Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
14.4. Und Wir haben keinen Gesandten gesandt, außer in der Sprache seines Volkes, damit er ihnen (die Botschaft) klar macht. Allah läßt dann in die Irre gehen, wen Er will, und leitet recht, wen Er will. Und Er ist der Allmächtige und Allweise.
87.5. Then turneth it to russet stubble. (Pickthall)
87.5. Dann hat Er es zu dunkel versengten Abfallresten gemacht, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
87.5. und sie dann zu dunkelbrauner Spreu macht. (Bubenheim)
87.5. und es dann zu trockenem, dunklem Heu macht. (Azhar)
87.5. und ER es dann zum grünschwarzen Vertrockneten machte. (Zaidan)
87.5. und es (daraufhin) zu grau versegnetem Spreu (guthaa' ahwaa) hat werden lassen! (Paret)
87.5. und sie zu versengter Spreu macht. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 5
(O Prophet,) glorify the name of your Lord, the Highest. ( 1 ) Who created and proportioned, ( 2 ) Who set a destiny ( 3 ) and showed the way, ( 4 ) Who caused vegetation to grow, ( 5 ) then reduced it to black rubbish. ( 6 )
Desc No: 1 Literally: "Purify the name of your Lord, the Highest." This can have several meanings and all are implied: (1) Allah should be remembered by the names which fit Him, and no such name should be used for His exalted Being which, with regard to its meaning and sense, does not fit Him, or which reflects some aspect of deficiency, lack of reverence, polytheism about Him, or which refers to some wrong belief in respect of His Being, attributes, or works. For this purpose, the safest way is that only such names be used for Allah, which He himself has mentioned in the Qur'an, or which are a correct translation of these names in other languages. (2) Allah should not be remembered by the names as are used generally for the created beings, or the created beings should not be called by names as are specifically meant for Allah. And if there are some attributive names which are not specifically meant for Allah, but may also be used for the created beings, such as Ra'uf (Kind), Rahim (Compassionate), Karim (Generous), Sami` ( I Hearing), Basir (Seeing), etc. one should exercise due care not to use them for man as they are used for Allah. (3) Allah should not be mentioned in a way or in a state which reflects lack of respect for Him; for example, to mention His name when engaged in mockery or jest, or when in the lavatory, or while committing a sinful act, or before the people who might behave insolently in response or in assemblies where the people are engaged in absurd things and might laugh off His mention, or on an occasion when it is feared that the hearer will hear it disdainfully. About Imam Malik, it is related that when a beggar begged him for something and he did not have anything to give, he would not turn away the beggar, saying that Allah would help hisn, as is commonly done by the people, but he would excuse himself in some other way. When asked why he did so, he replied: "When the beggar is not given anything and one makes an excuse, it inevitably displeases him. On such an occasion, I do not like to mention Allah's name, for I do not like that somebody should hear His name in a state of annoyance and displeasure."
In the Hadith, it has been reported from Hadrat `Uqbah bin `Amir Juhani that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) had enjoined recitation of Subhana Rabbi yal-A Ya in the sajdah on the basis of this very verse, and the recitation of Subhana Rabbi yal-'Azim in ruku ` on the basis of the last verse of Surah AI-Waqi'ah, viz. Fa-sabhih bi-isrni-Rabbi-kal- Azim." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud, lbn Majah, Ibn Hibban, Hakim, Ibn al-Mundhir).
Desc No: 2 That is, He created everything, from the earth to the heavens, in the universe, and gave whatever he created the right proportion and balance and gave every creature the best conceivable form and shape. The same thing has been expressed in Surah As-Sajdah, thus: "Who gave everything He created the best form" (v. 7) Thus, the creation of everything in the world giving it due order and proportion, is an express sign of the truth that some Wise Designer is its Creator. Had the creation of the countless things in the universe been the result of a chance accident, or the work of many creators, there could be no order and balance, no beauty and inner coherence among the many things existing in the world.
Desc No: 3 "Set a destiny": determined beforehand what would be the function of a certain thing in the world, and for that purpose what would be its size, its form and shape, its qualities, its place of location, and what opportunities and means should be provided for its survival, existence and functioning, when it should come into being, and when and how it should cease to be after completing its part of the work. Such a scheme for a thing is its "destiny" (taqdir). And this destiny Allah has set for everything in the universe and for the entire universe as a whole. This means that the creation has not come about without a pre-conceived plan, haphazardly, but for it the Creator had a full plan before Him, and everything is happening according to that plan. (For further explanation, see E.N.'s 13, 14 of Al-Hijr. E.N. 8 of AI-Furgan, E.N. 25 of AI-Qamar. E.N. 12 of 'Abasa).
Desc No: 4 That is, nothing was just created and left to itself, but whatever was created to perform a certain function, it was also taught the method of performing that function. In other words, He is not merely the Creator but Guide too. He has taken the responsibility to give guidance to whatever He has created in a particular capacity to fit its nature and to guide it in the way suitable for it. One kind of guidance is for the earth, the moon, the sun, and the stars and planets, which they are following in performing their role. Another kind of guidance is for water, air, light and the solid and mineral elements, and they are performing the same services for which they have been created accordingly. Still another kind of guidance is for vegetables, according to which they take root and spread in the earth, sprout up from its layers, obtain food from wherever Allah has created it for thetas, produce stem, branches, leaves, blossom and fruit, and fulfil the function which has been appointed for each of them. Still another kind of guidance is for the countless species of animals of the land, and water, and for each member of the species, the wonderful manifestations of which are clearly visible in the life of the animals and in their works, so much so that even an atheist is compelled to concede that different kinds of animals possess some sort of inspirational knowledge which man cannot obtain even through his instruments, not to speak of his senses. Then, there are two different kinds of guidance for man, which correspond to his two different capacities. One kind of guidance is for his animal life, by which each child learns to suck milk spontaneously on birth, by which the eyes of man, his nose, ear, heart, brain, lungs, kidney, liver, stomach, intestines, nerves, veins and arteries, all are performing their respective functions, without man's being conscious of it, or his will's having anything to do with the functions of these organs. This is the guidance under which all physical and mental changes pertaining to childhood, maturity, youth and old age go on taking place in man, independent of his will, choice, even his consciousness. The second kind of guidance is for his intellectual and conscious life, the nature of which is absolutely different from the guidance for unconscious life, for in this sphere of life a kind of freedom has been transferred to man, for which the mode of guidance meant for voluntary life is not suitable. For turning away from this last kind of guidance, man may offer whatever arguments and excuses he may like, it is not credible that the Creator Who has arranged guidance for everything in this universe according to its capacity, might have set for man the destiny that he may appropriate numerous things in His world freely, but might not have made any arrangement to show what is the right way of using his choice and what is the wrong way. (For further explanation, see E.N.'s 9, 10, 14, 56 of An-Nahl, E.N. 23 of Ta Ha, E.N.'s 2, 3 of Ar-Rahman, E.N. 5 of Ad-Dahr)
Desc No: 5 The word mar`a as used in the Text means the fodder for animals but the context shows that here it dces not imply mere fodder but every kind of vegetation that grows out of the soil.
Desc No: 6 That is, "He does not only bring about spring but autumn as well. You witness both the manifestations of this power. On the one side, He causes lush green vegetation to grow, the freshness of which pleases the hearts and, on the other, He renders the same vegetation pale, dry and black rubbish, which is blown about by winds and swept away by floods. Therefore, no one here should be involved in the misunderstanding that he will only experience spring and will never see autumn." This same theme has been expressed at several other places in the Qur'an in other ways. For example see Yunus: 24, Al-Kahf: 45, Al-Hadid; 20.
87.7. Illa ma schaa Allahuinnahu yaAAlamu aldschahra wama yakhfa
87.7. Save that which Allah willeth. Lo! He knoweth the disclosed and that which still is hidden; (Pickthall)
87.7. Außer was Allah will, Er kennt ja das Vernehmbare und was geheim ist, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
87.7. außer dem, was Allah will. Er weiß ja, was laut vernehmbar geäußert wird und was verborgen bleibt. (Bubenheim)
87.7. Ausgenommen, was Gott will. Er weiß, was die Menschen äußern und was sie verborgen halten. (Azhar)
87.7. außer dem, was ALLAH will. Gewiß, ER kennt das Offenkundige und das, was verborgen ist. (Zaidan)
87.7. außer was Allah will! Er weiß, was verlautbart, und was geheimgehalten wird. (Paret)
87.7. es sei denn, was Allah will; denn Er kennt das Offenkundige und das Verborgene. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 6 bis 7
We shall enable you to recite; then you shall not forget ( 7 ) except what Allah wills. ( 8 ) He knows what is open and also what is hidden. ( 9 )
Desc No: 7 Hakim has related from Hadrat Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas and Ibn Marduyah from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) repeated the words of the Qur'an for fear lest he should forget them. Mujahid and Kalbi say that even before Gabriel finished recitation of the Revelation the Holy Prophet would start repeating the initial verses lest he should forget them. Ou this very basis Allah assured him that he should listen quietly when the Revelation was coming down, for, "We shall enable you to recite it; then you will remember it for ever. You should have no fear that you will forget any word of it. " This is the third occasion where the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has been taught the method of receiving the Revelation. The first two occasions have been referred to in Ta Ha: 114 and Al-Qiyamah: 16-19 above. This verse proves that just as the Qur'an was sent down to the Holy Prophet as a miracle, so also its each word was preserved in his memory as a miracle and no possibility was allowed to remain that he should forget anything of it, or that he should utter another synonymous word for any word of it.
Desc No: 8 This sentence can have two meanings: first, "that the preservation of the entire Qur'an word for word in your memory is not a manifestation of your own power but the result of Allah Almighty's bounty and grace; otherwise if Allah so willed, He could cause it to be forgotten. " This same theme has been expressed at another place in the Qur'an, thus: "O Muhammad! We may, if We so will, take back from you all of what We have revealed to you." (Bani Isra'il: 86). Another meaning also can be: "Your forgeting something temporarily, or your forgetting a verse or a word occasionally is an axception froth this promise. What has been promised is: `You will not forget any word of the Qur'an permanently'." This meaning is confirmed by the following tradition of Bukhari: Once while leading the Fajr Prayer the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) happened to omit a verse during the recitation. After the Prayer hadrat Ubayy bin Ka`b asked if the verse had been abrogated. The Holy Prophet replied that he had forgotten to recite it.
Desc No: 9 Although the words are general, and they mean that Allah knows everything, whether it is open or hidden, yet in the context in which they occur, they seem to mean: "O Prophet, your reciting the Qur'an along with Gabriel (peace be on him) is known to Allah and your fear for which you do so is also in Allah's knowledge. " Therefore, the Holy Prophet is being assured that he will not forget it. "