4.101. Wa-idhadarabtum fii al-ardifalaysa AAalaykum dschunahun an taqsuruu mina alssalatiin khiftum an yaftinakumu alladhiina kafaruu inna alkafiriinakanuu lakum AAaduwwan mubiinan
4.101. And when ye go forth in the land, it is no sin for you to curtail (your) worship if ye fear that those who disbelieve may attack you. In truth the disbelievers are an open enemy to you. (Pickthall)
4.101. Und wenn ihr im Land umherzieht, so ist auf euch kein Vergehen, daß ihr etwas vom Gebet verkürzt, wenn ihr fürchtet, daß euch diejenigen bedrängen, die den Glauben verweigern, die Glaubensverweigerer sind ja für euch ein klarer Feind. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
4.101. Und wenn ihr im Land umherreist, so ist es keine Sünde für euch, das Gebet abzukürzen, wenn ihr befürchtet, diejenigen, die ungläubig sind, könnten euch überfallen. Die Ungläubigen sind euch ja ein deutlicher Feind. (Bubenheim)
4.101. Wenn ihr auf Reisen seid, dürft ihr das Gebet abkürzen, wenn ihr fürchtet, die Ungläubigen könnten euch Schaden zufügen, denn die Ungläubigen sind eure offenkundigen Feinde. (Azhar)
4.101. Und wenn ihr durch das Land umherzieht, ist es für euch keine Verfehlung, wenn ihr das rituelle Gebet verkürzt, wenn ihr fürchtet, dass diejenigen, die Kufr betrieben haben, euch der Fitna außetzen. Gewiß, die Kafir bleiben euch immer entschiedene Feinde. (Zaidan)
4.101. Und wenn ihr im Land (draußen) unterwegs seid, ist es für euch keine Sünde, das Gebet (salaat) abzukürzen, falls ihr fürchtet, daß diejenigen, die ungläubig sind, euch zu schaffen machen. Die Ungläubigen sind euch (nun einmal) ein ausgemachter Feind. (Paret)
4.101. Und wenn ihr durch das Land zieht, so ist es keine Sünde für euch, wenn ihr das Gebet verkürzt, wenn ihr fürchtet, die Ungläubigen könnten euch bedrängen. Wahrlich, die Ungläubigen sind eure offenkundigen Feinde. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 101 bis 101
When you go on a journey, there is no harm, if you shorten your Salat, ( 132 ) (especially) when you fear that the disbelievers might harass you, ( 133 ) for the disbelievers are openly bent upon enmity against you.
Desc No: 132 The shortening of the obligatory part of the Salat during a journey in peace time is, `to reduce four rak'ats to two rak`ats"but there is no prescribed limit to the reduction during actual fighting. The Salat must be offered any-how in any form as the circumstances on the occasion permit. If it is possible to offer the Salat in congregation, it should be offered in congregation; otherwise the soldiers should say it individually. If it is not possible to turn the face to the giblah, it may be offered facing any other direction. If it is not possible to remain stationary for the Salat, it may be offered while riding or walking. If it is not possible to bend down or prostrate, one should do so symbolically. If, during the Salat, it becomes necessary to move from that place, one may continue the Prayer even during the movement. There is no harm in offering the Salat, even if one's clothes become stained with blood. And even if in spite of all these concessions, it is not possible to offer it at all, it may then be reluctantly postponed, as was done during the course of the "Battle of the Trench." There is a difference of opinion as to whether the obligatory parts (fara `id) only are to be offered in a journey or those parts (sunnats) also that were practised by the Holy Prophet in addition to the former. When on a journey the Holy Prophet used to offer without fail two rak`ats in addition to the obligatory rak`ats of Salat-ul-Fajr (Morning Prayers) and three rak`ats of witr with Salat-ul- 'Isha' (Night Prayer). At other times he only offered the obligatory parts; there is no proof of his offering the sonnet parts. He, however, used to offer "additional prayers" (nawafil), whenever he got time for these even while he was riding. That is why Hadrat 'Abdullah bin `Umar prohibited the people from offering the sunnats during a journey except with the Morning Prayer. But the majority of the scholars leave it to the individual's option to offer or not to offer the sunnats on a journey. The Hanafis are of the opinion that it is better to leave them during the actual journey but one must offer them at a halting place, if one can get the necessary peace of mind. As regards the nature of the journey in which the Salat may be shortened,some scholars (Ibn 'Umar, Ibn Mas'ud and 'Ata) have imposed the condition that it should he in the way of Allah, e.g., for Jihad, Hajj, `Umrah, or in quest of knowledge, etc. Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad are of the opinion that the journey should be for some lawful purpose; otherwise one has no right of enjoying the concession of reduction in Salat. The Hanafi s are of the opinion that the Salat may be shortened during any kind of journey, irrespective of the purpose for which it is undertaken. As regards the nature of the journey, it may merit reward or punishment by itself, but it does not affect the concession of reduction in Salat. Some of the Imams have interpreted words "there is no harm" to mean that "reduction in the Prayer" is not obligatory but merely optional. One may make use of the permission and shorten his Salat or may not. Imam Shafi'i holds the same view, though he considers it better to shorten it. He is of the opinion that one who does not make use of the "reduction", gives up the higher thing and adopts a lower thing. Imam Ahmad is of the opinion that although "reduction" is not obligatory, yet it is improper not to make use of the concession. Imam Abu Hanifah considers "reduction" obligatory and there is also a tradition from Imam Malik to the same effect. All the traditions from the Holy Prophet show that in his Journeys he always shortened his Salat and there is no authentic Tradition to show that he ever offered four rak`ats on a journey. Ibn `Umar says, "During the journeys I accompanied the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr, `Umar or ` Uthman (may Allah be pleased with them all), and I witnessed that they always shortened their Salat and never offered four rak`ats. " The same view is also supported by authentic traditions from Ibn `Abbas and several other Companions. Once during Hajj, Hadrat `Uthman performed four rak ats while he was leading the Salat at Mina and the Companions objected to it. He satisfied them, saying, "I have taken a wife from Makkah and I have heard from the Holy Prophet that whoever marries at a place becomes a citizen of that place. Therefore I have . not shortened my prayer." There are, however, two traditions against this from Hadrat `A'ishah which show that it is equally right to make a "reduction" in the Salat or to say it in full. But these traditions are weak in authenticity and contrary to her own practice, for she herself practised "reduction". In this connection, it may also be noted that sometimes one feels oneself to be "on a journey" as well as "at home" when one may shorten the Salat or offer it in full at one and the same halting place according to the circumstances. Most probably Hadrat `A'ishah referred to such a state, saying: "When on a journey, the Holy Prophet sometimes shortened his Salat and sometimes offered it in full. " As regards the words, "There is no harm if you shorten your Prayer", it is not correct to conclude that the "Command" is optional. The same words have been used in connection with running between Safa and Marwa on the occasion of Hajj, in verse 158 of Al-Bagarah, although this is an essential part of Hajj. As a matter of fact, these words have been used in both the places to allay the fear that shortening of the Prayer or running between Safa and Marwa might entail a sin or lessen one's rewards. As regards the length of the journey, the Zahirites are of the opinion that "reduction" may be made in any journey irrespective of the distance. According to Imam Malik, the minimum distance of the journey should be 48 miles, or its duration should be at least one day and one night. Hadrat Ibn `Abbas and Imam Ahmad are also of the same opinion and a saying of Imam Shafi`i also supports the same. But the minimum distance for "reduction" according to Hadrat Anas is 15 miles, while Imam Auza`i and Imam Zuhri follow the opinion of Hadrat `Umar that one day's journey suffices for "reduction" . According to Hadrat Hasan Basri and Imam Abu Yusuf, the minimum journey of two days entitles one to shorten one's Salat. Imam Abu Hanifah is of the opinion that "reduction" may be made in a journey of a minimum distance of 54 miles. The same is the opinion of Ibn `Umar, Ibn Mas`ud and Hadrat `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with them all). Opinions differ regarding the "reduction" in a halt during the course of a journey. Imam Ahmad is of the opinion that if one intends to halt at a place for four days, one will have to offer the Prayer in full. According to Imam Malik and lmam Shafe`i, "reduction" is not lawful at a place where one intends to halt for more than four days. Imam Auza`i extends it to 13 days and Imam Abu Hanifah to 15 days or more and enjoins offering of the full Prayer during such a halt. But there is no explicit command of the Holy Prophet about this. However, there is a consensus of opinion that if one is forced by circumstances to halt at a place but intends to leave it for home at any time, one may go on practising "reduction" for an indefinite period of time. There are instances when some Companions practised "reduction" continuously even for two years for the same reason. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal allows a prisoner to make "reduction" during the whole term of his imprisonment.
Desc No: 133 The Zahirites and the Kharijites interpret this sentence to mean that reduction in the Salat may be made only during state of war and that reduction in a journey during peace time is against the Qur'an. But we learn from an authentic "Tradition that once when Hadrat `Umar presented the same objection before the Holy Prophet, he answered, "The concession of 'reduction' is a bounty from Allah; therefore, enjoy it". This is a well known fact that the Holy Prophet availed of the concession in every journey both during war time and during peace time. Another tradition from Ibn `Abbas makes the position clear, saying, "The Holy Prophet went to Makkah from Madinah and there was no fear of anyone except of God but he reduced tour rak' ats of the Salat to two rak'ats ". That is the reason why the word "especially" has been added in brackets in the translation. "