Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
24.27. O die ihr glaubt, betretet nicht andere Häuser, die nicht eure (eigenen) Häuser sind, bis ihr euch bemerkbar gemacht und ihre Bewohner begrüßt habt. Das ist besser für euch, auf daß ihr bedenken möget!
53.55. Concerning which then, of the bounties of thy Lord, canst thou dispute? (Pickthall)
53.55. Und welche der Wohltaten deines Herrn bestreitest du? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
53.55. Welche der Wohltaten deines Herrn willst du nun bestreiten? (Bubenheim)
53.55. An welchen Zeichen deines Herrn zweifelst du? (Azhar)
53.55. An welchen der Wohltaten deines HERRN zweifelst du denn?! (Zaidan)
53.55. Welche von den Wohltaten deines Herrn willst du denn bestreiten? (Paret)
53.55. Welche Wohltaten deines Herrn willst du denn bestreiten? (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 33 bis 55
Then, O Prophet, have you seen him who turned away from God's Way, who gave a little and stopped? ( 34 ) Does he possess the knowledge of the unseen that he sees the reality? ( 35 ) Has he not heard of those things that have been mentioned in the Books of Moses and in the Books of that Abraham who proved true to his pledge? ( 36 )
"That no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another; ( 37 ) and that there is nothing for man but what he has striven for; ( 38 ) and that his striving shall soon be seen, ( 39 ) and then he will be fully rewarded for it; and that to your Lord is the final goal; and that it is He Who made (men) to laugh and to weep ( 40 ) ; and that it is He Who gave death and granted life; and that it is He Who created the pair of male and female from a sperm-drop when it is emitted; ( 41 ) and that it rests upon Him to grant the second life ( 42 ) and that it is He Who made rich and bestowed property; ( 43 ) and that He is the Lord of Sirius; ( 44 ) and that it is He Who destroyed the former 'Ad, ( 45 ) and annihilated Thamud so as to spare none of them; and before them He destroyed the people of Noah because they were a most wicked and rebellious people. And He overthrew the subverted settlements, then there covered them that which (you know well) covered them. ( 46 ) Then, ( 47 ) O man, which of your L.ord's bounties will you doubt?" ( 48 )
Desc No: 34 The reference is to Walid bin Mughirah who was one of the prominent chiefs of the Quraish. According to Ibn Jarir Tabari, this person had first become inclined to accept the invitation of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), but when a polytheist friend of his came to know of his intention to become a Muslim, he counselled him not to give up his ancestral faith, and asked him that if he was afraid of the punishment of the Hereafter, he should pay him a certain amount of money and he would take the responsibility to suffer the punishment on his behalf. Walid accepted the offer and turned away from Allah's way. Then he paid only a little of the amount that he had promised to pay his polytheist friend and withheld the rest, The allusion to this incident was meant to toll the disbelievers of Makkah what kind of errors and follies they were involved in because of their heedlessness of the Hereafter and their ignorance of the Divine Religion. "
Desc No: 35 That is, ¦Does he know that this conduct is in any way beneficial for him? Does he know that a person can save himself even in this way from the punishment of the Hereafter?"
Desc No: 36 In the following verses a resume is being given of the teachings sent down in the Books of the Prophets Abraham and Moses. The Books of Moses signify the Torah. As for the Books of the Prophet Abraham they have become extinct and no mention of them is found even in the holy scriptures of the Jews and Christians. Only in the Qur'an at two places have some parts of the teachings contained in the Books of the Prophet Abraham been cited, here and in the concluding verses of Surah AI-A`la.
Desc No: 37 From this verse three cardinal principles are derived: (1) That every person is himself responsible for what he does; (2) that the responsibility of one man's act cannot be transferred to another unless he has a share in the commission of the act; and (3) that even if a person wishes he cannot take on himself the responsibility of another man's act, nor can the actual culprit be Iet off on the ground that another person is willing to suffer the punishment on his behalf.
Desc No: 38 From this verse also three important principles are derived: (1) That every person will get only the fruit of his own deeds; ,(2) that the fruit of one man's deeds cannot be given to another unless he has a share in that deed, and (3) that none can attain anything without striving for it. Some people wrongly apply these three principles to the economic problems of the world and conclude that no person can become the lawful owner of anything except of his own earned income. But this conclusion clashes with several laws and injunctions given by the Qur'an itself, e.g. the law of inheritance, according to which many individuals inherit a person and are regarded as his lawful heirs, whereas the heritage is not their earned income. As for a suckling for instance, it cannot be proved by any stretch of imagination that its labour had any share in the wealth left by its father. Likewise, there arc the injunctions about the zakat and voluntary charities according to which the wealth of one man is transferred to others only on the basis of their legal and moral entitlement and they become its lawful owners, whereas in the production of this wealth they did not make any contribution at all. Thus, it is against the intention of the Qur'an to take a verse of it and derive from it such conclusions as clash with the other teachings of the Qur'an itself. Some other people regard these principles as concerning the Hereafter and raise the question whether, according to these principles, the deeds of one man can in some way be also beneficial for the other person, and whether the deeds of a person which he dces for another person, or on his behalf, can be accepted from him, and whether it is also possible that a person may transfer the reward of his act to another. If the answer to these questions be in the negative the sending of spiritual rewards (isal thawab) for the dead and performing Hajj on behalf of another, would be inadmissible; even the prayer of forgiveness for the other person would be meaningless, for this prayer also is not the concerned person's own act and decd. However, this extreme point of view has been adopted by none among the followers of Islam except the Mu`tazilites. Only they take this verse in the meaning that one man's acts and deeds can in no case be beneficial for the other. On the contrary, the followers of the Sunnah are unanimous that the prayer of one man is beneficial for the other because it is confirmed by the Qur'an; however, they differ only in details, and not in principles, as to whether the sending of spiritual rewards for another and doing a good work on behalf of another is beneficial or not. (1) The tern isal thawab means that after a person has performed a good act, he may pray to Allah to grant its rewards to another. In this regard, Imam Malik and Imam Shafe'i have expressed the opinion that the rewards of the pure bodily acts of worship, e.g, the Prayer, the Fasting and recitals of the Qur'an, etc. cannot reach the other person; however, the rewards of one's monetary acts of worship, e.g. charities, or Hajj, which is a combination of the monetary and bodily worships, can reach the other, for the principle is that one man's act should not be beneficial for the other. But since according to authentic Ahadith the rewards of charities can be conveyed and Hajj on behalf of another also can be performed, they admit the permissibility of conveying of rewards to the extent of this kind of the acts of worship only. On the contrary, the Hanafi viewpoint is that a man can send the reward of each of his virtuous acts as a gift to the other, whether it is the Prayer, or the Fast, or the recitation of the Qur'an, or remembrance of Allah, or charity, or Hajj and `Umrah. The argument is that just as a man after carrying out a piece of work can tell the master to pay the wages to such and such other person instead of him, so after performing a good deed also he can pray to Allah to grant its rewards to such and such other person instead of him. In this there is no rational ground for making exception of some kinds of virtues and keeping it restricted to some other kinds of virtues. The same is confirmed by a large number of the traditions: A Tradition, on the unanimous authority of Hadrat 'A'ishah, Hadrat Abu Hurairah, Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah. Hadrat Abu Rafi', Hadrat Abu Talhah Ansari and Hudhaifah bin Usaid al-Ghifari has been reported in Bukhari, Muslim. Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Tabari (in Awsat, Musradrik and Ibn Abi Shaibah saying that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) got two rams and sacrificed one on behalf of himself and his family and the other on behalf of his, Ummah. Muslim, Bukhari, Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud and Nasa'i have related a Tradition from Hadrat 'A'ishah to the effect that a person said to the Holy Prophet: "My mother has died suddenly. I think if she had a chance to speak, she would have asked me giving away something in charity. Now, if I give away something in charity on her behalf, will she get a reward for it ?" The Holy Prophet replied: "Yes, she will. " In Musnad Ahmad there is a Tradition from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin 'As to the effect. that his grandfather, `As bin Wail, had vowed in the preIslamic days of ignorance to sacrifice 100 camels. His uncle, Hisham bin 'As, sacrificed fifty camels of his own share. Hadrat 'Amr bin 'As, asked the Holy Prophet as to what he should do. The Holy Prophet replied: "If your father had affirmed faith in the Oneness of God, you may observe fasts on his behalf. or give something in charity: this would be beneficial for him." A Tradition has been reported in Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah, on the authority of Hadrat Hasan Basri, to the effect that Hadrat Sa'd bin 'Ubadah asked the Holy Prophet: "My mother has died. Should I give something in charity on her behalf?" The Holy Prophet replied in the affirmative. Several other traditions bearing on the same subject also have been related in Bukhari, Muslim, Musnad Ahmad, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, etc. on the authority of Hadrat 'A'ishah, Hadrat Abu Hurairah and Hadrat Ibn 'Abbas, According to which the Holy Prophet permitted giving away of something in charity on behalf of the deceased person describing it as beneficial for him. According to Daraqutni a person said to the Holy Prophet: ''I have been serving my parents while they were alive; what should I do now when they are dead?" The Holy Prophet replied; "This would also be their service if you offered the Prayer on their behalf along with your own Prayers, and observed the Fast on their behalf along with your own Fast." Another tradition in Daraqutni has been related from Hadrat `Ali according to which the Holy Prophet said: "If a person passing by the graveyard recites "Qul huwallah-u ahad" eleven times and gives away its reward for the dead, all the dead ones will be granted their due shares of the rewards. " This large number of the traditions which support one another explicitly state that the transfer of the spiritual rewards is not only possible but rewards of all kinds of acts of worship and virtuous deeds can be sent and conveyed and in it there is no specification of any particular kind of acts and deeds. In this connection, however, four things should be understood well: First, that the reward of that act only can be transferred, which may have been performed purely for the sake of Allah and according to the Shari'ah injunctions; otherwise obviously an act which is performed for the sake of another than Ailah, or in contravention of the Shari 'ah injunctions, cannot even entitle its doer himself to any reward, nothing to say of its transfer to another person. Secondly, the gift of the rewards will certainly reach those righteous persons who are staying as guests with Allah, but no rewards are expected to reach those culprits who are placed in confinement there. The gift can reach the guests of Allah but the criminals of Allah cannot be expected to receive it. If a person sends his rewards to him because of a misunderstanding, it will not go waste but instead of reaching the culprit it will return to the actual worker himself just like the money-order which returns to the sender in case it does not reach the one to whom it has been sent. Thirdly, the transfer of the reward is possible but not the transfer of punishment. That is, it is possible that one may do a good deed and may willingly transfer its reward to the other and it reaches him, but it is not possible that one may commit a sin and transfer its punishment to the other and it reaches him, The fourth thing is that a virtuous act s beneficial in two ways: First, on account of its those results which accrue to the soul and morality of the doer himself because of which he becomes worthy of a reward in the sight of Allah; second, on account of the reward which Allah grants him as a gift and favour. The transfer of the spiritual reward does not concern the first but only the second. This can be understood by an example. A person tries to attain proficiency in the art of wrestling by constant practice. The strength and skill thus gained is in any way specially meant for his own self; it cannot be transferred to another. Similarly, if he is attached to a royal court, and there is a stipend fixed for him as a wrestler, he alone will receive it and no one else. However, in respect of the prizes and gifts that his patron may like to grant him as an appreciation for his creditable performance, he may request that they may be given to his coach, or parents, or some other benefactor, on his behalf. The same is the case with the virtuous deeds: their spiritual benefits are not transferable and their rewards also cannot be transferred to another, but as for their rewards and gifts he can pray to Allah that these may be granted to a near and dear one, or a benefactor of his. That is why it is termed as isal thawab (conveying of spiritual rewards) and not as isal jaza' (conveying of material reward). (2) Another form of a person's work being beneficial for another is that one should either do a virtuous deed on the desire or beckoning of another, or without his desire or beckoning, on his behalf, which, in fact, was obligatory for him to carry out, but which he was unable to carry out himself. In this regard, the Hanafi jurists say that the acts of worship are of three kinds: purely physical, e.g. the Prayer; purely monetary, e.g. the zakat; and the compound acts of bodily and monetary worship, e.g. Hajj. As for the first kind, nobody can act as an agent of another. As for the second kind, one can act as an agent of the other, e.g. the husband can pay the zakat due on the ornaments of the wife. As for the third kind, one can act as an agent of the other only in case the actual person on whose behalf the act is being performed, is permanently, and not just temporarily, unfit to carry out his obligation himself. For example, Hajj can be performed on behalf of another only in case the person concerned . is unable to go for Hajj himself nor-may have the hope that he would ever be able to perform it himself. The Malikis and the Shafe is also concur on, this, However, Imam Malik lays down the condition that if the father has willed that his son should perform Hajj after him, on his behalf, the son can perform Hajj on his father's behalf, otherwise not, But the traditions in this regard are very explicit. Whether the father has expressed the desire, or made a will or not, the son can perform Hajj on his behalf. Ibn 'Abbas has related that a woman _from the tribe of Khath'am said to the Holy Prophet: "The command for Hajj has reached my father at a time when he has become very old: he cannot even sit on the camel's back. " The Holy Prophet replied: "You then may perform Hajj on his behalf. " (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidi, Nasa'i). A tradition bearing on the same subject has also been related by Hadrat 'AIi. (Ahmad, Tirmidhi). Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Zabair has made mention of a tnan of the same tribe of Khath'am, who also put a similar question to the Holy Prophet concerning his aged father. The Holy Prophet asked: 'Are you his eldest son ?" He answered in the affirmative. Thereupon the Holy Prophet said "If your father had left behind a debt and you paid it off, would it stand paid on his behalf?" He replied that it would. The Holy Prophet said: "Then you should likewise perform Hajj also on his behalf." (Ahmad, Nasa'i). Ibn 'Abbas relates that a woman from the tribe of Juhainah came to the Holy Prophet and said: "My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing her vow. Now, can I perform Hajj on her behalf ?" The Holy Prophet replied: "If your mother had left behind a debt, would you not have paid it? Likewise, you should also discharge the vow made to Allah, and Allah has a greater right that the vows made to Him be performed." (Bukhari, Nasa'i). Bukhari and Musnad Ahmad contain another tradition to the effect that a man came and put the same question to the Holy Prophet concerning his sister as has been mentioned above, and the Holy Prophet gave him also the same answer. These traditions provide a clear proof that so far as the compound acts of bodily and monetary worships are concerned, one can act on behalf of another. As for the purely bodily acts of worship, there are some Ahadith which prove the permissibility of acting on behalf of another in this kind of worship as well. For example, Ibn 'Abbas has related that a woman from the tribe of Juhainah asked the Holy Prophet: 'My mother had vowed to observe the Fast and she died without performing her vow. Now, can I observe the Fast on her behalf?" The Holy Prophet replied: "Observe the Fast on her behalf." (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Da'ud). And Hadrat Buraidah's tradition that a woman asked concerning her mother: "She had one month's (according to another tradition two months') Fasts to observe; can I observe those Fasts on her behalf?" The Holy Prophet said that she could." (Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud). And Hadrat 'A'ishah's tradition that the Holy Prophet said: ¦If a person dies and he had some Fasts to observe, his guardian should observe those Fasts on his behalf." (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad). In the tradition related by Bazzar the Holy Prophet's words are to the effect: "If his guardian may so like, he may observe those Fasts on his behalf). " On the basis of these very traditions the Ashab al- Hadith and Imam Auza'i and the Zahiris have formed the view that one is permitted to perform bodily acts of worship also on behalf of the other. But Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Shafe'i and Imam Zaid bin 'Ali have given the ruling that a fast cannot be observed on behalf of a dead person, and Imam Ahmad, Imam Laith and Ishaq bin Rahawaih opine that this can be done only in case the deceased person might have so vowed but might not have been able to perform his vow. Those who oppose this give the argument that the reporters of the Ahadith, which prove its permissibility, have themselves given their rulings against it. Ibn 'Abbas's ruling has been related by Nasa'i, thus: "No one should offer a Prayer or observe a Fast on behalf of another." And Hadrat 'A'ishah's ruling, according to 'Abdur Razzaq, is: "Do not observe the Fast on behalf of your dead ones; feed (the needy) instead." The same has been related from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Umar also by 'Abdur Razzaq that the Fast should not be observed on behalf of the deceased person. This shows that in the beginning it was permissible to perform acts of bodily worship on behalf of others, but the practice that became established in the end was that it was not permissible to do so; otherwise it was not possible that those who have reported these Ahadith from the Holy Prophet, should have themselves given rulings against them. In this connection, it should be understood well that fulfilment of an obligation on behalf of another can be beneficial only to those people who have themselves been keen and desirous of fulfilling their obligations and might have been unable to do so being rendered helpless by circumstances. But a person who deliberately shirked going for Hajj although he had the necessary means for it and had no feeling whatever of this obligation in his heart either, cannot be benefited even if several Hajj be performed on his behalf afterwards. This would be analogous to the case of a person who deliberately avoided paying his debts and had no intention to pay them till the last. Afterwards even if every penny is paid off on his behalf, he would remain a debtor in the sight of Allah. The payment of the debts by another can relieve only such a person who in his lifetime was desirous of paying off his debts but was unable to do so due to straitened circumstances.
Desc No: 39 That is, ¦ In the Hereafter the people's deeds shall be examined and judged in order to see what provisions they have brought with them. " As this sentence occurs immediately after the preceding sentence, it by itself indicates that the preceding sentence relates to the rewards and punishments of the Hereafter, and the view of those who present it as an economic principle relating to this world is not correct. To interpret a verse of the Qur'an in a way as is irrelevant to the context as well as clashes with the other ordinances of the Qur'an cannot be right.
Desc No: 40 That is, 'Allah provides the means both for joy and for grief. He controls good and iII Iuck. There is no one else in the Universe, who may have anything to do with making or marring of destinies. "
Desc No: 41 For. explanation, see E.N.'s 27 to 30 of Surah Ar-Rum, E.N. 77 of Surah Ash-Shura.
Desc No: 42 When this verse is read with the two preceding verses, the sequence by itself seems to provide the argument for the life-after-death also. The God Who has the power to give death and grant lift and the God Who brings about a creature like man from an insignificant sperm-drop, rather brings about two separate sexes - malt and female - from the same substance and by the same method of creation, cannot be helpless to resurrect man once again.
Desc No: 43 Different meanings have been given by the lexicographers and commentators of the word aqna as used in the original. According to Qatadah, Ibn 'Abbas took it in the meaning of arda (pleased), and according to `Ikrimah in the meaning of qanna'a (satisfied). According to Imam Razi, whatever is given to a person over and above his need and requirement is iqna `. Abu `Ubaidah and several other lexicographers have expressed the view that aqua is derived from qunya-tun, which means lasting and secured property, e.g, the house, lands, gardens, cattle, etc. Ibn Zaid, however, has given quite a different meaning of it. He says that aqua here has been used in the sense of afqara (made penniless), and the verse means: He made whomever He pleased rich and whomever He pleased penniless.
Desc No: 44 Shi ra is the brightest star in the heavens, which is also known by the names of Mirzam al- Jawza `, al-Kalb al-Akbar, al-Kalb al-Jabbar, Ash-Shi 'ra al-'Abur, etc. In English it is called Sirius, Dog Star and Canis Majoris. It is 23 tunes as luminous as the Sun, but as it shines over eight light-years away from the earth, it appears to be smaller and less luminous than the Sun. The Egyptians worshipped it, for it made its appearance at about the time of the season when the annual floods were beginning in the Nile; the Egyptians believed that Sirius caused the Nile floods. The pagan Arabs also held the belief that this star influenced human destinies. That is why they worshipped it as a deity, and the Bani Khuza`ah, the neighbouring tribe of the Quraish, were particularly well-known for being its devotees. What Allah says means: 'Your destinies are not made and controlled by Shi is but by the Lord of Shi'ra.
Desc No: 45 'Ad Ula signifies the ancient 'Ad to whom the Prophet Hud (peace be upon him) had been appointed a Prophet. When those people were inflicted with the torment in consequence of denying the Prophet Hud, the believers only escaped the punishment. Their descendants are called `Ad Ukhra, or the latter 'Ad, in history.
Desc No: 46 'The subdued settlements": the settlements of the people of Lot, and "covered them that which covered them" probably imply the waters of the Dead Sea, which spread over their settlements after they had sunk underground, and cover the region even till this day.
Desc No: 47 According to some commentators this sentence also is a part of the resume of the Books of the Prophets Abraham and Moses, and according to others it ended with Fa ghashsha-ha ma ghashsha, and with this begins a new theme. According to the context, however, the first view seems to be preferable, for the following words "This is a warning of the warnings already given," point out that the whole preceding passage is "of the warnings already given", which had been sent down in the Books of the Prophets Abraham and Moses.
Desc No: 48 The word tatamara, as used in the Text, means both to doubt and to wrangle. The address is directed to every listener. To every person who may be listening to this discourse, it is being said: Even after witnessing what has been the fate in human history of denying the bounties of Allah and of wrangling with the Prophets concerning them, will you still commit the same folly? What the former peoples had doubted was whether the bounties and blessings they were enjoying in the world, had been bestowed by One God, or by other associates of His, or by no one, but had become available by themselves. On account of this they wrangled with the Prophets. The Prophets asserted that all these blessings had been granted to them by God, and by One God alone; therefore, they should be grateful to Him and should serve Him alone; but the people did not believe this and wrangled with the Prophets on this very count. Now, O man: "Don't you see in history what fate these nations met for entertaining this doubt and for their wrangling ? Will you entertain the same doubt and indulge in the same wrangling as proved disastrous for others?" In this connection, one should also bear in mind that the 'Ad and the Thamud and the people of Noah had passed long before the Prophet Abraham, and the people of Lot had met with the torment during his own lifetime. Therefore, there can be no difficulty in regarding this passage as a part of the resume of the Prophet Abraham's Books. "