73.11. Leave Me to deal with the deniers, lords of ease and comfort (in this life); and do thou respite them awhile. (Pickthall)
73.11. Und lasse Mich und die Ableugnenden, die im Wohlergehen, und gib ihnen Zeit, ein wenig, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
73.11. Und lasse Mich (allein) mit den Leugnern (der Botschaft), die ein angenehmes Leben haben, und lasse ihnen noch kurze Zeit. (Bubenheim)
73.11. ?berlasse Mir die Gottesleugner, die in ?ppigkeit leben und räume ihnen einen kurzen Aufschub ein! (Azhar)
73.11. Und laß Mich mit den reichen Ableugnern und gewähre ihnen ein wenig Zeit! (Zaidan)
73.11. Überlaß das nun mir, was mit denen geschehen soll, die (die göttliche Botschaft) für Lüge erklären und sich des Wohllebens erfreuen (ulie n-na`mati), und gewähre ihnen noch eine kurze Frist! (Paret)
73.11. Und überlaß Mir diejenigen, die (die Wahrheit) leugnen und sich des Wohllebens erfreuen; und gewähre ihnen eine kurze Frist. (Rasul)
73.14. On the day when the earth and the hills rock, and the hills become a heap of running sand. (Pickthall)
73.14. An dem Tag schüttert die Erde und die Felsenberge, und die Felsenberge sind ein rinnender Sandhügel. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
73.14. am Tag, da die Erde und die Berge zittern und die Berge ein zerrinnender Sandhügel sein werden. (Bubenheim)
73.14. An dem bestimmten Tag werden die Erde und die Berge erbeben, und die Berge werden zu einem Haufen zerstobenen Schuttes. (Azhar)
73.14. an dem Tag, wenn die Erde und die Berge beben, und die Berge zu verstreuten Dünen werden. (Zaidan)
73.14. Am Tag (des Gerichts), da die Erde und die Berge erbeben und die Berge (schließlich nichts weiter als) eine zusammengesunkene Düne sein werden! (Paret)
73.14. an dem Tage, da die Erde und die Berge erbeben und die Berge ein Haufen zusammengesunkener Dünen sein werden. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 14
O you who sleeps covered up, ( 1 ) keep standing in Prayer at night but a little ( 2 ) half the night, or lessen it a little, or add to it a little ( 3 ) and recite the Qur'an calmly in a measured tone. ( 4 ) Indeed, We are about to send down on you a weighty Word ( 5 ) In fact. the rising by night ( 6 ) is most effective for controlling the self' ( 7 ) and most suitable for reciting the Qur'an well, ( 8 ) for in the day time you have many an occupations. Remember the name of your Lord ( 9 ) and devote yourself to Him exclusively. He is the Owner of the East and the West; there is no god but He; therefore, take Him alone as your Guardian. ( 10 ) And bear with patience what they utter, and depart from them gracefully. ( 11 ) Leave it to Me to deal with those prosperous people who deny ( 12 ) (the Truth) and leave them as they are for a while. We have heavy fetters (for them) ( 13 ) and a blazing Fire, and a choking food and a painful torment. This will happen on the Day when the earth and the mountains shall become as heaps of scattering sand. ( 14 )
Desc No: 1 To address the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) with these words and then to command him to rise and keep standing in the Prayer at night, shows that at the tune he either lay asleep, or had wrapped himself up in a sheet in order to go to sleep. Here, to address him with "O you who sleeps covered up" instead of with "O Prophet, or O Messenger", is a fine way of address, which by itself gives the meaning: "Gone is the time when you used to enjoy peaceful sleep at will; now you lie under the burden of a great mission, whose demands and duties are different as well as onerous.
Desc No: 2 This can have two meanings: (1) "Pass the night standing up in the Prayer and spend only a little of it in sleep"; and (2)"there is no demand from you to pass the whole night in the Prayer, but have rest as well and spend a little part of the night in worship too." But in view of the theme that follows the first meaning seems to be more relevant, and the same is supported by Ad-Dahr: 26, in which it has been said: "Prostrate yourself before Him in the night and glorify Him during the long hours of night."
Desc No: 3 This is an explanation of the duration of time commanded to be spent in worship. In it the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) was given the option to spend half of the night in the Prayer, or a little less than that, or a little more than that. But the style shows that half the night has been regarded as preferable, for the measure is the same, which may be decreased or increased, as the people may like and choose.
Desc No: 4 "Recite the Qur'an ......": Do not recite it quickly and in haste, but slowly and distinctly: pause at every verse so that the mind understands the meaning and purport of Divine Revelation well and takes effect from it. if it contains the mention of Allah's Being and Attributes, it may awe-inspire the heart with His glory and majesty; if it expresses His mercy, the heart may be filled with feelings of gratitude to Him; if it mentions His wrath and His punishment, the heart may be overwhelmed by fear of Him; if it enjoins something or forbids something, one may understand what has been enjoined and what has been forbidden. In short, the recital dces not only consist in uttering the words with the tongue, but it should involve thoughtful consideration of the meaning. When Hadrat Anas was asked about the Holy Prophet's method of reciting the Qur'an, he replied: The Holy Messenger stretched the words when reciting them. For example, when he recited Bismillah ir-Rahman it-Rahim he would stretch and prolong the sound of Allah, Rahman and Rahim (Bukhari). When Hadrat Umm Salamah was asked the same question, she replied that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) recited every verse separately and distinctly and observed a pause at the end of every verse. For instance, he recited AI-hamdu-lillah-i Rabb-il'alamin, and paused, then recited ar-Rahman ir-Rahim, and paused, and then recited Malik-i yaum id-di'n. "(Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi). In another tradition, Hadrat Umm Salamah has stated that the Holy Prophet recited each word distinctly and clearly. (Tirmidhi, Nasa'i). Hadrat Hudhaifah bin Yaman says: "Once I stood beside the Holy Prophet in the Night Prayer to see how he recited the Qur'an. I noticed that he glorified Allah where He should be glorified, invoked and supplicated Allah where He should be invoked and supplicated, and sought refuge of Allah where His refuge should be sought." (Muslim, Nasa'i). Hadrat Abu Dharr has stated that once during the Night Prayer when the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) came to the sentence: In to adhdhib-hmn ... (If You punish them, then they are Your servants; and if You forgive them, then You are Almighty, All-Wise), he went on repeating it over and over again until it became dawn." (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari).
Desc No: 5 That is, "You are being commanded to stand up in the Night Prayer because We are going to send down on you a weighty word, to bear the burden of which you must develop necessary power in yourself, and you can develop this power only by abandoning your ease and comfort of the night and by standing up in the Prayer and passing half the night or thereabout in the worship of your Lord. "The Qur'an has been called a weighty Word also for the reason that acting on its commands, demonstrating its teaching practically, extending its invitation in the face of the whole world, and bringing about a revolution in the entire system of belief and thought, morals and manners, civilization and social life, according to it, is indeed the weightiest task any human being ever has been charged with: It has been called a weighty Word also because bearing the burden of its revelation was a difficult and heavy duty. Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit says: "Once Revelation came down upon the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) in a state when he was resting his head upon my knee. I felt such a pressure of the weight on my knee that I thought it would break." Hadrat `A`ishah says: "I have seen the state of the Holy Prophet's receiving Revelation during intense cold, drops of perspiration started falling from his forehead." (Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i): In another tradition Hadrat `A`ishah has stated: "Whenever Revelation came down on the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) while he was riding on his she-camel, the she-camel would be forced to rest her chest on the ground and could not move until the Revelation was over." (Musnad Ahmad. Hakim, Ibn Jarir).
Desc No: 6 About the meaning of the word nashi'at a!-/ail, as used in the original, the commentators and lexicographers have expressed four different viewpoints: (1) That nashi'at implies the person himself who rises at night; (2) that it implies the hours of night; (3) that it means the rising by night; and (4) that it does not only apply to the rising in the night but rising after having had some sleep, Hadrat `A`ishah and Mujahid have adopted this fourth viewpoint.
Desc No: 7 The word ashaddu wat'an as used in the Text is so vast in meaning that it cannot be explained in any one sentence. Its one meaning is: As the rising for worship by night and standing up for a long tithe in the Prayer is against human nature and the self of tnan seeks ease and comfort at that time. this act is an exercise which is most effective in controlling and disciplining the self. The person who governs himself by this method and gains dominance over his body and mind becomes able to use his power in the way of God, can work more efficiently and firmly to make the message of true Faith prevail in the world. The second meaning is: This is a very effective means of producing harmony and concord between the heart and the tongue, for during these hours of the night none else intervenes between the servant and his God, and whatever man utters with his tongue in this state, is the very voice of his heart. The third meaning is: This is a very efficacious means of bringing about conformity between the exterior and the interior of man, , for the person who in the solitude of the night would abandon his comfort and ease and arise for worship, would do so only out of sincerity: there can be no tinge of display and hypocrisy in this. The fourth meaning is: As this worship is harder on man than the worship of the daytime, it develops steadfastness in him: he is enabled to walk in the path of God more firmly and can face and endure the hardships of that way with greater constancy and determination.
Desc No: 8 Literally: "Makes the speech most upright and sound." But the purport is to say that at that tithe man can read the Qur'an with greater peace of mind, attention and understanding. lbn `Abbas has explained it thus: "That it is the most suitable time for man to ponder over the Qur'an well.¦ (Abu Da'ud).
Desc No: 9 After making mention of the occupation of the daytime, the exhortation to "remember the name of your Lord" by itself gives the meaning: "Never be heedless of the remembrance of your Lord even when you are deeply involved in your worldly occupations, and continue. to commemorate His name in one way or another at all times." (For explanation, see E.N. 63 of Surah AI-Ahzab).
Desc No: 10 " Wakil is a person in whom one has complete faith; so much so that one can entrust all one's affairs to him with full satisfaction of the heart. Thus, the verse means: "Do not feel distressed at the hardships that you are experiencing at the storm of opposition that has been provoked by your invitation to we Faith. Your Lord is He Who is the Owner of the East and the West, (i.e. of the whole universe) besides Whom no one else possesses the powers of Godhead. Entrust your affair to Him and be satisfied that He will fight your case, He will deal with your opponents, and He will look after all your interests well. "
Desc No: 11 "Depart from them" does not mean "Break off all ties with them and stop preaching to them", but it means; "Do not have intimate and friendly relations with them: disregard their foolish behaviour and their nonsense." However, you should do so without showing any grief, anger or temper but gracefully like a noble person, who would disregard the abusive remarks of a mean person without minding them at all. This should not create the misunderstanding that the Holy Prophet's conduct was any different from it; therefore, Allah gave him this instruction. As a matter of fact, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) was already following this very mode of conduct; this instruction was given in the Qur'an so as to tell the disbelievers: "It is not due to any weakness on the part of the Prophet that he is not responding to what you are saying against him, but Allah Himself has taught His Messenger to adopt this noble way of conduct in response to your foolish behaviour. "
Desc No: 12 These words clearly contain the sense that the people who were actually denying the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) in Makkah and were inciting the common people to oppose and resist him by stirring up prejudices and by deceit and fraud were the well-to-do, prosperous and affluent people, for it was their interests, which were being hit by Islam's message of reform. The Qur'an tells us that this was not peculiar only to the Holy Prophet's case but in every age this very class of the people have been the main obstacle to every movement of reform. For example, see Al-A`raf; 60, 6b, 75, 88; Al-Mu'minun: 33; Saba; 34 35; Az-Zukhruf: 23.
Desc No: 13 Heavy fetters in Hell will not be put on the criminals' feet to stop them from escape but in order that they are not able to stand up and move; these will not be used to prevent their escape but as an instrument of their torment.
Desc No: 14 Since at that time the cohesive force to bind the parts of the mountains together will cease to work, first they will become like crumbling dunes of fine sand, then because of the earthquake which will be shaking the earth; the sand will scatter and shift and the whole earth will turn into an empty level plain. This last state has been described in Ta Ha: 105-107, thus: "They ask you: where will the mountains go on that Day? Say: My Lord will reduce them to fine dust and scatter it away. He will turn the earth into an empty level plain, wherein you will neither see any curve no crease." "
73.19. Inna hadhihi tadhkiratun famanschaa ittakhadha ila rabbihi sabiilan
73.19. Lo! This is a Reminder. Let him who will, then, choose a way unto his Lord. (Pickthall)
73.19. Dies ist eine Ermahnung, also wer will, nimmt sich zu seinem Herrn einen Weg. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
73.19. Gewiß, dies ist eine Erinnerung; wer nun will, (der) nimmt (so diesen) einen Weg zu seinem Herrn. (Bubenheim)
73.19. Das ist eine Ermahnung. Wer möchte, möge den Weg zu seinem Herrn gehen. (Azhar)
73.19. Gewiß, dies ist eine Ermahnung. Wer will, schlägt einen Weg zu seinem HERRN ein. (Zaidan)
73.19. Dies ist eine Erinnerung. Wer nun will (nimmt sie sich zu Herzen und) schlägt einen Weg zu seinem Herrn ein. (Paret)
73.19. Dies ist wahrlich eine Ermahnung. So nehme nun, wer da will, den Weg zu seinem Herrn. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 15 bis 19
To you ( 15 ) We have sent a Messenger to be a witness o ver you, ( 16 ) even as We had sent a Messenger to the Pharaoh. (Then behold when) the Pharaoh disobeyed the Messenger, We seized him with a firm grip. if you too, refuse to believe, then how will you protect yourselves on the Day that will make the children old, ( 17 ) and whose severity shall cause the heavens to split? Allah's promise has to be fulfilled in any case. This is an Admonition; so, whoever wills, let him take a path to his Lard.
Desc No: 15 The address now turns to the disbelievers of Makkah, who were denying the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) and persecuting him relentlessly.
Desc No: 16 Sending the Holy Prophet to be a witness over the people also means that he should testify to the Truth by his word and deed before them in the world and also that in the Hereafter when Allah's Court is established, he will testify that he had presented the whole Truth before the people in the world. (For further explanation, see E.N. 144 of Al-Baqarah, E.N. 64 of An-Nisa', An-Nahl: 84, 89, E.N. 82 of Al-Azab, E.N. 14 of Al-Fath).
Desc No: 17 That is, "In the first place, you should be afraid that if you do not accept the invitation of the Messenger sent by Us, you will have to meet the same evil end in this world, which the Pharaoh has already met in consequence of this very crime. But even if no torment is sent on you in the world, how will you save yourselves from the punishment of the Day of Resurrection?"
73.20. Inna rabbaka yaAAlamu annaka taquumu adnamin thuluthayi allayli wanisfahu wathuluthahu wata-ifatunmina alladhiina maAAaka waAllahu yuqaddiruallayla waalnnahara AAalima an lan tuhsuuhufataba AAalaykum faiqrauu ma tayassara minaalqur-ani AAalima an sayakuunu minkum marda waakharuunayadribuuna fii al-ardi yabtaghuuna min fadliAllahi waakharuuna yuqatiluuna fii sabiiliAllahi faiqrauu ma tayassara minhu waaqiimuualssalata waatuu alzzakatawaaqriduu Allaha qardan hasanan wamatuqaddimuu li-anfusikum min khayrin tadschiduuhu AAinda Allahihuwa khayran waaAAdhama adschran waistaghfiruuAllaha inna Allaha ghafuurun rahiimun
73.20. Lo! thy Lord knoweth how thou keepest vigil sometimes nearly two thirds of the night, or (sometimes) half or a third thereof, as do a party of those with thee. Allah measureth the night and the day. He knoweth that ye count it not, and turneth unto you in mercy. Recite, then, of the Quran that which is easy for you. He knoweth that there are sick folk among you, while others travel in the land in search of Allah ' s bounty, and others (still) are fighting for the cause of Allah. So recite of it that which is easy (for you), and establish worship and pay the poor due and (so) lend unto Allah a goodly loan. Whatsoever good ye send before you far your souls, ye will surely find it with Allah, better and greater in the recompense. And seek forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Pickthall)
73.20. Dein Herr weiß ja, du stehst nahe an zwei Dritteln der Nacht, und ihre Hälfte, und ihr Drittel, und ein Teil von denjenigen, die mit dir zusammen sind, und Allah bemißt die Nacht und die Tageszeit, Er weiß, daß ihr sie sicher nicht berechnet, und Er wendet sich vergebend zu euch, also lest vor, was leicht ist vom Koran, Er weiß, daß unter euch Kranke sein werden und andere, - sie ziehen im Land umher, sie streben nach der Gunst Allahs, - und andere, sie kämpfen auf dem Weg Allahs, - also lest vor, was leicht ist davon, und richtet das Gebet ein und gebt die Zakat-Steuer und leiht Allah ein gutes Darlehen, und was ihr für euch selbst vorausschickt an Gutem, ihr findet es bei Allah, es ist besser und gewaltiger an Belohnung, und bittet Allah um Verzeihung, Allah ist ja verzeihend, barmherzig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
73.20. Gewiß, dein Herr weiß, daß du etwas weniger als zwei Drittel der Nacht (zum Gebet) aufstehst, oder die Hälfte oder ein Drittel davon, und (ebenso) ein Teil von denjenigen, die mit dir sind. Und Allah setzt das Maß der Nacht und des Tages fest. Er weiß, daß ihr es nicht erfassen würdet´. Da wandte Er Sich euch zu und erließ es euch. So lest (bei Nacht), was euch vom Qur´an leichtfällt. Er weiß, daß es unter euch Kranke geben wird und andere, die im Land umherreisen, wo sie nach (etwas) von Allahs Huld trachten, und (wieder) andere, die auf Allahs Weg kämpfen. So lest davon, was euch leichtfällt, und verrichtet das Gebet und entrichtet die Abgabe und gebt Allah ein gutes Darlehen. Und was ihr für euch selbst an Gutem vorausschickt, das werdet ihr noch besser und großartiger belohnt bei Allah finden. Und bittet Allah um Vergebung. Gewiß, Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
73.20. Gott weiß, dass du manchmal etwas weniger als zwei Drittel der Nacht, manchmal die Hälfte, zuweilen ein Drittel betest desgleichen einige deiner Anhänger. Gott ist es, Der die Nacht und den Tag nach Maß bestimmt. Er weiß, dass ihr keine genaue Einteilung von Nacht und Tag vornehmen könnt. Daher hat Er es euch erleichtert: ihr sollt, was euch möglich ist, vom Koran vortragen. Er weiß, dass es unter euch Kranke gibt, andere, die im Land herumreisen, um (zu arbeiten und Handel zu treiben und sich bemühen,) aus Gottes Gabenfülle zu schöpfen, und andere, die auf dem Weg Gottes kämpfen. Tragt den Koran vor, wie es euch möglich ist, verrichtet das Gebet, entrichtet die Zakat-Abgaben und gebt Gott ein gutes Darlehen! Für das, was ihr an guten Taten zu eurem Vorteil vollbringt, findet ihr bei Gott bessere Vergeltung und größere Belohnung. Bittet Gott um Vergebung! Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)
73.20. Gewiß, dein HERR weiß, dass du doch Qiyam weniger als zwei Drittel der Nacht, die Hälfte davon und ein Drittel davon vollziehst, sowie eine Gruppe von denjenigen mit dir. Und ALLAH bestimmt die Nacht und den Tag. ER wusste, dass ihr es nicht detailliert erfassen könnt, so verzieh ER euch. So rezitiert das vom Quran, wozu ihr imstande seid. ER wusste, dass unter euch Kranke sein werden sowie andere, die im Lande umherreisen, sie streben etwas von ALLAHs Gunst an, sowie andere, die fi-sabilillah kämpfen, so rezitiert davon, wozu ihr imstande seid. Und verrichtet ordnungsgemäß das rituelle Gebet, entrichtet die Zakat und gewährt für ALLAHs (Din) eine Hasan-Anleihe! Und was ihr euch selbst an Gutem vorlegt, findet ihr bei ALLAH besser und gewaltiger an Belohnung. Und bittet ALLAH um Vergebung! Gewiß, ALLAH ist allvergebend, allgnädig. 3 (Zaidan)
73.20. Dein Herr weiß, daß du gegen zwei Drittel der Nacht oder die halbe Nacht oder ein Drittel davon stehst (und betest), (du) und eine Gruppe von denen, die mit dir sind. Aber (man kann das nicht allzu genau nehmen, auch wenn ihr die ehrliche Absicht habt, diese Gebetszeiten einzuhalten.) Allah (allein) bestimmt (Maß und Ziel von) Tag und Nacht. Er wußte (von vornherein), daß ihr es nicht (genau) abzählen würdet. Und so hat er sich euch (gnädig) wieder zugewandt. Rezitiert nun aus dem Koran, was (euch) leichtfällt (nachdem ihr nicht imstande seid, die nächtlichen Gebetsübungen in ihrer ganzen Länge durchzuführen)! Er wußte (von vornherein), daß es unter euch einige geben würde, die krank sind, und andere, die im Land (draußen) unterwegs sind im Verlangen danach, daß Allah ihnen Gunst erweise, und (wieder) andere, die um Allahs willen kämpfen. Daher rezitiert aus ihm, was (euch) leichtfällt! Aber verrichtet das (offizielle) Gebet (salaat), gebt die Almosensteuer (zakaat) und gebt (indem ihr gute Werke tut) Allah ein gutes Darlehen! Was ihr für euch (im Erdenleben) vorweg an Gutem tut, werdet ihr (dereinst) bei Allah besser und höher belohnt vorfinden. Und bittet Allah um Vergebung (für eure Sünden)! Allah ist barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
73.20. Dein Herr weiß wahrlich, daß du (im Gebet etwas) weniger als zwei Drittel der Nacht stehst und (manchmal) eine Hälfte oder ein Drittel (der Nacht), und ein Teil derer, die mit dir sind (, tut desgleichen). Und Allah bestimmt das Maß der Nacht und des Tages. Er weiß, daß ihr sie (die Ausdauer) nicht (immer) werdet verkraften können. Darum hat Er Sich euch mit Nachsicht zugewandt. So tragt denn so viel vom Qur'an vor, wie es (euch) leicht fällt. Er weiß, daß einige unter euch sein werden, die krank sind, und andere, die im Lande umherreisen - nach Allahs Gnadenfülle strebend -, und wieder andere, die für Allahs Sache kämpfen. So tragt von ihm das vor, was (euch) leicht fällt, und verrichtet das Gebet und entrichtet die Zakah und gebt Allah ein gutes Darlehen. Und das, was ihr an Gutem für eure Seelen vorausschickt, werdet ihr bei Allah als besseren und größeren Lohn finden. Und bittet Allah um Vergebung. Wahrlich, Allah ist Allvergebend, Barmherzig. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 20 bis 20
O Prophet, ( 18 ) your Lord knows that you sometimes stand in the. Prayer nearly two-thirds of the night and sometimes half the night, and sometimes one-third of the night, ( 19 ) and so does a group of your Companions. ( 20 ) AIIah alone keeps an account of the time of the day and night. He knows that you cannot compute the time precisely; so He has shown kindness to you. Now you may read as much of the Qur'an as you easily can ( 21 ) He knows that there will be sick men among you, and some others who travel to seek Allah's bounty ( 22 ) and yet others who fight in Allah's Way. ( 23 ) Therefore, read as much of the Qur'an as you may do with ease. Establish the salat and pay the zakat, ( 24 ) and give to Allah a goodly loan. ( 25 ) Whatever good you may send forward for yourselves, you shall find it with Allah. That is best and richest in reward. ( 26 ) Seek forgiveness from Allah: indeed Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful.
Desc No: 18 About this verse in which reduction has been made in the injunction concerning the Tahajjud Prayer, there are different traditions. Musnad Ahmad, Muslim and Abu Da'ud have related a tradition, on the authority of Hadrat `A'ishah, saying that this second command was sent down one year after the first command, and the standing up in the Prayer at night was made voluntary instead of obligatory. Another tradition which Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim have related, again on the authority of Hadrat `A'ishah, says that this command came down 8 months after the first command, and a third tradition which Ibn Abi Hatim has related again from her, says that it came down 16 months later. Abu Da'ud, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim have cited the period of one year from Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Abbas. But Hadrat Sa'id bin Jubair has stated that it was sent down ten years later. (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim). In our opinion this last view is most sound, for the subject-matter of the first section clearly shows that it was sent down in Makkah and that too in the earliest stage when at the most four years might have passed since the advent of Prophethood. Contrary to this, this second section, .in view of the express evidence of its subject matter, seems to have been revealed at Madinah when fighting had started with the disbelievers and the zakat also had been enjoined as an obligatory duty. On this basis inevitably the two sections should have been sent down at an interval of at least ten years between them.
Desc No: 19 Although the initial command to the Holy Prophet was to keep standing up in the Prayer for half the. night, or thereabout, it was difficult to compute the tithe precisely in the absorption of the Prayer, especially when there were no watches either to measure time accurately; therefore, sometimes twothirds of the night passed in the prayer and sometimes only one-third of it.
Desc No: 20 In the initial command only the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) was addressed and only he was instructed to stand up in the Prayer by night. But since the Muslims at that time were ardently desirous of following him in everything he did and of earning more and more good and virtues, many of the Companions also performed this Night Prayer regularly.
Desc No: 21 As the Prayer is prolonged due mainly to a lengthy recital of the Qur'an, it is said: "You may recite as much of the Qur'an as you easily can in the Tahajjud Prayer This would automatically cause the Prayer to be shortened" . Although the words here are apparently in the imperative mood, it is agreed by all that Tahajjud is not an obligatory but a voluntary Prayer. In the Hadith also it has been explained that on an enquiry by a person the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) replied: "Five times Prayer in the day and night is obligatory on you. He asked: Is anything besides this also binding on me? The Holy Prophet said: No, unless you may like to offer something of your own accord. " (Bukhari, Muslim).
This verse also shows another thing. Just as the bowing (ruku ) and prostration (sajdah.) are obligatory in the Prayer, so is the recital of the Qur'an. For just as Allah at other places has used the words ruku' and sajdah for the prayer, so here He has mentioned recital of the Qur'an, which implies its recital in the Prayer. If somebody objects to this conclusion, saying: When the Tahajjud Prayer itself is voluntary, how can recital of the Qur'an in it be obligatory? The answer is: Even in case of the voluntary Prayer it is incumbent on one to fulfil all the pre-requisites of the Prayer and to perform all its basic elements and obligatory parts. No one can say that in case of the voluntary Prayer, purity of the garments and body, ablutions and concealment of the satar (minimal part of the body to be covered) are not obligatory, and the standing up and sitting and performance of ruku`and sajdah also in it are only voluntary.
Desc No: 22 Travelling to earn one's living by lawful and permissible methods has been described in many places in the Qur'an as the seeking of Allah's bounty.
Desc No: 23 Here, the way Allah has made mention of seeking pure livelihood and fighting in the Way of Allah together and declared these two, besides the compulsion on account of illness, as reasons for exemption from the Tahajjud Prayer, or concession in it, shows how meritorious it is in Islam-to earn one's livelihood by lawful methods. In the Hadith, Hadrat `Abdullah bin Mas`ud has reported that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "The person who came to a city of the Muslims with foodgrains and sold it at the rate of the day, will attain to a place nearest to Allah, and then the Holy Prophet recited this very verse." (lbn Marduyah), Hadrat 'Umar once said: "Except for fighting in the way of Allah, the state in which I would love to be overtaken by death, is the state when I am overtaken by it while passing through a mountain pass in search of livelihood and then he recited this very verse." (Baihaqi, Shu ab al-Iman).
Desc No: 24 Commentators are agreed that this implies observance of the obligatory Prayer five times a day and giving away of the obligatory zakat.
Desc No: 25 Ibn Zaid says this implies spending one's wealth in the cause of Allah besides the zakat, whether it is in the cause of fighting in the way of Allah, or for helping the needy, or for public utilities, or other good works. The meaning of giving to Allah a good loan has been explained at several places above. See E.N 267 of AI-Baqarah, E.N. 33 of Al-Ma'idah, E.N. 16 of Al-Hadid).
Desc No: 26 It means: "Whatever you have sent forward for the good of your Hereafter is more beneficial for you than that you withheld in the world and did not spend in any good cause for the pleasure of Allah. According to a Hadith reported by Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas`ud the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) once asked: "Which of you has a greater love for his own wealth than for the wealth of his heir? The people said: There is none among us, O Messenger of Allah, who would not have greater love for his own wealth than for the wealth of his heir. He said: Consider well what you are saying. The people submitted: This indeed is our considered opinion, O Messenger of Allah. Thereupon the Holy Prophet said: Your own property is only that which you have sent forward (for the good f your Hereafter), and whatever you held back indeed belongs to the heir." (Bukhari. Nasa'i, Musnad Abu Ya`la). "