destroyed them though they were much stronger than these in might; there have gone before the examples of the ancient peoples. ( 6 )
Desc No: 4 In this one sentence the whole history that had taken place since the time the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) had proclaimed to be a Prophet till the revelation of these verses during the past few years has been compressed. This sentence depicts the following picture: A nation has been involved in ignorance, backwardness and depravity for centuries. Suddenly, Allah looks at it with favour. He raises in it an illustrious guide and sends down His own Word to take it out of the darkness of ignorance so that it is aroused from slumber, it gives up superstitions of ignorance and it becomes aware of the truth and adopts the right way of life. But the ignorant people of the nation and the tribal chiefs turn hostile to the guide, and try their utmost to defeat him and his mission. With the passage of time their hostility and mischief go on increasing; so much so that they make up their mind to kill him. At this, it is being said: "Should We stop making any efforts to reform you because you are proving to be un-worthy people? Should We withhold sending down this Admonition, and leave you lying in the same wretched state in which you have been lying since centuries ? Do you really think that should be the demand of Our Mercy ? Have you ever considered what doom you would meet when you have turned down the bounty of Allah and persisted in falsehood after the truth has come before you?"
Desc No: 5 That is, if such absurdity and senselessness had barred the sending of a Prophet or a Book, no Prophet would ever have come to any nation nor a Book sent to it.
Desc No: 6 That is, the result of the senselessness of some particular people could not be that the entire mankind should be deprived of the guidance of the Prophethood and the Book, but its result always has been that the worshippers of falsehood who, being drunk with the pride of power, did not desist from mocking the Prophets, were ultimately destroyed. When Allah's wrath descended even the people, who possessed thousands of times greater power than that possessed by the puny chiefs of the Quraish, were crushed to annihilation like mosquitoes and fleas.