33.50. Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyuinna ahlalna laka azwadschaka allatiiatayta odschuurahunna wama malakat yamiinuka mimmaafaa Allahu AAalayka wabanati AAammika wabanatiAAammatika wabanati khalika wabanatikhalatika allatii hadscharna maAAaka waimraatanmu/minatan in wahabat nafsaha lilnnabiyyi in aradaalnnabiyyu an yastankihaha khalisatanlaka min duuni almu/miniina qad AAalimna ma faradnaAAalayhim fii azwadschihim wama malakat aymanuhumlikayla yakuuna AAalayka haradschun wakana Allahughafuuran rahiiman
33.50. O Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war, and the daughters of thine uncle on the father ' s side and the daughters of thine aunts on the father ' s side, and the daughters of thine uncles on the mother ' s side emigrated with thee, and a believing woman if she give herself unto the Prophet and the Prophet desire to ask her in marriage, a privilege for thee only, not for the (rest of) believers. We are aware of that which We enjoined upon them concerning their wives and those whom their right hands possess that thou mayst be free from blame, for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Pickthall)
33.50. Du, der Prophet, Wir haben dir deine Gattinnen gestattet, denen du ihre Entschädigungen gegeben hast, und die in deiner Hand sind, von denen, die Allah dir als Kriegsbeute gegeben hat, und die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern, und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind, und eine gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich selbst dem Propheten schenkt, wenn der Prophet sie heiraten möchte, insbesondere für dich unter Ausschluß der Gläubigen, -Wir wissen schon, was Wir ihnen zur Pflicht gemacht haben hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und derer in ihren Hand, - so daß es für dich keine Bedrängnis gibt, und Allah ist immer verzeihend, barmherzig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.50. O Prophet, Wir haben dir (zu heiraten) erlaubt: deine Gattinnen, denen du ihren Lohn gegeben hast, das, was deine rechte Hand (an Sklavinnen) besitzt von dem, was Allah dir als Beute zugeteilt hat, die Töchter deiner Onkel väterlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Onkel müt terlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, die mit dir ausgewandert sind; auch eine (jede) gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich dem Propheten (ohne Gegenforderung) schenkt und falls der Prophet sie heiraten will: Dies ist dir vorbehalten unter Ausschluß der (übrigen) Gläubigen - Wir wissen wohl, was Wir ihnen hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und dessen, was ihre rechte Hand (an Sklavinnen) besitzt, verpflichtend gemacht haben -, damit für dich kein Grund zur Bedrängnis bestehe. Und Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
33.50. O Prophet! Wir haben dir deine Ehefrauen, denen du ihre Morgengabe entrichtet hast, erlaubt, desgleichen, was du an Sklavinnen aus der Beute besitzt, die dir von Gott zugewiesen ist, auch die Töchter deines Onkels väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits und die Töchter deines Onkels mütterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, die mit dir ausgewandert sind und jede gläubige Frau, die sich dem Propheten ohne Morgengabe schenkt, wenn er sie heiraten will. Diese Selbstschenkung gilt nur dir allein, nicht den Gläubigen. Es ist bekannt, was Wir ihnen in Bezug auf Ehefrauen und Leibeigenen vorgeschrieben haben. Du sollst aber keine Bedenken haben. Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)
33.50. Prophet! Gewiß, WIR erklärten dir für halal deine Ehefrauen, denen du ihre Brautgabe gabst, und diejenigen, die dir gehören, von denen, die ALLAH dir durch den Krieg zuteil werden ließ, die Töchter deines Onkels väterlicherseits, die Töchter deiner Tanten väterlicherseits, die Töchter deines Onkels mütterlicherseits und die Töchter deiner Tanten mütterlicherseits, diejenigen, die mit dir Hidschra unternahmen, und eine iman-verinnerlichende Frau, wenn sie sich selbst dem Propheten schenkt, wenn der Prophet sie heiraten will, dieses gilt nur für dich alleine unter Ausschluss der Mumin – bereits wissen WIR, was WIR ihnen vorschrieben ihren Ehefrauen und denjenigen gegenüber, die ihnen gehören -, damit es für dich keine Unannehmlichkeit gibt. Und ALLAH ist immer allvergebend, allgnädig. (Zaidan)
33.50. Prophet! Wir haben dir zur Ehe erlaubt: deine (bisherigen) Gattinnen, denen du ihren Lohn gegeben hast; was du (an Sklavinnen) besitzt, (ein Besitz, der) dir von Allah (als Beute) zugewiesen (worden ist); die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind; (weiter) eine (jede) gläubige Frau, wenn sie sich dem Propheten schenkt und er (seinerseits) sie heiraten will. Das (letztere) gilt in Sonderheit für dich im Gegensatz zu den (anderen) Gläubigen. Wir wissen wohl, was wir ihnen hinsichtlich ihrer Gattinnen und ihres Besitzes (an Sklavinnen) zur Pflicht gemacht haben. (Die obige Verordnung ist eine Sonderregelung für dich) damit du dich nicht bedrückt zu fühlen brauchst (wenn du zusätzliche Rechte in Anspruch nimmst). Und Allah ist barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
33.50. O Prophet, Wir erlaubten dir deine Gattinnen, denen du ihre Brautgabe gegeben hast, und jene, die du von Rechts wegen aus (der Zahl) derer besitzt, die Allah dir als Kriegsbeute gegeben hat, und die Töchter deines Vaterbruders und die Töchter deiner Vaterschwestern und die Töchter deines Mutterbruders und die Töchter deiner Mutterschwestern, die mit dir ausgewandert sind, und jedwede gläubige Frau, die sich dem Propheten schenkt, vorausgesetzt, daß der Prophet sie zu heiraten wünscht; (dies gilt) nur für dich und nicht für die Gläubigen. Wir haben bereits bekanntgegeben, was Wir ihnen bezüglich ihrer Frauen und jener, die sie von Rechts wegen besitzen, verordnet haben, so daß sich (daraus) keine Verlegenheit für dich ergibt. Und Allah ist Allverzeihend, Barmherzig. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 50 bis 50
O Prophet, We have made lawful to you those of your wives, whose dowers you have paid, ( 87 ) and those women who come into your possession out of the slavegirls granted by Allah, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, and of your maternal uncles and aunts, who have migrated with you, and the believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet if the Prophet may desire to marry her. ( 88 ) This privilege is for you only, not for the other believers. ( 89 ) We know what restrictions We have imposed on the other believers concerning their wives and slavegirls. (You have been made an exception) so that there may be no hindrance to you; ( 90 ) and Allah is AllForgiving, All Merciful.
Desc No: 87 This, in fact, is an answer to the objection of the people who said that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) forbade others to keep more than four wives at a time but had himself taken a fifth wife. This objection was raised because at the time the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Zainab, he already had four wives with him: 11) Hadrat Saudah whom he had married in the 3rd year before the Hijrah, (2) Hadrat 'A'ishah whom he married in the 3rd year before the Hijrah but who came to live with him in Shawwal, A.H. I, (3) Hadrat Hafsah whom he married in Sha'ban, A.H. 3, and (4) Hadrat Umm Salamah whom he married in Shawwal. A.H. 4. Thus, Hadrat Zainab was his fifth wife. Here Allah has answered the objection of the disbelievers and the hypocrites, as if to say, ¦O Prophet, We have made lawful for you all these five wives whom you have married by giving them their dowers." In other words, the answer means this: "It is We Who have imposed the restriction of four wives on others, and it is also We Ourselves Who have made Our Prophet an exception to the restriction. When We could impose the restriction, We could also make the exception." About this answer also one should note that it was not meant to satisfy the disbelievers and the hypocrites but those Muslims to whom the opponents of Islam were trying to impart evil suggestions. Since they believed that the Qur'an is Allah's speech and has been sent down in Allah's own words, Allah declared through a clear and decisive verse that the Prophet had not made himself an exception from the general law about four wives of his own accord, but the exception in regard to him had been decreed by Allah.
Desc No: 88 Besides making the fifth wife lawful for the Prophet, Allah in this verse also granted him the permission to marry a few other kinds of the women: (1) The woman who came into his possession from among the slave-girls granted by Allah. According to this the Holy Prophet selected for himself Hadrat Raihanah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Bani Quraizah, Hadrat Juwairiyah from among the prisoners of war taken at the raid against the Bani al-Mustaliq, Hadrat Safiyyah out of the prisoners of war captured at Khaiber, and Hadrat Mariah the Copt, who was presented by Maqauqis of Egypt. Out of these he set three of them free and married them, but had conjugal relations with Mariah on the ground of her being his slave-girl. In her case there is no proof that the Holy Prophet set her free and married her. (2) The ladies from among his first cousins, who emigrated along with him. The words "who emigrated with you"do not mean that they accompanied the Holy Prophet in his migration journey but this that they also had migrated in the way of Allah for the sake of Islam. The Holy Prophet was given the choice to marry any one of them he liked. Accordingly, in A.H. 7 he married Hadrat Umm Habibah. (Incidentally, in this verse it has been elucidated that the daughters of one's paternal and maternal uncles and aunts are lawful for a Muslim. In this regard the Islamic Law is different both from the Christian Law and from the Jewish Law. Among the Christians one cannot marry a woman whose line of descent joins one's own anywhere in the last seven generations, and among the Jews it is permissible even to marry one's real niece, i.e. daughter of one's brother or sister). (3) The believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet, i.e. who is prepared to give herself in marriage to the Prophet without a dower, and he may like to marry her. On account of this permission the Holy Prophet took Hadrat Maimunah as his wife in Shawwal, A.H. 7, but he did not think he should have conjugal relations with her without paying her the dower. Therefore, he paid her the dower even though she did not demand or desire it. Some commentators say that the Holy Prophet did not have any wife who had offend herself to him; but this in fact means that he did not keep any wife without paying her the dower although she offered herself to him.
Desc No: 89 If this sentence is taken to be related with the preceding sentence, it will mean that it is not permissible for any Muslim to take in marriage a woman who gives herself to him, without paying her the dower; and if it is taken to be related with the whole preceding passage, it will imply that the concession to marry more than four wives is only reserved for the Holy Prophet, not for the other Muslims. This verse also shows that certain commandments are specifically meant for the Holy Prophet to follow and are not applicable to the other Muslims. A study of the Qur'an and Sunnah reveals several such commandments. For example, the Tahajjud prayer was obligatory for the Holy Prophet but is voluntary for the Ummah. It is unlawful for him and his family to receive charities though it is not so for others. The inheritance left by hlm cannot be divided; as for the inheritance left by others relevant commandments have been given in Surah An-Nisa'. Keeping of more than four wives was made lawful for him though he was not enjoined to do equal treatment with them. He was permitted to marry a woman who gave herself to him without any dower, and after his death his wives wen forbidden for the Ummah. None of these privileges could be enjoyed by any other Muslim. Another special thing that the commentators have mentioned in this regard is that it was forbidden for the Holy Prophet to marry a woman from among the people of the Book though it is lawful for the Muslims to do so.
Desc No: 90 This is the reason why Allah made the Holy Prophet an exception to the general rule. "So that there may be no restraint on you" does not mean that he was, God forbid, a very lustful person, and therefore, he was permitted to marry several wives so that he might not feel any hindrance due to the restriction to four wives. This meaning will be understood only by the person who, blinded by prejudice, forgets that the Holy Prophet at the age of 25 married a lady who was 40 years old, and lived a happy, contented married life with her for full 25 years. Then, when she died, he marred another old lady Hadrat Saudah, who remained his only wife for the next four years. Now, no sensible and honest person can imagine that when he became over fifty-three he was suddenly filled with lust and needed to have more and more wives. In fact, in order to understand the meaning of "no restraint", one should, on the one hand, keep in view the great task whose responsibility Allah had placed on the Holy Prophct, and on the other, understand the conditions and circumstances under which he had been appointed to accomplish the great task. Anyone who understands these two things with an unbiased mind, will certainly realize why it was necessary to grant him freedom in respect of the wives and what 'hindrance" was there for him in the restriction to tour wives. The task entruststed to the Holy Prophet was that he should mould and chisel by all-round education and training an uncouth, uncultured nation which was not uncivilized only from the Islamic point of view but from a general viewpoint as well, into a highly civilized, refined and virtuous nation. For this purpose it was unbiased mind, will certainly realize why it was necessary to grant him freedom in respect of the wives and what "hindrance" was there for him in the restriction to four wives. The task entrusted to the Holy Prophet was that he should mould and chisel by all-round education and training an uncouth, uncultured nation which was not uncivilized only from the Islamic point of view but from a general viewpoint as well, into a highly civilized, refined and virtuous nation. For this purpose it was not enough only to train men but the training of the women also was equally necessary. However, the principles of social life and civilization which he had been appointed to teach forbade free mixing of the sexes together, and it was not possible for him to impart direct training to the womenfolk himself without violating this rule. Therefore, for imparting education to the women the only alternative left for him was that he should marry several women of different ages and mental capabilities and should prepare them by education and training to become his helpers, and then employ them to give religious instructions to the young, middle-aged and old women of the city and desert and teach them the new principles of morality and civilization. Moreover, the Holy Prophet had also been appointed to abolish the system of life of the pre-Islamic days of ignorance and replace it with the Islamic system of life practically. For the accomplishment of this task a conflict was inevitable with those who upheld the system of ignorance, and this conflict was being encountered in a country where the tribal system of life was prevalent with all its peculiar customs and traditions. Under these conditions, besides other devices, it was also necessary that the Holy Prophet should marry in different families and clans in order to cement many ties of friendship and put an end to enmities. Thus, the selection of the ladies whom he marred was to some extent determined by this object besides their personal qualities. By taking Hadrat 'A'ishah and Hadrat Hafsah to wife he further strengthened and deepened the relations with Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar. Hadrat Umm Salamah was the daughter of the family to which Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Walid belonged, and Umm Habibah was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. These marriages neutralized the enmity of these families to a large extent; so much so that after Umm Habibah's marriage Abu Sufyan never confronted the Holy Prophet on the battefield. Hadrat Safiyyah, Hadrat Juwairiah and Raihanah belonged to Jewish families. When the Holy Prophet married them, after setting them free, the hostile Jewish activities against him subsided. For according to the Arab traditions when the daughter of a clan or tribe was married to a person, he was regarded as the son-in-law of not only the girl's family but of the entire tribe, and it was disgraceful to fight the son-in-law. Practical reformation of the society and abolition of its customs of ignorance was also included among the duties of his office. Therefore, he had to undertake one marriage for this purpose also, as has been related in detail in this surah Ahzab itself. For these reasons it was essential that there should be no restriction for the Prophet in respect of marriage so that in view of the requirements of the great mission entrusted to him he could marry as many women as he wanted. This also brings out the error of the view of those people who think that polygamy is permissible only under special personal requirements and apart from these there can be no other object for which it may be permissible. Evidently, the reason for the Holy Prophet to marry more wives than one was not that the wife was sick, or barren, or that he had no male child. or that there was the question of the bringing up of some orphans. Without these restrictions he married all his wives either in view of the educational requirements, or for the reformation of society, or for political and social objectives. The question is, when Allah Himself has not kept polygamy restricted to a few particular needs, which arc being mentioned these days and the Messenger of Allah took several wives for many purposes other than these, how is another person entitled to propose some restrictions in the law and then claim that he is imposing these in accordance with the Shari'ah? As a matter of fact, the root cause for the imposition of these restrictions is the Western concept that polygamy is an evil in itself. That very concept has given rise to the idea that this unlawful thing can become lawful only in case of extreme circumstances. Now, however hard one may try to label this imported concept with Islam artificially. it is entirely alien to the Qur'an and ,Sunnah and the whole Muslim literature. "