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109.2. ich diene nicht dem, dem ihr dient,

[ alKafirun:2 ]


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Tafsir auf arabisch:
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Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.21. Sabiquu ila maghfiratin minrabbikum wadschannatin AAarduha kaAAardi alssama-iwaal-ardi oAAiddat lilladhiina amanuubiAllahi warusulihi dhalika fadlu Allahiyu/tiihi man yaschao waAllahu dhuualfadli alAAadhiimi

57.21. Race one with another for forgiveness from your Lord and a Garden whereof the breadth is as the breadth of the heavens and the earth, which is in store for those who believe in Allah and His messengers. Such is the bounty of Allah, which He bestoweth upon whom He will, and Allah is of infinite bounty. (Pickthall)

57.21. Eilt einander voraus zur Verzeihung von eurem Herrn und einem Garten, dessen Weite ist wie die Weite des Himmels und der Erde, vorbereitet für diejenigen, die an Allah und Seine Gesandten glauben, dies ist die Gunst Allahs, Er gibt sie, wem Er will, und Allah ist voller gewaltiger Gunst. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.21. Wetteilt zu Vergebung von eurem Herrn und (zu) einem (Paradies)garten, dessen Breite wie die Breite der Himmel und der Erde ist, bereitet für diejenigen, die an Allah und Seine Gesandten glauben. Das ist Allahs Huld, die Er gewährt, wem Er will. Und Allah besitzt große Huld. (Bubenheim)

57.21. Wetteifert miteinander um die Vergebung eures Herrn und das Paradies, das so breit wie die Himmel und die Erde ist und für diejenigen bereitet wurde, die an Gott und Seinen Gesandten glauben. Das ist Gottes Gabenfülle, die Er, wem Er will, gewährt. Gott besitzt die größte Gabenfülle. (Azhar)

57.21. Wetteifert um Vergebung von eurem HERRN und eine Dschanna, deren Breite wie die Breite von Himmel und Erde ist, sie wurde denjenigen, die den Iman an ALLAH und Seinen Gesandten verinnerlichten, vorbereitet. Dies ist ALLAHs Gunst, die ER dem gewährt, den ER will. Und ALLAH ist von unermesslicher Gunst. 3 (Zaidan)

57.21. Wetteifert nach Vergebung von eurem Herrn und (nach) einem Garten, der (in seiner Ausdehnung) so weit ist wie Himmel und Erde, und der für diejenigen bereitsteht, die an Allah und seine Gesandten glauben! Das ist die Huld Allahs. Er gibt sie, wem er will. Allah ist voller Huld. (Paret)

57.21. Wetteifert denn miteinander um die Vergebung eures Herrn und um das Paradies, dessen Größe gleich der Größe des Himmels und der Erde ist. (Es ist für) jene bereitet, die an Allah und Seine Gesandten glauben. Das ist Allahs Huld; Er gewährt sie, wem Er will. Und Allah verfügt über die große Huld. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 20 bis 21

Know it well that the life of this world is nothing but a sport and pastime, and a show and boasting among yourselves and a rivalry in wealth and children. Its example is of vegetation after a shower of rain, which delighted the tillers, then the same ripens and you see it turn yellow, then it becomes straw. Contrary to this, in the life to come there is severe torment and forgiveness from Allah and His good pleasure. The life of this world is nothing but illusion ( 36 ) Therefore, strive in rivalry with one another ( 37 ) in hastening towards the Paradise the vastness of which is like the vastness of the heavens and earth, ( 38 ) prepared for those who have believed in Allah and His Messengers. This is Allah's bounty which He bestows on whomever He wills, and Allah's bounty is immense!

Desc No: 36
To understand this theme fully one should keep the following verses of the Qur'an in mind: Imran; 14- 15, Yunus: 24-25, ibrahim: 18, AI-Kahf: 45-46, An-Nur: 39. In all those verses the truth that has been impressed on the mind is: The life of this world is a temporary life: its spring as well as its autumn is temporary, Them is much here to allure man. but this, in fact, consists of base and insignificant things which man because of his shallowness of mind regards as great and splendid and is deluded into thinking that in attaining them lies supreme success, The truth however is that the highest benefits and means of pleasure and enjoyment that one can possibly attain in the world, arc indeed bast and insignificant and confined to a few years of temporary life, and can be destroyed by just one turn of fate. Contrary to this, the lift hereafter is a splendid and eternal life: its benefits are great and permanent and its losses too are great and permanent. The one who attains Allah's forgiveness and His goodwill there, will indeed have attained the everlasting bliss beside which the whole wealth of the world and its kingdom become pale and insignificant. And the one who is seized in God's torment there, will come to know that he had made a bad bargain even if he had attained all that he regarded as great and splendid in the world.  

Desc No: 37
Musabagat (from which sabiqu of the original is derived) means to compete and vie with each other in order to excel. The meaning is: "Give up your rivalries with one another for amassing wealth, and pleasures and benefits, of the world and instead make the forgiveness of your Lord and Paradise the object of your struggle and rivalries.'  

Desc No: 38
Some commentators have taken the word ard in 'arduha ka- 'ard-is- sama '-I wal-ard in the sense of breadth, but actually this word has been used here in the meaning of spaciousness and extensiveness. In Arabic the word ard is not only used for breadth, as a counterpart of length, but also for spaciousness, as it has been used in Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 51: fa-dhu du'a in 'arid: "Then he is full of wordy supplications." Besides, one should also understand that the object here is not to foretell the area or extent of Paradise, but to give an idea of its vastness and extensiveness. Here its vastness has been described as the vastness of the heaven and earth, and in Surah . AI-'Imran it has been said: "Hasten to follow the path that leads to your Lord's forgiveness and to Paradise whose vastness is that of the universe, which has been prepared for the righteous "' (v. 133) When both these verses are read together, one gets the idea that the; gardens and palaces man will receive in Paradise will only serve as his dwelling-place t but the entire universe will be his home He will not be restricted to one place as be is in this world, where just for reaching the Moon, his nearest neighbour in space, he has had to struggle hard for years and expend excessive resources only to overcome the difficulties of a short journeny. There the whole universe will be accessible to him: he will be able to see whatever he would desire from his station and be able to visit whichever place he would like easily.  




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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.22. Ma asaba min musiibatinfii al-ardi wala fii anfusikum illa fii kitabinmin qabli an nabraaha inna dhalika AAala Allahiyasiirun

57.22. Naught of disaster befalleth in the earth or in yourselves but it is in a Book before We bring it into being Lo! that is easy for Allah (Pickthall)

57.22. Es trifft kein Verhängnis auf die Ende und nicht auf euch selber, außer es ist in einer Schrift, bevor Wir es erschaffen, dies ist ja für Allah leicht, (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.22. Kein Unglück trifft ein auf der Erde oder bei euch selbst, ohne daß es in einem Buch (verzeichnet) wäre, bevor Wir es erschaffen - gewiß, dies ist Allah ein leichtes -, (Bubenheim)

57.22. Es ereignet sich keine Heimsuchung auf der Erde und in euch selbst, die nicht im Buch verzeichnet ist, bevor Wir sie geschehen lassen. Das ist für Gott ein leichtes. (Azhar)

57.22. Weder trifft ein Unheil auf Erden, noch euch selbst, ohne dass es in einer Schrift ist, bevor WIR es erschufen. Gewiß, dies ist für ALLAH etwas Leichtes. (Zaidan)

57.22. Kein Unglück trifft ein, weder (draußen) im Land noch bei euch selber, ohne daß es in einer Schrift (verzeichnet) wäre, noch ehe wir es erschaffen. Dies (alles zu wissen) ist Allah ein leichtes. (Paret)

57.22. Es geschieht kein Unheil auf Erden oder an euch, das nicht in einem Buch (verzeichnet) wäre, bevor Wir es ins Dasein rufen - wahrlich, das ist für Allah ein leichtes - , (Rasul)



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Tafsir auf arabisch:
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Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.23. Likayla ta/saw AAala mafatakum wala tafrahuu bima atakumwaAllahu la yuhibbu kulla mukhtalinfakhuurin

57.23. That ye grieve not for the sake of that which hath escaped you, nor yet exult because of that which hath been given. Allah loveth not all prideful boasters, (Pickthall)

57.23. So daß ihr nicht betrübt seid über das, was euch verlustiggeht und ihr nicht überfroh seid über das, was Er euch gegeben hat, und Allah liebt nicht jeden angeberischen Eingebildeten, (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.23. damit ihr nicht betrübt seid über das, was euch entgangen ist, und euch nicht (zu sehr) freut über das, was Er euch gegeben hat. Und Allah liebt niemanden, der eingebildet und prahlerisch ist, (Bubenheim)

57.23. Das sollt ihr wissen, damit ihr nicht unnötig über das trauert, was ihr nicht bekommt und ungebührlich frohlockt über das, was euch zukommt. Gott liebt nicht die Prahler und die Eingebildeten. (Azhar)

57.23. Damit ihr nicht trauert um das, was euch entgangen ist, und euch nicht übermäßig freut über das, was euch gewährt wurde. Und ALLAH liebt nicht jeden sich wichtigtuenden Prahler, (Zaidan)

57.23. (Laßt euch gesagt sein, daß alles, was geschieht, von Allah vorherbestimmt ist) damit ihr euch wegen dessen, was euch (an Glücksgütern) entgangen ist, nicht (unnötig) Kummer macht und (damit ihr) euch über das, was er euch gegeben hat, nicht (zu sehr) freut (indem ihr es als euren wohlverdienten und unveräußerlichen Besitz betrachtet)! Allah liebt keinen, der eingebildet und prahlerisch ist. (Paret)

57.23. auf daß ihr euch nicht darüber betrüben möget, was euch entging, noch darüber frohlocken möget, was Er euch gegeben hat. Und Allah liebt keinen der eingebildeten Prahler , (Rasul)



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57.24. Alladhiina yabkhaluuna waya/muruuna alnnasabialbukhli waman yatawalla fa-inna Allaha huwaalghaniyyu alhamiidu

57.24. Who hoard and who enjoin upon the people avarice. And whosoever turneth away, still Allah is the Absolute, the Owner of Praise. (Pickthall)

57.24. Diejenigen, die geizig sind und den Menschen den Geiz auftragen, - und wer sich abkehrt, so ist ja Allah, Er, ist der Reiche, der Gelobte. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.24. diejenigen, die geizen und den Menschen befehlen, geizig zu sein. Und wenn einer sich abkehrt, gewiß, so ist Allah der Unbedürftige und Lobenswürdige. (Bubenheim)

57.24. Diejenigen, die geizen und die Menschen dazu anhalten zu geizen, liebt Gott nicht. Wer sich von Gott abwendet, der möge wissen, dass Gott der Reiche, der Preiswürdige ist. (Azhar)

57.24. diejenigen, die geizen und den Menschen Geiz gebieten. Und wer sich abwendet, so ist gewiss ALLAH Der absolut Autarke, Der Alllobenswürdige. (Zaidan)

57.24. (Er liebt) diejenigen (nicht), die geizig sind und den Leuten gebieten, geizig zu sein. Wer sich jedoch abwendet (und nichts spendet, hat selber den Schaden davon). Allah ist der, der reich und des Lobes würdig ist. (Paret)

57.24. die geizig sind und die Menschen zum Geiz anhalten. Und wer da den Rücken wendet - siehe, Allah ist dann gewiß Der, Der auf keinen angewiesen, des Lobes Würdig ist. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 22 bis 24

No affliction befalls in the earth or in your own selves, which We have not recorded in a Book ( 39 ) before bringing it into being. ( 40 ) This is an easy thing for Allah, ( 41 ) (This' is done so that) you are not disheartened over what you may lose nor feel exultant over what Allah may give you. ( 42 ) Allah does not love those who are arrogant and boastful, who are themselves stingy and also urge others to be stingy. ( 43 ) Now whosoever turns away (should know that) Allah is All-Sufficient and All-Praiseworthy ( 44 )

Desc No: 39
"A Book": the Writ of destiny, 

Desc No: 40
Here, "it" may be referring to the affliction as well as to the earth, or the self of man, or in view of the context, to all the creatures. 

Desc No: 41
That is, it is not at all difficult for Allah to pre-ordain the destiny of each and every one of His creatures.  

Desc No: 42
In order to understand why this has been said in that context, one should keep in mind the conditions through which the Muslims were passing at the time this Surah was revealed. 'An ever present danger of attack by the enemy, battles in quick succession, a state of constant siege, hardships caused by economic boycott by the disbelievers, persecution of the converts to Islam everywhere in Arabia, these were the conditions that the Muslims were confronted with at that time. The disbelievers looked upon these as a proof of the Muslims having been forsaken and rejected, and the hypocrites took these as a confirmation of their own suspicions and doubts. As for the sincere Muslims, they were facing these bravely and resolutely, yet the excess of hardship and suffering would sometimes become trying even for them. So, the Muslims are being consoled, as if to say: "No affliction, God forbid, has befallen you without the knowledge of your Lord. Whatever you are experiencing is according to the pre-ordained scheme of Allah, which is already recorded in the Writ of destiny. And you are being made to pass through these trials and tribulations for the sake of your own training for the great service that Allah wills to take from you. If you are made to attain to success without passing through these hardships, weaknesses will remain in your character due to which you will neither be able to digest power and authority nor withstand the tempests and furies of falsehood."  

Desc No: 43
The allusion is to the trait of character that everyone could experience among the hypocrites in the Muslim society itself. As regards the outward affirmation of the Faith, they could not be distinguished from the true Muslims. But owing to lack of sincerity they were not receiving the sort of training that was being given to the sincere Muslims. Therefore, the little prosperity and leadership that they were enjoying in an ordinary town of Arabia, was causing them to be swollen with pride. As for their stinginess, not only were they fhcmsc1vee unwilling to give away a penny in the cause of God Whom they professed to believe in and the Messenger whom they professed to follow and the Faith which they professed to have accepted, but tried to prevent others also from making any contribution, for, they thought, it was a useless cause. Obviously, if there had been no trials and tribulations, these worthless people, who were of no use to Allah, could not be separated from the sincere and worthy believers, and without weeding them out a mixed crowd of sincere and insincere Muslims could not be entrusted with the high office of leadership of the world, the great blessings of which the world subsequently witnessed in the rightly-guided Caliphate. 

Desc No: 44
That is, "Even if after hearing these words of admonition a person does not adopt the way of sincerity, faithfulness and sacrifice for the sake of Allah and His Religion, and wishes to persist in his stubbornness, which Allah disapproves, then Allah has no use for him, for Allah is AII-Sufficient and Independent of His creatures: He does not stand in need of their help in any way. And He is All-Praiseworthy: people of good qualities only arc acceptable to Him; people of evil character cannot be entitled to receive any favour from Him. " 




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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.25. Laqad arsalna rusulana bialbayyinatiwaanzalna maAAahumu alkitaba waalmiizanaliyaquuma alnnasu bialqisti waanzalnaalhadiida fiihi ba/sun schadiidun wamanafiAAu lilnnasiwaliyaAAlama Allahu man yansuruhu warusulahu bialghaybiinna Allaha qawiyyun AAaziizun

57.25. We verily sent Our messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance, that mankind may observe right measure; and He revealed iron, wherein is mighty power and (many) uses for mankind, and that Allah may know him who helpeth Him and His messengers, though unseen. Lo! Allah is Strong, Almighty. (Pickthall)

57.25. Bestimmt haben Wir schon Unsere Gesandten mit den klaren Beweisen gesandt, und Wir haben zusammen mit ihnen die Schrift herabgesandt und die Waage, damit die Menschen auf der Richtigkeit bestehen, und Wir haben das Eisen herabgesandt, in ihm ist feste Kampfkraft und Nutzanwendungen für die Menschen, und damit Allah weiß, wer Ihm und Seinem Gesandten im Verborgenen hilft, Allah ist ja kraftvoll, mächtig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.25. Wir haben ja Unsere Gesandten mit den klaren Beweisen gesandt und mit ihnen die Schrift und die Waage herabkommen lassen, damit die Menschen für die Gerechtigkeit eintreten. Und Wir haben das Eisen herabkommen lassen. In ihm ist starke Gewalt und Nutzen für die Menschen -, damit Allah kennt, wer Ihm und Seinen Gesandten im Verborgenen hilft. Gewiß, Allah ist Stark und Allmächtig. (Bubenheim)

57.25. Wir haben Unsere Gesandten mit den Beweiszeichen zu ihren Völkern geschickt, ihnen die offenbarten Schriften und die der genauen Waage entsprechende Gerechtigkeit gegeben, damit die Menschen Gerechtigkeit walten lassen. Wir haben das Eisen geschaffen, das Gewalt in sich birgt, aber auch Nutzen für die Menschen, auf dass Gott wissen möge, wer sich für den Glauben an Ihn einsetzt, ohne Ihn zu sehen, und wer Seinem Gesandten beisteht. Gottes Macht und Gewalt sind unermesslich. (Azhar)

57.25. Gewiß, bereits entsandten WIR Unsere Gesandten mit den klaren Zeichen und sandten mit ihnen die Schrift und Al-mizan hinab, damit dieMenschen Gerechtigkeit walten lassen. Und WIR sandten das Eisen hinab, in dem es heftige Gewalttätigkeit und Nützliches für die Menschen gibt, und damit ALLAH kenntlich macht, wer Seinem (Din) und Seinen Gesandten im Verborgenen beisteht. Gewiß, ALLAH ist allkräftig, allwürdig. (Zaidan)

57.25. Wir haben doch (im Lauf der Zeit) unsere Gesandten mit den klaren Beweisen (baiyinaat) (zu den Menschen) geschickt und die Schrift und die Waage mit ihnen herabkommen lassen, damit die Menschen für Gerechtigkeit sorgen würden (li-yaquuma n-naasu bil-qisti). Und wir haben das Eisen herabkommen lassen, das (wenn es zu Waffen verarbeitet ist) viel Gewalt in sich birgt, für die Menschen aber auch (in mancher Hinsicht) von Nutzen ist. Auch wollte Allah (auf diese Weise) feststellen, wer ihm und seinen Gesandten im geheimen hilft. Allah ist stark und mächtig. (Paret)

57.25. Wahrlich, Wir schickten Unsere Gesandten mit klaren Beweisen und sandten mit ihnen das Buch und die Waagewerte herab, auf daß die Menschen Gerechtigkeit üben mögen. Und Wir schufen das Eisen, worin (Kraft zu) gewaltigem Krieg wie auch zu (vielerlei) Nutzen für die Menschheit ist, damit Allah die bezeichne, die Ihm und Seinem Gesandten, wenngleich ungesehen, beistehen. Wahrlich, Allah ist Allmächtig, Erhaben. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 25 bis 25

We sent Our Messengers with clear signs and instructions and sent down with them the Book and the Balance so that the people may stand by justice. ( 45 ) And We sent down iron which has great strength and other benefits for men. ( 46 ) This has been done so that Ailah may know who helps Him and His Messengers, unseen. Surely, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty. ( 47 )

Desc No: 45
In this brief sentence the whole essence of the mission of the Prophets bas been compressed, which one should clearly understand. It says that all the Messengers who came to the world from Allah, brought three things:

(1) Bauuomatat: manifest signs which clearly showed that they were really Allah's Messengers, and were not impostors; convincing arguments which made it evident that what they tore presenting as Truth was really the Truth, and what they condemned as falsehood was really falsehood clear instructions which told without any ambiguity what was the. right way for the people in respect of beliefs, morals, acts of worship and dealings, which they should adopt, and what were the wrong ways which they should shun and avoid. (2) Kitab: the Book which contained all the teachings required for the guidance of man so that people may turn w it for enlightenment.

(3) Mizan: the Criterion of truth and falsehood which may precisely indicate, like a balance, the golden mean between t40 extremes in matters of thought, morals and dealings.

The object for which the Prophets were sent with these three things was that man's conduct in the world and the system of human life, individually as well as collectively, should be established with justice. On the in hand, every man should precisely know the rights of God, the rights of his self and the rights of all . these people with whom ne may have w deal in any way, and should fulfil them faithfully; and, on the other, the system of collective life should be built on such principles as should eliminate every kind of injustice from society, should safeguard every aspect of civilization and locial life against extremism, should establish correct balance and equity in all spheres of collective life, so that all elements of society should receive their rights equitably and fulfil their obligations and duties responsibly. In other words, the object of sending the prophets was to establish individual as well as collective justice They wanted to establish justice in the personal lift of each individual so as w bring about poise and equilibrium in his mind, his character, his conduct and his dealings. They also wanted to establish the whole system of human society on justice so that both the individual and the society should assist and cooperate with each other in their spiritual, moral and material well-being instead of being a hindrance and obstacle.  

Desc No: 46
Sending down iron means creating iron in the earth just as in Az-Zumar:6 it has been said: "He Scat down for you eight heads of cattle, male and female." As whatever exists in the earth, has come hero by Allah's command, and has not appeared by itself, its being created has been expressed in the Qur'an as its being sent down.

The mention of "sending down iron which has greath strength and other benefits for men" immediately after stating the object of the mission of the Prophets by itself indicates that by iron here is meant political and military power. Thus the verse means: "Allah did not raise His Prophets in the world just to present a scheme for the establishment of justice, but it was also a part of their mission w endeavour to enforce it practically, w collect necessary power to establish justice in all spheres of life, w punish those who might disrupt it and to break the power of those who might resist it. " 

Desc No: 47
That is, "Allah does not need this help because He is weak and cannot use His power to accomplish this work, but He has adopted this method for the trial of men: man can advance on the way of his progress and well-being only by passing through this trial. Allah indeed has the power w subdue all the disbelievers by one command whenever He wills and give to His Messengers complete dominance over them, but in that case the believers in the Messcngers would have - nothing to do for which they should become entitled to rewards. That is why Allah instead of accomplishing this mission through His dominant power adopted the method of sending His Messengers to human beings with the Signs and the Book and the Criterion, and enjoined them to present the way of justice before the people and exhort them to refrain and desist from wickedness sad injustice At the same time He gave us full option to accept the message of the Messengers or to reject it. He summoned those who accepted the invitation to come forward and help Him and His Messengers to establish justice, and to exert their utmost against those the were bent upon retaining the unjust system. Thus, Allah wants to see who among us reject: the invitation to justice, who exert with their lives in order to retain injustice as against justice, who shirk: supporting d struggling for the cause of the message of justice after they have accepted it, and who stake their lives and their possessions for the sake of unseen God to help the truth become dominant in the world. Only for those who emerge successful in this test will avenues to fixture progress be opened up. "  "




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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.26. Walaqad arsalna nuuhan wa-ibrahiimawadschaAAalna fii dhurriyyatihima alnnubuwwatawaalkitaba faminhum muhtadin wakathiirun minhum fasiquuna

57.26. And We verily sent Noah and Abraham and placed the Prophethood and the Scripture among their seed, and among them there is he who goeth right, but many of them are evil livers. (Pickthall)

57.26. Und bestimmt haben Wir schon Nuh und Ibrahim gesandt, und Wir haben in ihre Nachkommenschaft das Prophetentum gegeben und die Schrift, und von ihnen sind manche rechtgeleitet, und viele von ihnen sind Frevler. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.26. Und Wir sandten bereits Nuh und Ibrahim und richteten in ihrer Nachkommenschaft das Prophetentum und die Schrift ein. Unter ihnen gab es (einige, die) rechtgeleitet (waren), aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Bubenheim)

57.26. Wir entsandten Noah und Abraham und gaben ihren Nachkommen das Prophetentum und das Buch. Einige von ihnen waren rechtgeleitet, aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Azhar)

57.26. Und gewiß, bereits entsandten WIR Nuh und Ibrahim und ließen in ihrer Nachkommenschaft die Prophetenschaft und die Schrift sein. Also manche von ihnen sind rechtgeleitet, und viele von ihnen sind Fasiq. (Zaidan)

57.26. Und wir haben doch Noah und Abraham (als unsere Boten) gesandt und in ihrer Nachkommenschaft die Prophetie und die Schrift (heimisch) gemacht. Etliche von ihnen waren rechtgeleitet. Aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Paret)

57.26. Und Wir entsandten ja auch Noah und Abraham und verbreiteten unter ihren Nachkommen das Prophetentum und die Schrift. Einige von ihnen waren auf dem rechten Weg, doch viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Rasul)



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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.27. Thumma qaffayna AAala atharihimbirusulina waqaffayna biAAiisa ibni maryamawaataynahu al-indschiila wadschaAAalna fii quluubialladhiina ittabaAAuuhu ra/fatan warahmatan warahbaniyyatanibtadaAAuuha ma katabnaha AAalayhimilla ibtighaa ridwani Allahifama raAAawha haqqa riAAayatihafaatayna alladhiina amanuu minhumadschrahum wakathiirun minhum fasiquuna

57.27. Then We caused Our messengers to follow in their footsteps; and We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow, and gave him the Gospel, and placed compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him. But monasticism they invented. We ordained it not for them. Only seeking Allah ' s pleasure, and they observed it not with right observance. So We give those of them who believe their reward, but many of them are evil livers. (Pickthall)

57.27. Dann haben Wir auf ihren Spuren Unsere Gesandten nachkommen lassen, und Wir ließen Isa, Sohn Marjams, nachkommen, und Wir haben ihm das Indschil gegeben, und Wir haben in die Herzen derjenigen, die ihm folgten, Mitgefühl und Barmherzigkeit gegeben, und Mönchtum haben sie selbst neu begonnen, - Wir haben es ihnen nicht vorgeschrieben, nur Erstreben des Wohlgefallens Allahs, - und sie haben es nicht mit seiner rechten Obhut behütet, also haben Wir denjenigen, die glauben von ihnen, ihre Belohung gegeben, und viele von ihnen sind Frevler. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.27. Hierauf ließen Wir auf ihren Spuren Unsere Gesandten folgen; und Wir ließen ´Isa, den Sohn Maryams, folgen und gaben ihm das Evangelium. Und Wir setzten in die Herzen derjenigen, die ihm folgten, Mitleid und Barmherzigkeit, und (auch) Mönchtum, das sie erfanden - Wir haben es ihnen nicht vorgeschrieben -, (dies) nur im Trachten nach Allahs Wohlgefallen. Sie beachteten es jedoch nicht, wie es ihm zusteht. Und so gaben Wir denjenigen von ihnen, die glaubten, ihren Lohn. Aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Bubenheim)

57.27. Wir ließen ihnen Unsere Gesandten folgen, so Jesus, Marias Sohn, dem Wir das Evangelium gaben; in die Herzen seiner Nachfolger legten Wir Mitleid und Barmherzigkeit. Das Mönchtum, das Wir ihnen nicht auferlegt hatten, haben sie erfunden und befolgt mit dem Ziel, Gottes Wohlgefallen zu erlangen. Sie hielten es jedoch nicht gebührend ein. Den Gläubigen unter ihnen gaben Wir ihren Lohn, aber viele unter ihnen sind Frevler. (Azhar)

57.27. Dann schickten WIR Unsere Gesandten auf ihren Spuren nach und schickten 'Isa Ibnu-Maryam nach und ließen ihm Alindschil zuteil werden. Und WIR legten in die Herzen derjenigen, die ihm folgten, Barmherzigkeit und Gnade und Mönchtum, das sie erfanden, das WIR ihnen nicht auferlegten außer im Streben nach ALLAHs Wohlgefallen. Doch sie hielten es nicht ein, wie es ihm gebührt. Dann ließen WIR denjenigen von ihnen, die den Iman verinnerlichten, ihre Belohnung zuteil werden. Und viele von ihnen sind Fasiq. (Zaidan)

57.27. Hierauf ließen wir hinter ihnen her unsere (weiteren) Gesandten folgen. Und wir ließen Jesus, den Sohn der Maria, folgen und gaben ihm das Evangelium, und wir ließen im Herzen derer, die sich ihm anschlossen, Milde Platz greifen, Barmherzigkeit und Mönchtum. - Sie brachten es (von sich aus) auf. Wir haben es ihnen nicht vorgeschrieben. (Sie haben es) vielmehr (von sich aus) im Streben nach Allahs Wohlgefallen (auf sich genommen). Doch hielten sie es (nachdem sie es erst einmal auf sich genommen hatten) nicht richtig ein. - Und wir gaben denjenigen von ihnen, die (an die Wahrheit der ihnen übermittelten Offenbarung) glaubten, ihren Lohn. Aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Paret)

57.27. Dann ließen Wir Unsere Gesandten ihren Spuren folgen; und Wir ließen (ihnen) Jesus, den Sohn der Maria, folgen, und Wir gaben ihm das Evangelium. Und in die Herzen derer, die ihm folgten, legten Wir Güte und Barmherzigkeit. Doch das Mönchtum, das sie im Trachten nach Allahs Wohlgefallen erfanden - das schrieben Wir ihnen nicht vor; und doch befolgten sie es nicht auf die richtige Art. Dennoch gaben Wir denen von ihnen, die gläubig waren, ihren Lohn, aber viele von ihnen waren Frevler. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 26 bis 27

We ( 48 ) sent Noah and Abraham and placed in the progeny of them both the Prophethood and the Book. ( 49 ) Then some of their descendants adopted guidance but many became transgreessors. ( 50 ) After them We sent Our Messengers, one after the other and followed them with Jesus son of Mary and gave him the Gospel, and We put in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion and mercy, ( 51 ) but monasticism ( 52 ) they themselves invented-we did not prescribe it for them: they invented it themselves ( 53 ) in order to seek Allah's good will. But then they did not observe it as it should have been observed. ( 54 ) We gave those of them who had believed their rewards, but most of them are transgressors.

Desc No: 48
Now it is being told what corruptions appeared among those who believed in the Prophets who came to the world before the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) with the Signs and the Book and the Criterion.  

Desc No: 49
that is, whichever Messenger came with Allah's Book, was from the progeny of the Prophet Noah and, after him, from the progeny of the Prophet Abraham. 

Desc No: 50
'Became transgressors" became disobedient. 

Desc No: 51
The words in the Text are rafat and rahmat, which are almost synonymous: But when they are used together, rafat implies the compassion that a person feels on seeing another person in pain and distress, and rahmat is the feeling under which be tries to- help him. As the Prophet Jesus was highly compassionate and merciful towards the people, his this trait of character deeply influenced his disciples: therefore, they treated the people with pity ant-sympat by and served them with all their heart and soul. 

Desc No: 52
The root rahb (from which rabaniyyat or ruhbaniyyat is derived) means fear; thus rahbaniyyat means a mode of life which reflects fear and terror, and ruhbaniyyat means the mode of life of the terrified. As a term it implies a person's abandoning the world out of fear (whether it is the fear of somebody's tyranny, or far of the worldly temptations and distractions, or fear of one's personal weaknesses) and taking refuge in the jungles and mountains, or living alone as a hermit. 

Desc No: 53
The words in the original can havc two meanings: (I) "That We did not enjoin monasticism rahbanit) upon them: We enjoined upon them only the seeking of Allah's good pleasure:" and (2) that monasticism was not enjoined by Us: they of their own accord enjoined it on themselves, to seek Allah's good pleasure." In both cases this verse makes it explicit that monasticism is an unIslamic crced, and it has never been part of the true Faith. The same thing has been stated by the Holy Prophet thus: "There is no monasticism in Islam." (Musnad Ahmed). In another Hadith the Holy Prophet said: "The monasticism of this Ummah is to fight in the way of Allah." (Musnad Ahmed Musnad'Abi Ya'la That is, he way for this Ummah to attain to spiritual piety lies not in abandoning the world but in fighting in Allah's way: this Ummah does not flee to the jungles and mountains out of fear of temptations and distractions but counteracts them by resort to fighting in Allah's way. According to a tardition related both by Bukhari ant by Muslim, one of the Companions said that he would keep up Prayers throughout the night; another said that he would fast perpetually without ever observing a break; and a third one said the he would never marry and would have nothing to do with women. When the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) came to know of what they had resolved, he said: 'By God, I fear Allah the most and remain conscious of Him at all times; yet my way is that I observe the fast as well as break it; I keep up the Prayer during the night as well as have sleep; and I marry the women also. The one who dces not follow my way, does not belong to me " .Hadrat Anas says that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) used to say: "Do not be- hard and severe to yourselves lest Allah should be hard and severe to you. A community had adopted this way of severity towards itself; then Allah also seized it in severity. Look, the remainder of them are found in the monasteries and churches. " (Abu Da 'ud).  

Desc No: 54
That is, they were involved in a double error: first, they imposed on themselves the restrictions which Allah had not imposed; second, They did not observe in the right spirit the restrictions that they had imposed upon themselves with a view to attain to Allah's goodwill, and conducted themselves in a way as to earn Allah's wrath instead of His good pleasure.

To understand this theme fully we should havc a look at the history of Christian Monasticism.

Until 200 years after the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) the Christian Church knew no monasticism. Its germs, however, were found in Christianity from the very beginning. To look upon asceticism as a moral ideal and to regard celibacy as superior to matrimonial and mundane life is the basis of monasticism. Both these existed in Christianity from the beginning. Owing to the sanctification of celibacy in particular, it was considered undesirable for those the performed religious services in the church to marry, have children and be involved in domestic chores; so much so that by the 3rd century monasticism began to spread like an epidemic in Christiandom. Historically, it had three main causes!:

First, sensuality, immorality and worship of the world had so permeated the ancient polytheistic society that in their zeal to counteract it the Christian scholars adopted the extremist way instead of the way of moderation. They so stressed chastity that the relationship between man and woman by itself came to be looked upon as filthy, even if it was within marriage. They reacted so violently to mammonism that to possess property of any kind ultimately was considered a sin for a religious person and to live like a poor man and ascetic the criterion of moral excellence. Likewise, in their reaction to the sensualism of the polytheistic society they touched the other extreme. They made withdrawal from pleasure and all material comforts, self denial and curbing of the desires the object of morality and regarded torturing the body by different sorts of harsh discipline as the climax and proof of a person's spirituality.

Secondly, when Christianity started achieving successes and spreading rapidly among the common people, the Church in its zeal to attract more and more adherents went on imbibing every evil that was prevalent in society. Thus, saint-worship replaced the ancient deities. Images of Christ and Mary began to be worshipped instead of the idols of Horus and Isis. Chrismas took the place of Saturnalia. Christian monks began to practise every kind of occult art like curing the sick by amulets and magic incantations, taking omens and fortune-telling, driving out spirits, etc. as were prevalent in ancient days. Likewise, since the COmmOn people looked upon a ditty and naked person who lived in a cave or den As a holy and godly man, this very concept of saintlihood became prevalent in the Christian Church, and legends of their miraculous powers began to abound in the memoirs of the Christian saints,

Thirdly, the Christians possessed no detailed law and definite traditions and practices to determine the bounds of religion. They had given up Mosaic Law and the Gospel by itself afforded no perfect code of guidance. Therefore, the Christian doctors went on permitting every kind of innovation to enter the religion partly under the influence of alien philosophies, customs and practices and partly under their personal preference and whim. Monasticism was one such innovation. Christian scholars and doctors of law took its philosophy and rules and practices from the Buddhist monks, Hindu Yogis and ascetics, Egyptian Anchorites, Iranian Manicheans, and the followers of Plato and Plotinus, and made the same the means ant methods of attaining self-purification, spiritual loftiness and nearness to Allah. Those who committed this error were not ordinary men. From the 3rd to the 7th century (i.e.. till about the time the Qur'an began to be revealed) the religious personalities who were recognized as the foremost scholars and religious guides and leaders of Christendom, both in the East and in the West,-St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Gregory of Bazianzus, St. Chrysostom, St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine St. Benedict, St. Gregory the Great-all were monks themselves and great upholders of monasticism. It was under their influence that monasticism became popular in the Church.

Historically, monasticism among the Christians started from Egypt. Its founder was St. Anthony (A.D. 250 -350) who is regarded as the father of Christian Monasticism. He set up the first monastery at Pispir (now Der al Memum) in the Fayum. Later he established another monastery on the coast of the Rod Sea, which is now called Der Mar Antonius The basic cults of Christian Monasticism are derived from his writings and instructions. After this beginning the monastic movements spread like a f flood in Egypt and monasteries for monks and nuns were set up everywhere in the land in some of which lived three thousand monks at a time. In 325 another ascetic, pachomius, appeared in Egypt, who founded ten major monasteries and nunneries for the monks and nuns. The monastic movement then began to spread in Palestine and Syria and different countries of Africa and Europe. The Christian Church in the beginning experienced some confusion in connection with monasticism, for although it recognized abandonment of the world, celibacy and voluntary poverty as an ideal of spiritual life, yet it could not declare marriage, producing children and possessing property or money to be sinful as the monks did. Subsequently, under the influence of holy men like St. Athanasius (d. 373), St. Basil (d. 379), St. Augustine (d. 430) and Gregory the Great (d. 609) many of the monastic rules became part and parcel of the Church.

This monastic innovation has some characteristics which are briefly as follows:

(1) Inflicting pain on the body by severe exercises and novel methods. In this thing every monk tried to surpass the other. The achievements of these holy men as related in the memoirs of the Christian saints are to this effect: St. Macarius of Alexandria constantly carried on himself a weight of 80 pounds. For six months he slept in a swamp while poisonous flies preyed on his naked body. His disciple, St. Eusebius, even surpassed his master in suffering severities and rigours. He moved about carrying a weight of 150 pounds, and lay in a dry well for three years. St. Saba ate the maize that would start stinking having. been soaked in water for a whole Month. St. Bassarion lay in thorny bushes for 40 days and did not rest his back on the ground for 40 years. St. Pachomius passed 15 years of his life, and according to another tradition 50 years, without rating his back on the round St. John remained standing in worship for three years during which he neither sat nor (ay down; he would only recline at times against a rock. His food consisted of the offering that was brought for him every Sunday. St. Simeon Styiltes (390-449) who is counted among the most illustrious Christian saints, used to observe an un-broken 40 days fast and smiling. Owing to such concepts the bond of marriage between man and woman came to be looked upon as filthy. A monk was forbidden even to look at a woman, not to speak of marriage, and was required to abandon his wife if he was married. As for men it was also impressed on the women that if they wished to enter the Kingdom of Heaven, they should shun marriage and remain spinsters and if they were married, they should separate from their husbands. St. Jerome, the distinguished Christian scholar, ruled that the woman who remained a spinster as a nun for the sake of Christ, was the bride of Christ, and her mother was the mother-in-law of Christ, i.e. God. Elsewhere St. Jerome says: "To cut asunder the bond of marriage with the axe of chastity is the primary duty of the true devotee of God. " The first impact these teachings had on a Christian man or Christian woman, under religious fervour, was that his or her married life was ruined. And since there was no provision for divorce or separation in Christianity, the husband and the wife would separate from each other while they remained bound in wed-lock. St. Nilus was father of two children. When he came under the spell of monasticism, he immediately separated from his wife. St. Ammon, on the first night of his marriage, gave his bride a sermon on the filthiness of the marriage bond and then the two between themselves decided to keep aloof from each other throughout life. St. Abraham abandoned his wife on the very first night of marriage. The same was done by St. Alexis. The memoirs of the Christian saints are full of such incidents.

The Church continued to resist in one way or the other these extremist concepts for three centuries. In those days it was not required of a priest to be single and unmarried. If he was married before being appointed a minister, he could keep his wife. However, he was forbidden to marry after his appointment. Moreover, a person could not be appointed a minister if he had married a widow, or a divorced woman, or had two wives, or possessed a concubine. Gradually, by the 4th century, the concept became firm that for a married person it was odious to perform religious services in the Church. The Council of Gengra (A.D. 362) was the last one in which such ideas wen held as anti-religious, but a little lour in 386, Roman Synod counselled the priests to avoid marriage relations and the following year Pope Siricius decreed that the priest who married, or continued to have sex relations with his wife if already married should be dismissed from office. Illustrious scholars like St. Ambrose, and St. Augustine upheld this decision most fervently, and after a little resistance it became fully enforced in the Western Church. In this period several councils were convened to consider the complaints to the effect that the people who were already marred were having "illicit" relations with their wives even after their appointment to perform religious duties. Consequently, with a view to reform them, rules were made to the effect that they should sleep in the open, should never meet their wives in private, and should meet them only in the presence of at (cast two other men. St. Gregory has made mention of a wonderful priest who did not have any relation with his wife for 40 years, and when the woman approached him at his death-bed, he rebuked her, saying: 'Woman. keep away !"

(4) The most painful and pathetic chapter of ascetic monasticism is that it cut asunder man's relations with his parents, with his brothers and sisters, and even his children For the Christian saints love of the parents for son, love of the brothers and sisters for brother and love of the children for father also was sinful. They believed it was necessary for man to break off all those relations for the sake of spiritual progress. In the biographies of the Christian saints one comes across highly pathetic and heart-rending incidents. A monk, St. Evagrius, had been undergoing severe exercises in the desert for many years. Suddenly one day letters reached him from his father and mother, who were passing their days in great agony without him. The saint, fearing that the letters might arouse feelings of human love in his heart, cast the letters immediately into the fire, without even opening them. The mother and sister of St. Theodorus came to the monastery where he was staying, with recommendatory letters from many priests, and desired to have only a glimpse of him, but the saint refused to come out before them. St. Marcus' mother went to the monastery to sec him. She somehow obtained the abbot's permission for it and requested him to order her son to come out before her, but the son was adamant to her prayers. At last, be implemented the abbot's orders by appearing before his mother disguised and with closed eyes. Thus, neither was the mother able to recognize her son, nor the son saw his mother. Another saint, St. Poemen ant his six brothers lived in a desert tnonastery of Egypt. Years later their old mother came to know of their whereabouts and went to sec them in the monastery. As soon as the brothers saw their mother coming, they hurried into their cell and shut the door. The mother started crying and wailing outside saying: "I have travelled in this old age from a distant place only to have a glimpse of you. There will be no harm if only I see you. Am I not your mother ?" But the saints did not open the door and told the mother that they would meet her in the next world. Even more painful and piteous is the story of St. Simeon Stylites, who left his parents and remained away from them without any trace of his where abouts for 27 years. The father died of grief. When the fame of the son's piety and holiness spread the mother, who was still living in agony, came to know of his whereabouts. She came to the monastery to see him but women were not allowed to enter. She prayed that either the son should call her in, or he should himself conic out to let her have a glimpse of him, but "the saint" before Easter every year. Once he kept standing on one leg for a whole year. Often he would leave his monastery and retire to a well. Later he got a 60 foot high pillar erected near Antioch, which was three feet wide at the top and railed round. He spent the last 30 years of his life on this pillar and remained permanently exposed to the elements. His disciples carried food to him by ladder and removed his filth. He had even tied himself to the pillar by a string, which cut into his flesh; when the flesh became rotten, it bred worms; whenever a worm fell out, he would restore it to the sore, saying: "Eat what God has given you Crowds of pilgrims flocked to him from far and near. When he died the Christian world proclaimed that he was the best model of a Christian saint.

The memoirs of the Christian saints of this period are full of such instances. One particular saint had the characteristic that he observed silence for 30 years: he was never seen speaking. Another had tied himself to a rock; another roamed the jungles and lived on grass; another moved about carrying a heavy load; another kept his limbs and body tied in fetters and chains; some saints lived in the dens of beasts, or in dry wells, or in old graves; and some others remained naked and concealed their private parts under long hair and would crawl on the ground. After death the bones of the illustrious saints were preserved in monastery. I saw a full library decked with such bones in St. Catherine's monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai. There were skulls and foot-bones and handbones arranged separately. A glass-case contained the whole skeleton of a saint.

(2) Their second characteristic was that they were dirty and strictly cleanliness and bodily care. Washing or applying water to the body was regarded as opposed to God-worship, for according to them puriflcation of the body was tantamount to pollution of the soul. St. Athanasius has faithfully described this virtue of St. Anthony that he never washed his feet during life. St. Abraham from the day he entered Christianity neither washed his face nor feet for 50 years. A famous nun Virgin Sylvia, never allowed any part of her body except the fingers to become wet with water throughout life It is said of 130 nuns of 8 convent that they never washed their feet and would shudder with horror at a mere reference to bath.

(3) Monasticism practically forbade married life and ruthlessly discarded the institution of marriage. All religious writings of the 4th and 5th centuries are replete with the thought that celibacy is the highest moral virtue, and chastity meant that one should strictly abstain from sexual relation even if it was between husband and wife. The perfection of a pure spiritual life lay in complete self-denial, with no desire for physical pleasure. It was . necessary to suppress any carnal desire because it strengthened animality. For them pleasure and sin were synonymous so much so that being happy was regarded as being forgetful of God. St. Basil forbade even laughing refused to oblige her. The woman lay at the entrance for three days and three nights and at last breathed her last in the same state. Then the holy man emerged from his seclusion, mourned his mother's death and prayed for her forgiveness.

In the same harsh way these saints treated their sisters and children. There is the story of Mutius, a prosperous man by all means. Drawn out suddenly by the religious impulse, he took his 8-year-old son and went to a monastery. But for the sake of his progress to holiness it was necessary that he should give up love of his son. Therefore, first the son was separated from him Then the innocent child was subjected to harsh treatment before his very eyes and he watched it patiently. Then, the. abbot of the monastery ordered him to go and Cast the child into the river. He became ready even for this; then right at the time when he was going to throw the child into the river, the monks saved the child's life. then it was admitted that he had actually attained td the rank of a holy man.

The viewpoint of Christian monasticism in these matters was that the one who sought love of God, should break off all relations of human love that bound him in the world to his parents, his brothers and sisters and his children. St. Jerome says, "Even if your nephew clings to you with his hands round your neck; even if your mother calls you back in the name of having suckled you; even if your father obstructs your way and lies down before you, you should hasan out to the banner of the cross, trampling the body of your father, without shedding a tear. Ruthlessness in this mater is piety itself." St. Gregory writes, "A young monk who could not give up love of his parents, left the monastery one night in order to pay them a visit. God punished him for this error, for as soon as he returned to the monastery, he died. His body was buried in the grave but the earth did not accept it. He was placed in the grave again and again, and the earth threw him out every time. At last, St. Benedict placed a sacred offering on his chest, and then the grave accepted him." Of a nun it is said that for three days after her death, she remained subject to a torment because she had not been able to cleanse her heart of her mother's lout. About a saint it is written that he never treated anyone harshly except his relatives.

(5) Their practice of meting out ruthless, cruel and harsh treatment to their nearest relatives, made their human feeling dead, with the result that they would treat with utmost enmity those with whom they had any religious differences. By the beginning of the 4th century, 80 to 90 religious sects had arisen in Christianity. St. Augustine has made mention of 88 sects of his own time, each of which regarded the other with extreme hatred. And the fire of this hatred also was fanned by the monks, who were always in the forefront to hahtt and destroy the opponent sects by their machinations. Alexandria was a great cenur of this sectarian conflict.

There, in the beginning the Bishop of the Arian sect attacked the Athanasius party. Virgin nuns were dragged out of their convents, stripped naked and beaten with thorny branches and branded in order to make them give up their creed. Then, when the Roman Catholics came to power in Egypt, they treated the Arian' sect likewise; so much so that according to the prevalent view Arius himself also was poisoned. Once on the same city of Alexandria the monks of St.' Cyril created a turmoil They seized a nun of the opponent sect and took her into their church; they killed her, backed her body to pieces, and cast it into the fire. Rome was not any different from this. In 366, at the death of Pope Liberius, two sects nominated their respective candidates for papacy; this resulted in great bloodshed; so much so that in one day 137 dead bodies were taken out from one church.

(6) Side by side with this retreat from the world and life of seclusion and poverty, wealth of the world also was amassed most avariciously. By the b-ginning of the 5th century the condition was that the bishop of Rome lived in his palace like kings, and when his conveyance emerged in the city, it would be as stately and splendid as of the emperor himself. St. Jerome complains of the conditions of his time (later part of the 4th century) saying that the feast hosted by many of the bishops out-classed the feasts of the governors. The flow of wealth to monasteries and churches had assumed the proportions of a deluge by the beginning of the 7th century (the age of the revelation of the Qur'an). It had been deeply impressed on the minds that a person who happened to commit a grave sin could be redeemed only by making an offering at a saint's shrine, or a sacrifice at the altar of a church or monastery. Then the same world and its luxuries and comforts abstention from which was the mark of distinction of the monks, lay at their feet. The factor which, in particular, caused this decline was that when the common people developed extreme reverence for the monks because of their undergoing severe exercises of self-discipline and self-denial, hosts of world seeking people also donned the monk's garments and entered their ranks. Then under the garb of feigned poverty they turned acquisition of worldly wealth and possessions into a flourishing business.

(7) In the matter of chastity also monasticism was repeatedly defeated in its fight against nature and defeated well and proper. In the monasteries some exercises of self-mortification were such as required the monks and nuns to live together in one and the same place, and they had often to pass the night in the same bed in their enthusiasm for more and more temptations. St. Evagarius, the well-known monk, has praised the self-control acquired by the Palestinian monks, saying: "They had mastered their passion so completely that although they bathed with the women together, looked at their bodice, touched them, even embraced them, yet they remained invincible to nature." Although bathing was an odious thing in monasticism, such baths were also taken for the sake of exercise in self-control. At last, about the same Palestine, St. Gregory of Nyssa (d. 396) writes that it bas become a centre of wickedness and immorality. Human nature avenges itself on those who fight it. Monasticism fought it and ultimately fell in the pit of immorality the story of which is a most shameful blot on the religious history of the 8th to 11th centuries. An Italian bishop of the 10th century writes: "If the penal law for misconduct is practically enforced against those who perform religious services in the church, none would escape punishment except the boys, and if the law to remove illegitimate children from religious services was also enforced, there might perhaps be left no boy among the attendants of the church. " Books of the medieval authors are replete with the complaints that the nunneries had become houses of prostitution. Within their four walls newborn babies were being massacred; the priests and religious attendants of the church had developed illicit connections even with forbidden relatives; the crime of the mtnatural act had spread like an epidemic in the monasteries; and the practice of confession had become a means of immorality in the churches.

From these details one can fully appreciate what corruption of Christianity is the Qur'iin alluding to when it says: "The Christians themselves invented monasticism, but they did not observe it as it should have been observed."   "




Medina-Musshaf Seite 541

Mehr Übersetzungen

Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.28. Ya ayyuha alladhiina amanuuittaquu Allaha waaminuu birasuulihi yu/tikumkiflayni min rahmatihi wayadschAAal lakum nuuran tamschuunabihi wayaghfir lakum waAllahu ghafuurun rahiimun

57.28. O ye who believe! Be mindful of your duty to Allah and put faith in His messenger. He will give you twofold of His mercy and will appoint for you a light wherein ye shall walk, and will forgive you. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful; (Pickthall)

57.28. Ihr, die glauben, fürchtet Allah und glaubt an Seinen Gesandten, Er gibt euch doppelt von Seiner Barmherzigkeit und macht für euch ein Licht, in dem ihr geht, und Er verzeiht euch, und Allah ist verzeihend, barmherzig, (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.28. O die ihr glaubt, fürchtet Allah und glaubt an Seinen Gesandten, dann gibt Er euch einen zweifachen Anteil an Seiner Barmherzigkeit und macht euch ein Licht, in dem ihr gehen könnt, und vergibt euch. Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)

57.28. O ihr Gläubigen! Fürchtet Gott und glaubt an Seinen Gesandten! So wird Er euch doppelten Anteil Seiner Barmherzigkeit gewähren und euch Licht geben, das euch leitet, und euch eure Sünden vergeben. Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)

57.28. Ihr, die den Iman verinnerlicht habt! Handelt Taqwa gemäß ALLAH gegenüber und verinnerlicht den Iman an Seinen Gesandten, dann gewährt ER euch zwei Anteile von Seiner Gnade, macht für euch Licht, mit dem ihr geht, und vergibt euch. Und ALLAH ist allvergebend, allgnädig. (Zaidan)

57.28. Ihr Gläubigen! Fürchtet Allah und glaubt an seinen Gesandten, dann gibt er euch (dereinst) einen doppelten Anteil an seiner Barmherzigkeit und macht euch ein Licht, in dem ihr umhergehen könnt, und vergibt euch! Allah ist barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)

57.28. O ihr, die ihr glaubt, fürchtet Allah und glaubt an Seinen Gesandten! Er wird euch einen doppelten Anteil von Seiner Barmherzigkeit geben und wird euch ein Licht bereiten, worin ihr wandeln werdet, und wird euch vergeben - und Allah ist Allvergebend, Barmherzig - , (Rasul)



Medina-Musshaf Seite 541

Mehr Übersetzungen

Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



57.29. Li-alla yaAAlama ahlu alkitabialla yaqdiruuna AAala schay-in min fadli Allahiwaanna alfadla biyadi Allahi yu/tiihi man yaschaowaAllahu dhuu alfadli alAAadhiimi

57.29. That the People of the Scripture may know that they control naught of the bounty of Allah, but that the bounty is in Allah ' s hand to give to whom He will. And Allah is of infinite bounty. (Pickthall)

57.29. Damit die Leute der Schrift wissen, daß sie zu nichts imstande sind hinsichtlich der Gunst Allahs, und daß die Gunst in der Hand Allahs ist, Er gibt sie, wem Er will, und Allah ist voller gewaltiger Gunst. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

57.29. (Dies ist) damit die Leute der Schrift wissen, daß sie über nichts von Allahs Huld Macht haben, sondern daß die Huld in Allahs Hand liegt. Er gewährt sie, wem Er will. Und Allah besitzt große Huld. (Bubenheim)

57.29. Das gewährt euch Gott, damit die Schriftbesitzer, die nicht an Gottes Gesandten glauben, wissen, dass sie nichts von Gottes Gabenfülle gewinnen können und dass die Gabenfülle in Gottes Hand ist. Er gibt, wem Er will. Gott besitzt die größte Gabenfülle. (Azhar)

57.29. Damit die Schriftbesitzer mit Sicherheit wissen, dass sie über keineMacht über etwas von ALLAHs Gunst verfügen, und dass die Gunst gewiss ALLAH unterliegt, ER lässt sie erweisen, wem ER will. Und ALLAH ist von unermesslicher Gunst. 3 (Zaidan)

57.29. Die Leute der Schrift sollen (sich) deshalb (keine Illusionen machen, sondern) zur Kenntnis nehmen, daß sie nichts von der Huld Allahs in ihrer Gewalt haben (um etwa ihrerseits darüber zu verfügen), daß die Huld vielmehr in Allahs Hand liegt. Er gibt sie, wem er will. Allah ist voller Huld. (Paret)

57.29. damit die Leute der Schrift nicht meinen, daß sie (die Muslime) nicht imstande seien, die Huld Allahs zu erlangen, und (damit sie wissen), daß die Huld in Allahs Hand ist, auf daß Er sie verleihe, wem Er will. Und Allah verfügt über die große Huld. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 29 bis 29

O you who have believed, fear Allah and believe in His Messenger (Muhammad, upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) ( 55 ) : Allah will grant you a double portion of His mercy and will give you a light in which you will walk, ( 56 ) and will forgive your errors. ( 57 ) Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. (You should adopt this way) so that the people of the Book may know that they do not have the sole right to Allah's bounty, and that Allah's bounty is in His own hand, which He bestows on whomsoever He wills, and Allah's bounty is infinite.

Desc No: 55
The commentators differ in the explanation of this verse, One group says that the address here is directed to the people who believed in the Prophet Jesus. It is being said to them, "Believe in the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) now; for this you will be given a double reward, one reward for believing in the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) and the other reward for believing in the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). The second group says that the followers of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) are being addressed. They are being admonished to the effect: "Do not rest content with your verbal affirmation of the Faith only, but you should believe sincerely and truly For this you will be given . a double reward: one reward for giving up disbelief and turning to Islam, and the second reward for believing sincerely in Islam and remaining steadfast to it. "The first commentary is supported by vv. 52-S4 of Surah AI-Qasas, and furthermore by the tradition reported by Hadrat Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, according to which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "There are throe men who will get a double reward, one of them is a person from among the followers of the earlier Books who believed in this earlier Prophet and then believed in the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace)." (BukhAri Muslim). The second commentary is supported by verse 37 of Surah Saba, which says that the righteous believers will have a double reward. From the point of view of argument both the commentaries are equally weighty. However, considering the theme that follows, one feels that the second commentary is more in keeping with the context here; and in fact the whole theme of this Surah, from beginning to end, supports this very commentary. From the beginning of this Surah- the addressees are the people who had entered Islam after affirming the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet and it is they whom the Surah invites to believe sincerely and truly and not merely verbally with the tongue  

Desc No: 56
That is, "He will bless you with such a light of knowledge and vision in the world by which you will be able clearly distinguish at every step the straight way of Islam from the crooked paths of ignorance in different matters of life, and in the Hereafter He will grant you the Light that has been mentioned in verse 12 above.' 

Desc No: 57
That is, "He will forgive you your errors that you may happen to commit due to human weaknesses in spite of your sincere efforts to fulfil the demands of the Faith, and will also forgive those sins of yours that you had committed in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance."  




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