Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
39.69. Und die Erde wird im Licht ihres Herrn erstrahlen; das Buch wird hingelegt, und die Propheten und die Zeugen werden herbeigebracht; und es wird zwischen ihnen der Wahrheit entsprechend entschieden, und es wird ihnen kein Unrecht zugefügt.
7.202. Wa-ikhwanuhum yamudduunahum fiialghayyi thumma la yuqsiruuna
7.202. Their brethren plunge them further into error and cease not. (Pickthall)
7.202. Und ihre Brüder lassen sie weiter im Fehlgehen, dann stehen sic nicht ab, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
7.202. Aber ihre Brüder lassen sie in ihrer Verirrung gewähren, und dann lassen sie (daran) nicht nach. (Bubenheim)
7.202. Doch werden die Ungläubigen durch ihre satanischen Brüder unentwegt auf Irrwege geleitet. (Azhar)
7.202. Doch ihre Brüder lassen sie (die Satane) in die Irre weit gehen, dann lassen sie von ihnen nicht mehr ab. (Zaidan)
7.202. Aber ihre (heidnischen) Brüder bestärken sie (andererseits) in der Verirrung. Und dann (wenn der Einfluß ihrer Brüder wirksam wird) lassen sie (in der Verirrung) nicht nach (thumma laa yuqsiruuna). (Paret)
7.202. Aber ihre (heidnischen) Brüder treiben sie dazu, im Irrtum fortzufahren, und dann lassen sie (darin) nicht nach. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 199 bis 202
O Prophet, adopt the way of leniency and forbearance; enjoin what is good and avoid useless discussions with the ignorant people. If Satan ever excites you to anger, seek refuge in Allah: He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. The fact is that if ever an evil suggestion from Satan so much as touches those, who are Godfearing people, they immediately get alerted and clearly see the right course they should adopt. As regards their (that is, Satan's) brethren,149a they drag theta on and on in their crooked ways and leave nothing undone to seduce them. ( 150 )
Desc No: 150 In this passage Allah has taught His Messenger some very important things about the methods of inviting people to promulgating the Message of Islam, and of guiding and reforming people. The object is to instruct the Holy Prophet and, through him, his successors to enable them to carry on his mission after him. Some salient points are given below and should be considered in the order they are given: (1) The most important thing is that the inviter to the Truth should have a large and tender heart, and should be forgiving and forbearing. He should be friendly to his companions, kind to the common people, and should show forbearance to his opponents. He should tolerate the weaknesses of his comrades and endure patiently the persecution of his enemies. He should keep cool even under the greatest provocation and connive at the most unpleasant things. He should bear patiently the bitterest words, the most wicked slanders and the most cruel persecutions. Harsh treatment, hard-heartedness, bitter talk, and vindictive retaliations are as harmful as poison for this work: this spoils the work and does not mend it. There is a tradition of the Holy Prophet to the same effect: "My Lord has enjoined me to utter what is just whether I am in a state of anger or happiness: to try my best to have cordial relations even with those who are inimical to me: to render their rights even to those who deprive me of my rights: to forgive even those who are cruel to me." He advised those whom he sent on this Mission: "Wherever you go, your visit should be a harbinger of happiness and not of hatred: you should become the source of comfort to the people and not of bringing hardships on them". Allah has also praised this characteristic of the Holy Prophet: ("O Messenger, ) it is a great blessing of Allah that you are very lenient towards and gentle with them. If you had been harsh and hard-hearted, they would have scattered away from you. . . " (III: 159). (2) The second formula for the success of this Mission is to avoid philosophising and to enjoin those simple and well-known virtues that are universally accepted to be virtues, and are easily recognized by common sense which an ordinary person possesses. Thus the appeal of the inviter to the Truth convinces every one. Its greatest advantage is that it helps win over the common people to the side of promulgators of the Truth, against its antagonists. When the common people, in spite of their prejudices, see on one side a gentle and kind person inviting them towards simple virtues, which they themselves widerstand well, and on the other, his antagonists opposing his noble mission with unmoral and inhuman devices, they turn away by and by from those degraded opponents and come to the inviter of the Truth. As a result of this, in the end, only those remain in tire field to oppose the Truth, whose own interests are closely linked with falsehood or those who are slaves of the traditions of their forefathers and of the customs of ignorance. The Holy Prophet owed his great success in Arabia to this wise policy. Then his successors achieved the same in the adjoining countries, where Islam spread by leaps and bounds and was accepted by the overwhelming majority of the people. (3) The other important instruction that has been given for the promulgation of Islam is to avoid useless discussions with the ignorant people. The inviter to the Truth should always be strictly on the guard against involvement in useless talk and discussion with mischievous and quarrelsome people. He should take the utmost care to approach and converse with those people only who adopt a reasonable and rational attitude towards his Message. As soon as he feels that his addressees are adopting the attitude of ignorance and are resorting to argumentations, wranglings and taunts, he should make an honourable retreat from them. This is because it is not only useless to be involved in such things but it is harmful to the mission, as valuable time and energy, that could have been usefully employed for the promulgation of the Message, go to waste. (4) In case the inviter to the Truth feels that the provocations from the mischievous people are becoming too much for him to bear and he cannot withstand their tyrannies, mischiefs, foolish objections and accusations, he should at once realise that it is Satan who is tempting him to retaliate. Then the best thing is to seek refuge in Allah, and invoke His help to protect His servant from doing in anger anything that might be harmful to his Mission. This is possible only if one remains cool-headed even under the greatest provocations, for one can never think or act wisely if one is easily excited by anger, insult, injustice or cruelty etc. But Satan who dces not like this Mission to succeed and is always devising schemes to defeat it, first incites own disciples to attack the inviter to the Truth and then incites him to make counter-attacks on them. As Satan's appeal is couched in very alluring words and pious terms, it is not an easy thing to withstand it. That is why pious people have been fore-warned, in vv. 201-202, of this serious danger and instructed that if they intend to refrain from evil, they should immediately get alarmed as soon as they feel the evil effects of the temptation of Satan and its incitement in their hearts and stand on their guard. Then they will clearly see the right course that they should adopt on such occasions and under such circumstances for the sake of their Mission. As for "the brethren of Satan", they become self-seekers under their influence, and cannot withstand their temptation. So they follow satans, who tempt them to retaliate, and resort to every kind of abuse and dishonesty like their enemies. Besides the above-mentioned particular implications of this passage, it bears a general meaning as well. It helps differentiate the way of the pious from that of the impious. Those who really fear Allah and sincerely desire to refrain from evil, are so sensitive that even if an evil thought so much as touches their hearts, it pricks their consciences and rankles in their hearts and they seek Allah's refuge from Satan. This is because they are not used to evil thoughts, evil desires and evil intentions, for these are foreign to their nature. As soon as they become conscious of their presence in their minds, their eyes are opened and their consciences recognise them. Then they seek Allah's refuge from Satan in order to cleanse their hearts of those dirty things. In contrast to them, those, who do not tear Allah nor desire to refrain from evil and those who have satans as their brethren, go on cherishing evil thoughts, evil intentions and evil designs in their hearts without feeling anything strange in them. So much so that no sense of cleanliness is left in their minds: and in due course, these ding things take practical shapes and expose them before the world. "
7.203. Wa-idha lam ta/tihim bi-ayatinqaluu lawla idschtabaytaha qul innamaattabiAAu ma yuuha ilayya min rabbii hathabasa-iru min rabbikum wahudan warahmatun liqawminyu/minuuna
7.203. And when thou bringest not a verse for them they say: Why hast thou not chosen it? Say: I follow only that which is inspired in me from my Lord. This (Quran) is insight from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy for a people that believe. (Pickthall)
7.203. Und wenn du ihnen kein Zeichen bringst, sagen sie: "Warum hast du es " dir nicht selbst gewählt?" Sag: Ich folge ja dem, was mir von meinem Herrn offenbart wird, dies sind anschauliche Beweise von eurem Herrn und Rechtleitung und Barmherzigkeit für Leute, die glauben. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
7.203. Und wenn du ihnen kein Zeichen bringst, sagen sie: "Hättest du es dir doch (selbst) ausgesucht!" Sag: Ich folge nur dem, was mir von meinem Herrn (als Offenbarung) eingegeben wird. Dies sind einsichtbringende Zeichen von eurem Herrn und Rechtleitung und Barmherzigkeit für Leute, die glauben. (Bubenheim)
7.203. Wenn du den Ungläubigen nicht das von ihnen geforderte Zeichen bringst, sagen sie dir: "Du musst es dringend von deinem Herrn fordern!" Sprich: "Ich befolge nur die Offenbarung, die mir von meinem Herrn eingegeben wird. Hier, im Koran, sind Beweise von eurem Herrn, die der gesunde Menschenverstand einsieht, Rechtleitung und Barmherzigkeit für die Gläubigen." (Azhar)
7.203. Und wenn du ihnen keine Ayat vollbringst, sagten sie: „Hättest du sie doch zusammengestellt.“ Sag: ‚Ich folge nur dem, was mir von meinem HERRN an Wahy zuteil wird.‘ Dies ist (der Quran) etwas Einblick-Gewährendes von eurem HERRN, eine Rechtleitung und eine Gnade für Menschen, die den Iman verinnerlichen. (Zaidan)
7.203. Und wenn du ihnen kein Zeichen bringst, sagen sie: "Warum hast du dir keines erfunden?" Sag: Ich folge nur dem, was mir von meinem Herrn (als Offenbarung) eingegeben wird. Dies (haazaa) sind sichtbare Beweise (basaa'ir) von unserem Herrn und eine Rechtleitung und Barmherzigkeit für Leute, die glauben. (Paret)
7.203. Wenn du ihnen kein Zeichen bringst, sagen sie: "Warum erfindest du es nicht?" Sprich: "Ich folge nur dem, was mir von meinem Herrn offenbart wurde. Dies sind sichtbare Beweise von eurem Herrn und eine Führung und Barmherzigkeit für gläubige Leute." (Rasul)
7.204. And when the Quran is recited, give ear to it and pay heed, that ye may obtain mercy. (Pickthall)
7.204. Und wenn der Koran vorgetragen wird, so hört ihm zu und seid still, damit ihr vielleicht Barmherzigkeit findet. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
7.204. Und wenn der Qur´an vorgetragen wird, dann hört ihm zu und horcht hin, auf daß ihr Erbarmen finden möget! (Bubenheim)
7.204. Wenn der Koran vorgetragen wird, sollt ihr ihm Gehör schenken und ihm aufmerksam zuhören, auf dass Gott euch in Seine Barmherzigkeit aufnimmt. (Azhar)
7.204. Und wenn der Quran vorgetragen wird, dann hört ihm zu und seid lautlos bedachtsam, damit euch Gnade erwiesen wird. (Zaidan)
7.204. Und wenn der Koran vorgetragen wird, dann hört zu und haltet (solange) Ruhe! Vielleicht werdet ihr Erbarmen finden. (Paret)
7.204. Und wenn der Qur'an verlesen wird, so hört zu und schweigt in Aufmerksamkeit, auf daß ihr Erbarmen finden möget. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 203 bis 204
O Prophet, when you do not show them a Sign (miracle), they say, "Why have you not chosen a sign for yourself?" ( 151 ) Tell them "I follow only the Revelation, which my Lord has sent down to me: this contains lights of insight from your Lord, and is guidance and mercy for those who believe in this. ( 152 ) When the Qur'an is recited to you. listen to it with attention and keep silence: it tray be that you also are blessed with mercy." ( 153 )
Desc No: 151 This question of the disbelievers implied a taunt. They meant to say, "Well sir, as you are posing to be a Prophet, you ought to have faked up a miracle in proof thereof". The grandeur that is contained in the answer that follows is worthy of the Book of Allah.
Desc No: 152 This is the answer to the question: "I am not in a position to invent miracles or compose or patch up verses on your demand or when I feel their need. I am only a Messenger and my duty is to follow the Guidance of the One Who has sent me. Therefore instead of demanding miracles from me, you should consider seriously the contents of the Qur'an that has been sent down to me, as it contains spiritual lights. Those who accept this, see the straight path of life, and their good moral qualities begin to show the signs of "Divine Mercy".
Desc No: 153 It means, "In your bigotry and obduracy you turn a deaf ear to the Qur'an when it is being recited, and make a loud noise so that no one should be able to listen to it. Leave this wrong attitude towards it and listen to it with attention and consider the teachings contained in it. It is just possible that your acquaintance with it may enlighten your hearts and make you co-sharers with the Believers in the mercy of your Lord." Incidentally, it should be noted that the above answer to the taunts of the opponents is so nice and sweet and appealing to the hearts that words cannot describe its excellence. There is also a lesson of wisdom for those who are engaged in the missionary work. Though the real object of this verse is the same that has been stated above, incidentally it also enjoins the hearers to remain silent and listen to it as a mark of respect which is due to the Book of Allah. It is also deduced from this that when the Imam recites the Qur'an during the Salat, the followers in the congregation should listen to it in silence, and they should not recite anything. There is, however, difference of opinion among the Imams in regard to its interpretation. According to Imam Abu Hanifah and his companions, the followers in the congregation should not recite anything whether the Imam is reciting the Qur'an aloud or silently in his mind. However, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad arc of the opinion that only in that case when the Imam is reciting the Qur'an aloud, the followers should not recite anything, but in the other case they should recite Surah Al-Fatihah. But according to Imam Shafi'i, the followers must recite Surah AI-Fatihah, whether the Imam is reciting loudly or silently in his mind. He bases his opinion on the Traditions according to which one's Sales is not complete without the recital of Surah AI-Fatihah. "
7.205. Waodhkur rabbaka fii nafsikatadarruAAan wakhiifatan waduuna aldschahri mina alqawli bialghuduwwiwaal-asali wala takun mina alghafiliina
7.205. And do thou (O Muhammad) remember thy. Lord within thyself humbly and with awe, below thy breath, at morn and evening. And be thou not of the neglectful. (Pickthall)
7.205. Und erinnere dich an deinen Herrn in deiner Seele in Unterwerfung und Furcht und ohne laute Vemehmbarkeit des Wortes, zur Morgenstunde und den Tagesenden, und sei nicht einer von den Achtlosen, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
7.205. Und gedenke deines Herrn in deiner Seele in Unterwürfigkeit flehend und in Furcht und mit leiser Stimme, am Morgen und am Abend. Und gehöre nicht zu den Unachtsamen! (Bubenheim)
7.205. Und gedenke innig deines Herrn, demütig und ehrfürchtig, und gedenke Seiner morgens und abends ständig ohne laute Worte! Reihe dich nicht unter die Achtlosen, die sich Gott nicht ständig vergegenwärtigen! (Azhar)
7.205. Und lobpreise deinen HERRN in deinem Innern demütig, ehrfürchtig und in leiserer Art als das wahrnehmbare Sprechen - morgens und abends; und sei nicht von den Achtlosen! (Zaidan)
7.205. Und gedenke für dich persönlich (fie nafsika) deines Herrn in Demut und Furcht, und ohne es laut vernehmbar zu äußern morgens und abends! Und sei nicht einer der Unachtsamen! (Paret)
7.205. Und gedenke deines Herrn in deinem Herzen in Demut und Furcht, ohne laut vernehmbare Worte am Morgen und am Abend; und sei nicht einer der Unachtsamen. (Rasul)
7.206. Lo! those who are with thy Lord are not too proud to do Him service, but they praise Him and prostrate before Him. (Pickthall)
7.206. Diejenigen, die bei deinem Herrn sind, sie wähnen sich nicht zu groß zu Seinem Dienst, und sie preisen Ihn, und vor Ihm werfen sie sich nieder.und gehorcht Allah und Seinem Gesandten, wenn ihr Gläubige seid. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
7.206. Diejenigen, die bei deinem Herrn sind, sind nicht zu hochmütig dazu, Ihm zu dienen; sie preisen Ihn und werfen sich vor Ihm nieder. (Bubenheim)
7.206. Die ihrem Herrn Nahestehenden wähnen sich nicht zu erhaben, um Ihm zu dienen, sondern lobpreisen Ihn und werfen sich vor Ihm nieder. (Azhar)
7.206. Gewiß, diejenigen bei deinem HERRN erheben sich nicht in Arroganz Seinem Dienen gegenüber, lobpreisen Ihn und vollziehen Ihm Sudschud . 1 (Zaidan)
7.206. Die (Engel), die bei deinem Herrn sind, sind nicht zu hochmütig dazu, ihm zu dienen. Sie preisen ihn und werfen sich vor ihm (in Anbetung) nieder. (Paret)
7.206. Wahrlich, diejenigen, die bei deinem Herrn sind, sind nicht zu hochmütig dazu, Ihm zu dienen; sie lobpreisen Ihn und werfen sich vor Ihm nieder. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 205 bis 206
O Prophet, remember your Lord morning and evening, deep in your heart with humility and with fear, and also in a low voice with your tongue: do not be of those who are heedless. ( 154 ) Indeed the angels, who are near to your Lord in rank, do not turn away in pride from His service : ( 155 ) they glorify Him. ( 156 ) and bow .down before Him. ( 157 )
Desc No: 154 "Remember your Lord" means "offer .Salat" as well as "keep Allah in mind whether by utterance or without it." And "morning and evening" means both the times as well as "always". Therefore "Remember your Lord morning and evening" means "Offer Salat in the morning and in the evening", and also "always keep Allah in mind." The Surah concludes with the above admonition, which is meant to warn du Muslims against their negligence in the remembrance of Allah, for this alone is responsible for all the chaos and the evils in the world. Whenever man forgets that Allah is his Lord, and that he is the servant of Allah Who has sent him to this world for a trial and that he shall have to render his account to Him inunediately after his death, he deviates from the Right Way and commits acts of wickedness and immorality. Therefore the man who intends to follow the Right Way and guides others to the same Way, should strictly guard against such a negligence. That is why the Qur'an has emphasized, over and over again, the importance of the observance of Salat and of the remembrance of Allah and of turning to Him on each and every occasion.
Desc No: 155 In contrast to the ways of pride and vanity of satans that mislead into disobedience to Allah, and consequently to the depths of degradation, the example of the angels has been cited to teach the lesson of humility. They bow down before Allah and are always engaged in His service. Therefore if one desires to achieve high ranks in the sight of Allah, one should follow the angels and refrain from the paths of satans.
Desc No: 156 The Arabic word(yusabb-i-huna-hu) means, "They acknowledge and declare that Allah is flawless, and is absolutely free from every sort of defect, error or weakness, and has neither any partners nor compeers nor the like of Him, and that they are always engaged in this".
Desc No: 157 Everyone, who recites this verse or heats its recital, is required to perform a (sajdah-prostration) so that ones physical state may be in agreement wish the angels near to Allah to give a practical proof of ones humility, servitude and obedience to Allah simultaneously with His angels. This is the first of the fourteen verses of the Qur'an, the recital of which requires the performance of a sajdah (prostration). Though all the Jurists agree that a prostration should be performed at these places, there is a difference in regard to its obligatory status. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, it is wajib (compulsory) but the other scholars are of the opinion that it is sunnat (optional). It may also be noted that a thing which is sunnat is not as binding as wajib but its intentional omission, though not sinful, is considered bad for a true Muslim and its permanent omission is sinful. As regards the manner of the performance of sajdah. we learn from Traditions that it was different in form on different occasions. Sometimes while the Holy Prophet was reciting a verse that required the performance of sajdah, he himself would prostrate then and there, and everyone in the gathering did the same so much so that if one did not find room fur it on the ground. he would perform it by laying his head on the back of the man in front of him. We also learn from Traditions that on the occasion of the Conquest of Makkah, when the Holy Prophet was reciting the Qur'an, a verse requiring the performance of sajdah occurred. Then those who were standing on the ground performed it on the ground, while those who were riding their horses or caramels performed it on the backs of animals they were riding. Sometimes when he recited a verse requiring sajdah during his address, he came down from the pulpit, and performed it on the ground and then climbed the pulpit and resumed his address. The majority of the Muslims arc of the opinion that the conditions for the performance of sajdah are the same as for the performance of Salat. But there is no proof for these conditions in the Traditions concerning sajdah. we find from them that when a person hears a verse requiring sajdah, he should bend down his head wherever and in whatever position he may be irrespective of these conditions. He should not mind whether he is in a state of ablutions or not; whether he can turn his face towards the qiblah or not; whether it is possible for hull to prostrate his head on the ground or not. We trod examples of the lcarncd and pious people in the past following the same practice. According to Imam Bukhari, Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Umar would perfom sajdah whether he was In a state of ablutions or not. It is cited in Fatehulbari that Abu 'Abdur-Rehman Sulami would recite the Qur'an while he was walking and would merely bend down his head when he read a verse requiring sajdah, whether he was in a state of ablutions or not and whether he was facing qiblah or not. From these we have come to the conclusion that, though the method followed by the majority is more prudent, if a person follows a practice different from that of the majority, he should not be reproved for this because there is no proof in Sunnah for the method followed by the majority, while there are examples of learned personages for this practice. "