Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
2.173. Verboten hat Er euch nur (den Genuß von) Verendetem, Blut, Schweinefleisch und dem, worüber ein anderer (Name) als Allah(s) angerufen worden ist. Wer sich aber in einer Zwangslage befindet, ohne zu begehren oder das Maß zu überschreiten, für den ist es keine Sünde. Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig.
51.19. And in their wealth the beggar the outcast had due share. (Pickthall)
51.19. Und in ihren Vermögensgütern war ein Anrecht für den Bittenden und den Ausgelassenen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
51.19. und (sie gestanden) an ihrem Besitz dem Bettler und dem Unbemittelten ein Anrecht (zu). (Bubenheim)
51.19. Von ihrem Vermögen bestimmten sie einen Teil für die Bettler und jene Bedürftigen, die vor Scham nicht bitten. (Azhar)
51.19. Und in ihren Vermögensgütern ist ein Anrecht für den Bittenden und den Ausgeschlossenen. (Zaidan)
51.19. und fühlten sich verpflichtet, den Bettler und Unbemittelten an ihrem Vermögen teilnehmen zu lassen (wa-fie amwaalihim haqqun lis-saa'ili wal-mahruumi). (Paret)
51.19. und von ihrem Vermögen war ein Anteil für den Bittenden und den Unbemittelten bestimmt. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 10 bis 19
Doomed are they who judge by conjecture, ( 8 ) who are deeply engrossed in ignorance and heedlessness. ( 9 ) They ask, "When will be the Day of Retribution?" It will be when they are punished at the Fire. ( 10 ) (It will , be said to them: ) "Now taste your mischief : ( 11 ) this is the same which you were seeking to be hastened. ( 12 ) The righteous, ( 13 ) however, shall be among gardens and watersprings that Day, and shall be joyfully receiving what their Lord shall give them. ( 14 ) They were doers of good even before the coming of this Day: they slept but little in the night, ( 15 ) prayed for forgiveness in the early hours of dawn, ( 16 ) and in their possessions was a due share of him who asked and of him who was needy." ( 17 )
Desc No: 8 Here the Qur'an is warning man of an important truth. To judge or make an estimate on the basis of conjecture and speculation in the ordinary matters of worldly life may be useful to some extent, although it would be no substitute for knowledge, but it would be disastrous to make estimates and give judgments merely according to one's own conjectures and speculations in a question of such fundamental nature and importance as whether we are, or are not, responsible and accountable to anyone for the deeds and actions of our lifetime, and if we arc, to whom we are accountable, when and what shall be the accountability, and what will be the consequences of our success and failure in that accountability. This is not a question on which man may form an estimate merely according to his conjecture and speculation and then stake his entire life capital on the gamble. For if the conjecture proves to be wrong, it would mean that the man has doomed himself to utter ruin. Furthermore, this question is not at all included among those questions about which one may form a right opinion by the exercise of analogy and conjecture, For conjecture and analogy can work only in those matters which are perceptible for man, whereas this is a question which does not come under perception in any way, Therefore, it is not at all possible that a conjectural and analogical judgment about it may be right and correct. As for the question: What is the right way for man to form an opinion about the matters which are no perceptible and incomprehensible in nature? this has been answered at many places in the Qur'an, and from this Surah also the same answer becomes obvious, and it is this: (1) Man himself cannot reach the reality directly; (2) Allah gives the knowledge of the reality through His Prophets; and (3) man can ascertain the truth of that knowledge in this way: he should study deeply the countless signs that are found in the earth and heavens and in his own self, then consider seriously and impartially whether those signs testify to the reality that the Prophet bas presented, or to the different ideologies that the other people have presented in this regard. This is the only method of scientific investigation about God and the Hereafter that has been taught in the Qur'an. Doomed would be the one who discarded this method and followed his own analogies and conjectures.
Desc No: 9 That is, "They do not know what fate they are heading for on account of their wrong conjectures, whereas every way that is adopted with a wrong view of the Hereafter only leads to ruin. He who is a denier of the Hereafter is not at all preparing himself for any accountability and is engrossed in the thought that there would be no life after death, whereas the time would suddenly come when against all this expectations he would open his eyes in the new life and he would realize that there he has to render an account of each of his acts and deeds. The person who is expending his life under the idea that he would come back to this very world after death, will come to know as soon as he dies that all doors of return are closed, that there is no chance of compensating for the misdeeds of the previous life by any new actions, and that there is another life ahead in which he has to meet with and suffer the consequences of his worldly life for ever after. The person who commits suicide in the hope that after he has destroyed his self and its desires he would escape the agony of life in the form of total annihilation, will find as soon as he passes through the gate of death that there is an everlasting life ahead and not mortality, where he has to explain as to why he had been straining every nerve to destroy the self that he had been blessed with instead of developing and adorning it in every possible way. Likewise, the one who continued committing disobedience of Allah throughout life, placing, reliance upon some son of Allah's becoming an atonement or some holy one's becoming an intercessor, will come to know as soon as he appears before Allah that there is neither any atoner there nor anyone wielding such influence and power that he may save him from Allah's grasp and punishment by means of his own power and influence. Thus, all these conjectural creeds are, in fact, an opiate under the intoxication of which these people are Lying senseless, and do not know where they are being misled by the ignorance which they have adopted by rejecting the true knowledge given by God and His Prophets.
Desc No: 10 The disbelievers did not ask the question: When will Resurrection be? for the sake of seeking knowledge but for the purpose of taunt and ridicule. That is why they have been given such an answer. It is just like the taunting reaction of the wicked person who is admonished to desist from his immoral deeds, otherwise he would meet with the evil consequences of those deeds one day, and he asks in jest: When will that day be? Obviously, such a question is not asked to know the date of the occurrence of the evil end but to make fun of the admonition. Therefore, its right answer is that it will occur when the evildoers will meet with their doom. Besides, one should also understand well that if a denier of the Hereafter is discussing the question of the Hereafter sensibly, he can dispute the arguments in favor and against it, but he can never ask the question: On what date will the Hereafter occur? unless he has lost all reason. Whenever he puts such a question, it will only be as a taunt and ridicule. For it does not at all affect the real discussion whether the date of the occurrence of the Hereafter is stated or not. No one can deny the Hereafter only because the year and the month and the day of its occurrence have not been given, nor can one believe in it on hearing that it will occur on such and such a day of such and such a month and year. The date is no argument that may cause a denier to be convinced of its coming, for after that the question will arise: How can One believe whether on that particular day the Hereafter will actually occur?
Desc No: 11 The word fitnah gives two meanings here: (1) ¦Taste this torment of yours ; " and (2)-"taste the mischief that you had created and spread in the world. "
Desc No: 12 The disbelieves' asking: "When will the Day of Retribution be?" implied: "Why is it being delayed ?" That is, "When we have denied it and have deserved the punishment for belying it, why doesn't it overtake us immediately ?" That is why when they will be burning in the Hell-fire, at that time it will be said to them: "This is that which you sought to be hastened. " This sentence by itself gives the meaning: It was Allah's kindness that He did not seize you immediately on the occurrence of disobedience from you and went on giving you respite after respite to think and understand and mend your ways. But the foolish people that you were, you did not take advantage of the respite but demanded that your doom should be hastened for you instead. Now you may see for yourself what it was that you were seeking to be hastened?"
Desc No: 13 In this context the word muttaqi (the righteous) clearly implies those people who believed in the Hereafter when they were given the news of it by the Book of Allah and His Messenger, and adopted the attitude and way of life that they were taught for success in the life hereafter, and refrained from the way about which they had been told that it would involve man in the torment of God.
Desc No: 14 Literally: ".. shall be receiving what their Lord will have granted them", but in this context "receiving" does not merely mean "to receive" but to receive joyfully. Obviously, when a person is given something of his own choice and liking, his receiving it will naturally have the meaning of accepting and receiving it joyfully.
Desc No: 15 Some commentators have given this meaning of this verse: "Seldom did it so happen that they spent the whole night sleeping and did not spend a part of it, in the beginning of the night or in the middle or in the end of it, awake in the worship of Allah. " This commentary with a little variation in wording has been related from Hadrat lbn "Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Muhammad al-Baqir, Mutrif bin 'Abdullah, Abul 'Aliyah, Mujahid, Qatadah, Rabi` bin Anas and others. According to some other commentators, it means this: "They spent the major part of their nights in the worship of Allah Almighty and slept little. " This meaning has been reported from Hadrat Hasan Basri, Ahnaf bin Qais, and Ibn Shihab Zuhri, and the later commentators and translators have preferred this, for this appears to be in better agreement' with the words of the verse and the context. That is why we have adopted this meaning in the translation.
Desc No: 16 That is "They did not belong to those who spent their nights in immoral and indecent acts and even then never thought of seeking Allah's forgiveness. On the contrary, they spent a major part of the nights in the worship of Allah and then in the early hours of dawn sought His forgiveness, saying that they did not do full justice to the worship that was due from them. The words hum yastaghfirun also contain an allusion to this that it befitted and suited them alone that they should exert their utmost in the service of their Lord and then, at the same time, should implore Him humbly for the forgiveness of their errors and shortcomings instead of exulting at and waging proud of their good acts. This could not be the way of those shameless, wicked people who committed sin and behaved arrogantly as well.
Desc No: 17 In other words, on the one hand, they recognized the right of their Lord and duly discharged it; on the other, they did not think that whatever Allah had given them, whether little or much, was wholly their own and their children's right, but they had the sense that in their possessions there was the right and share of every such person who was indigent and needy. They did not render help to the people as a charity so as to earn their gratitude for the favor done, but they regarded it as the people's right and discharged it as their own duty. Then their this service to mankind was not only confined to those who came to them for seeking help as beggars but anyone about whom they came to know that he had been left destitute, they would become anxious to render him necessary help of their own accord. There was no orphan who might have been left helpless, no widow who might have had no bread-winner, no disabled person who might be unable to earn a living, no one who might have lost his job, or whose taming might not be sufficing his needs, nobody who might have been hit by a calamity and might be unable to compensate for the loss by himself, in short, there was no needy one whose condition they might have known and yet might have withheld their help when they could have rendered him necessary help and support. The following are the three qualities on the basis of which Allah regards them as the righteous doers of good, and says that these very qualities have made them worthy of Paradise; (l) That they believed in the Hereafter and refrained from every act and conduct which Allah and His Messenger had stated to be disastrous for the life-after-death; (2) that they exeted their utmost to do full justice to the service of Allah and still sought Allah's forgiveness instead of exulting at their acts of piety; and (3) that they served Allah's servants not as a favour to them but as their own duty and their right due from them. ' Here, one should also know and understand another thing; The right of the needy ones that has been mentioned here in the wealth of the believers does not imply the zakat, which has been imposed as religious duty on them. But this is the right that a well-.to-do believer himself feels there is in his possessions of the needy even after he has paid off the zakat, and he discharges it willingly even if it has not been made obligatory by the Shari'ah. lbn 'Abbas, Mujahid, Zaid bin Aslam and other scholars have understood this very meaning of this verse. In tact, the real spirit of this Divine Command is that a pious and virtuous person is never involved in the misunderstanding that he has become relieved of his duty of discharging the right of Allah and His servants that there was in his possessions after he has paid the zakat, and now he is not bound to help every needy and destitute person whom he comes across. Contrary to this, every servant of Allah, who is really pious and righteous, remains ever ready to do whatever good he can willingly, does not let slip any opportunity when he could do some good to the people in the world. He is not of the way of thinking that he has done whatever good he had been enjoined w do and now no more good is required to be done by him. The one who has recognized the true value of goodness, does not perform it as a burden but tries to cam more and more of it, greedily as a bargain to his own advantage, in his own interest. "