Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
41.39. Zu Seinen Zeichen gehört es, daß du die Erde demütig siehst. Wenn Wir aber Wasser auf sie herabkommen lassen, regt sie sich und schwillt. Gewiß, Derjenige, Der sie wieder belebt, wird (auch) die Toten wieder lebendig machen, denn gewiß, Er hat zu allem die Macht.
18.16. Wa-idhi iAAtazaltumuuhum wamayaAAbuduuna illa Allaha fa/wuu ila alkahfiyanschur lakum rabbukum min rahmatihi wayuhayyi/ lakum minamrikum mirfaqan
18.16. And when ye withdraw from them and that which they worship except Allah, then seek refuge in the Cave; your Lord will spread for you of His mercy and will prepare for you a pillow in your plight. (Pickthall)
18.16. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
18.16. Und da ihr euch nun von ihnen und von demjenigen, dem sie außer Allah dienen, fernhaltet, so sucht Zuflucht in der Höhle; euer Herr wird über euch (einiges) von Seiner Barmherzigkeit ausbreiten und euch in eurer Angelegenheit eine milde Behandlung bereiten." (Bubenheim)
18.16. Da ihr euch von ihnen und von den Gottheiten, die sie außer Gott anbeten, abgesondert habt, begebt euch in die Höhle! Gott wird euch von Seiner Barmherzigkeit gewähren und euch bei eurem Vorhaben manche Erleichterung verschaffen. (Azhar)
18.16. Und wenn ihr euch von 2 ihnen und von dem, was sie anstelle von ALLAH dienen, absetzen wollt, dann sucht Unterschlupf in der Höhle, denn euer HERR wird für euch von Seiner Gnade angedeihen lassen und für euch aus eurer Angelegenheit etwas Nützliches abrichten.“ (Zaidan)
18.16. Zieht euch nun, nachdem ihr euch von ihnen und dem, was sie außer Allah verehren, fernhaltet, in die Höhle zurück! Dann wird euer Herr euch (etwas) von seiner Barmherzigkeit zukommen lassen und euch in eurer Angelegenheit für Abhilfe sorgen (yuhaiyi' Lakum min amrikum mirfaqan)." (Paret)
18.16. Und wenn ihr euch von ihnen und von dem, was sie statt Allah anbeten, zurückzieht, so sucht Zuflucht in der Höhle; euer Herr wird Seine Barmherzigkeit über euch breiten und euch einen tröstlichen Ausweg aus eurer Lage weisen." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 13 bis 16
Now We tell you their real story. ( 9 ) They were a few young men who believed in their Lords, and We increased them in their guidance. ( 10 ) We strengthened their hearts, when they rose up, and they declared, "Our Lord is the One Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. We will not invoke any other deity than Him. It will be the most improper thing if we do so" . (Then they held mutual consultations, saying,) "These people of ours have given up the Lord of the universe and adopted other deities. Why do they not bring forward any clear argument in support of their creed? Well, who can be more wicked than the one who forges a lie against Allah? Now that you have forsaken them and discarded the deities they worship besides Allah, let us go to such and such a cave for refuge. ( 11 ) Your Lord will extend to you His mercy, and order your affairs for you for the best. "
Desc No: 9 The oldest evidence of this story is found in a homily written in Syriac by Jacob of Sarug, a Christian priest of Syria, who was born in A.D. 452, a few years after the death of "the Companions of the Cave." The homily which describes the legend in great detail was composed by him in or about A.D. 474. On the one hand, this same Syriac version came into the hands of our early commentators, and Ibn Jarir Tabari cited it in his commentary with various authorities, and on the other, it reached Europe where its translations and abridged versions were published in Greek and Latin. The abridged story as told by Gibbon in Chapter 33 of his The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire under the heading, "The Seven Sleepers", so closely resembles the story told by our commentators that both the versions seem to have been drawn from the same source. For instance, the name of the king, whose persecutions made the Seven Christian youths of Ephesus take refuge in the cave, was Emperor Decius according to Gibbon. He ruled the Roman Empire from A.D. 249 to 251 and whose reign is very notorious because of his persecution of the followers of Prophet Jesus Christ, while our commentators call him `Decanus', `Decaus', etc. The city, where this event happened, was `Aphesus', or `Aphesos' according to our commentators, while according to Gibbon it was Ephesus, which was the biggest Roman city and sea-port on the west coast of Asia Minor. The ruins of this city can still be seen 20 to 25 miles south of the modern Turkish city of Izmir. (Please see Map No. 1 for reference). Again the name of the king, during whose reign "the Companions of the Cave" awoke was `Tezusius' according to the Muslim commentators and Theodosius II according to Gibbon. He ruled over Rome from A.D. 408 to 450, after the Roman Empire had accepted Christianity. The resemblance between the two versions is so close that even the name of the companion whom the Sleepers sent to the city to buy food after waking up has been mentioned as `Jamblicha' by the Muslim scholars and Jamblichus by Gibbon. The details of the story in both the versions are also similar which are briefly as follows: When during the reign of the Emperor Decius the followers of Prophet Jesus Christ were being mercilessly persecuted, the Seven Christian youths hid themselves in a cave and fell into a sleep. Then in the 38th year of the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I1 (approximately in A.D. 445 or 446) they awoke when the whole of the Roman Empire had become Christian. Thus, they slept in the cave for nearly 196 years. On this ground some orientalists have rejected that the above-mentioned story is the same as that given in the Qur'an because the period of their stay in the cave according to the Qur'an (v. 25) was 309 years. We have, however, answered this objection in E.N. 25. There are a few minor differences between the Quranic and Syriac versions, on the basis of which Gibbon has charged the Holy Prophet with "ignorance". However, the Syriac version, on the basis of whose authenticity he has committed this gross insolence, was even according to him written thirty to forty years after the event by a Syrian. He has not taken the trouble to consider the fact that verbal versions of events do change a bit during such a long time while they are communicated from one country to the other. Therefore it is wrong to take such a version of the story for granted and literally true and to charge the Qur'an with discrepancy for any main difference with it. Such an attitude is worthy only .of those people who are so blinded by religious prejudices that they discard even the most ordinary demands of reason. The city of Ephesus where the event of the Sleepers of the Cave took place, was built about 11th century B.C. and became a great centre of idolworship, its chief deity being the moon goddess, Diana, whose temple was regarded as a wonder of the ancient world. Most of her devotees belonged to Asia Minor and the Roman Empire also had accepted her as one of its deities. After Prophet Jesus when his message started reaching different parts of the Roman Empire, a few youths of Ephesus also gave up idolworship and accepted God as their only Lord. Gregory of Tours has collected details about these Christian youths in his Meraculorum Liber, which are briefly as follows: "They were seven youths. When the Emperor Decius heard of their change of faith, he summoned them and questioned them about their new religion. ht spite of knowing that the Emperor was deadly against the followers of Christ, they frankly admitted before him that their Lord is the Lord of the earth and heavens, and that they recognised none else as Deity for if they did so, they would be committing a grave sin. The Emperor became furious to hear this, and warned that he would have them killed, but then considering their tender age, he granted them three days in which they were counselled to revert to their old faith, otherwise they would be put to death. "The seven youths took advantage of the situation and fled the city to conceal themselves in a cave in the mountains. On the way a dog also followed them: they did their best to scare it away, but it would not leave them. At last they found a spacious cave as a suitable refuge and hid in it, and the dog sat at the entrance. Being tired they soon fell into a deep slumber. This happened in about 250 A.D. After about 197 years, in 447 A.D., during the reign of Emperor Theodosius II, they awoke suddenly when the whole Roman Empire had embraced Christianity and the Ephesians had given up idolatry. "At this time a fierce controversy was going on among the Romans regardmg the reality of the life-after-death and Resurrection, and the Emperor himself was anxious to eradicate somehow the disbelief in the life-after-death from the minds of his people. So much so that one day he prayed that God in His mercy may show a sign which tray help restore and correct the people's belief. In precisely the same days the Seven Sleepers awoke in the cave. "After waking up the youths started asking one another about how long they might have slept. Some said it might have been a day: others said it was a part of a day. When they reached no conclusion, they stopped arguing, leaving the knowledge of the exact period to God. Then they sent Jean, a companion, to the city with a few silver coins to buy food, and warned him to be on his guard lest the people should recognise him, for they feared that if they were discovered the Ephesians would force them to bow before Diana. But when Jean came to the city he was astonished to see that the world had changed: the whole population had embraced Christianity, and there was nobody in the city to worship Diana. He came to a shop and wanted to buy a few loaves of bread. When he paid in a coin bearing the image of Emperor Decius, the shopkeeper could not believe his eyes and asked the stranger wherefrom he had obtained that coin. When the young man said that it was his own, a dispute began between them and soon a crowd gathered around them, and the matter reached the chief officer of the city. The officer himself was puzzled and wanted to know the whereabouts of the treasure-house from where the young man had taken the coin, but the latter insisted that it belonged to him. The officer did not believe him because he thought that a young man like him could not possibly possess a centuries-old coin which had not even been seen by the elders in the city. When Jean came to know that the Emperor Decius had died., he was pleasantly surprised. He told the crowd that he and his six companions had fled the city only the other day and taken refuge in a cave to escape Decius' persecution. The officer was greatly surprised and followed the young man to see the cave where his companions lay in hiding. And a great crowd followed behind them. When they came to the cave, it was fully established that the youths really belonged to the Emperor Decius' period. Consequently, Emperor Theodosius was informed and he also visited the cave to receive grace. Then the seven youths went back into the cave and lay down and breathed their last. Seeing this clear sign the people's belief in the life-after-death was restored, and a monument was ordered to be built over the cave by the Emperor." The story of the Sleepers of the Cave as narrated above, corresponds so closely with that mentioned in the Qur'an that the seven youths can easily be regarded as "Ashab-i-Kahf" (the Companions of the Cave). Some people, however, have raised the objection that this story concerns a city of Asia Minor, and the Qur'an does not discuss or refer to any event that might have taken place outside Arabia; therefore it would be against the Quranic style and spirit to label this Christian story as the story of Ashab-i-Kahf'. In our opinion this objection is not correct. The Qur'an means to impress and warn the Arabs by relating stories concerning the various ancient tribes who had transgressed from the right path and with whom they were familiar, whether they lived and flourished inside Arabia or outside it. It is for this very reason that a mention has been made of the ancient history of Egypt in the Qur'an, whereas Egypt has never been a part of Arabia. The question is that when the history of Egypt can be mentioned in the Qur'an, why cannot Rome and the Roman history with which the Arabs were as familiar as with the Egyptian history? The Roman frontiers adjoined the northern Hijaz and the Arab caravans traded with the Romans almost throughout the year. Then there were a number of Arab tribes who were directly under Roman domination and the Roman Empire was in no way unknown to the Arabs, a fact which is fully borne nut by Surah Ar-Rum. Another thing which should be borne in mind is that the story of the Sleepers of the Cave has been related in the Qur'an in response to a query raised by the disbelievers of Makkah, who had been prompted by the Jews and Christians to question the Holy Prophet on such matters as were wholly unknown to the Arabs in order to test his Prophethood.
Desc No: 10 That is, when they had believed sincerely, Allah increased their faith in the guidance and enabled them to become firm and steadfast on the way of the' Truth even at the risk of their lives rather than surrender before falsehood.
Desc No: 11 When these God-worshipping youths fled the habitations to take refuge in the hills, the city of Ephesus was the principal centre of idol-worship and sorcery in Asia Minor. There was a great temple dedicated to the goddess Diana, which was well-known in the whole world and attracted devotees from far end wide. The sorcerers, workers of magic and occult arts, sooth-sayers and amuletwriters of Ephesus were well-known and their black business had spread throughout Syria and Palestine, even as far as Egypt. The Jews also had a big share in it, who attributed this art to Prophet Solomon. (Please see Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature under `Ephesus', for details). The predicament in which the righteous people living in an environment of idolatry and superstition were involved can well be imagined from the remark of "the Companions of the Cave¦ that occurs in v. 20: "....... if they succeed in over-powering us, they will surely stone us to death or force us back into their Faith. " "