64.18. Knower of the invisible and the visible, the Mighty, the Wise. (Pickthall)
64.18. Der Wissende des Verborgenen und des Sichtbaren, der Mächtige, der Weise. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
64.18. (Er ist) der Kenner des Verborgenen und des Offenbaren, der Allmächtige und Allweise. (Bubenheim)
64.18. Er ist es, Der um das Verborgene und das Sichtbare genau weiß, der Allmächtige, der Allweise. (Azhar)
64.18. ER ist Der Allwissende über das Verborgene und das Sichtbare, Der Allwürdige, Der Allweise. (Zaidan)
64.18. (Er ist es) der über das, was verborgen, und was allgemein bekannt ist (schahaada), Bescheid weiß, und der mächtig und weise ist. (Paret)
64.18. der Kenner des Verborgenen und des Sichtbaren, der Erhabene, der Allweise. . (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 14 bis 18
O you who have believed, some among your wives and your children are your enemies: beware of them. And if you pardon and overlook and forgive, Allah is surely All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. ( 29 ) Your worldly possessions and your children are but a trial, and it is Allah with Whom there are rich rewards. ( 30 ) Therefore, fear Allah as far as you can,; ( 31 ) and listen and obey and spend your wealth : this is for your own good. And those who are saved from the greed of their own hearts, are truly successful- ( 32 ) If you lend to Allah a goodly loan, He will pay you back manifold ( 33 ) and will forgive you your faults. Allah is Appreciative and Forbearing. ( 34 ) He knows the open and the hidden: He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
Desc No: 29 This verse has two meanings. According to the first meaning, ii applies to most of those difficulties, which are encountered by many believing men from their wives and the women from their husbands and the parents from their children in following the way of God. It seldom so happens in the world that a man has a wife and a wife a husband, who are full companions and helpers of each other in the matter of faith and righteousness, and that both may also have such children as may be the comfort of their eyes as regards faith and deeds, morals and conduct. Hut generally it so happens that if the husband is righteous and honest, the wife and children look upon his honesty and piety and righteousness as a misfortune for themselves, and want that the husband and the father should earn Hell for their sake, and giving up the distinction between the lawful and the unlawful should provide means of luxury and enjoyment, sin and vice, for them in every passable way. On the contrary, many a time a pious believing woman happens to have a husband, Who does not at all approve her obedience to the Laws of God, and the children too, following in the footsteps of the father, make the wife of the mother miserable by their daviation and evil deeds. Then, particularly, when during the conflict between Islam and unbelief a man's faith demands that he should suffer losses for the sake of Allah and this Religion, run risks, emigrate from the country or even endanger his life by joining the war against unbelief, the greatest hindrance in his way are the people of his own household.
The second meaning relates to those special circumstances which most of the Muslims were facing at the time these verses were sent down. and today also they are faced by every person who embraces Islam in a non-Muslim society. At that dine in Makkah and in other parts of Arabia a situation that was commonly being experienced was that a man would embrace Islam, but his wife and children would not only be disinclined to accept it but would try their best to press him to give up Islam Arid similar were the situations encountered by the women, the alone embraced Islam in their families,
Addressing the believers who may be confronted with either situation, three things have been impressed:
First, they have been warned as if to say: "Although front the worldly point of view. these are the dearest relations of man yet from the religious point of view, they arc .`your enemies." This enmity may he for the reason that they hinder you from good and induce you to do evil, or that they restrain you from belief and pull you towards unbelief, or that their sympathies are with he unbelievers. ana through you if they ever come to know any of the war secrets of the Muslims, they convey it to the enemies of Islam. Owing to these the nature and quality of enmity may vary, but in any case it is enmity; and if you hold your faith dearer to your heart, you should regard them as your enemies. In their love you should never forget that between you and them there stands the barrier of belief and unbelief, or of obedience and disobedience."
Then, it is said: "Beware of them." That is, "You should not ruin your eternal life for the sake of their worldly life. Let not their love so overwhelm you that they become a hindrance for you in your relationship with Allah and His Messenger and your loyalty to Islam. Do not place such reliance on them that the secrets of the Muslim community should come to their notice and through them reach your enemies only by your negligence and carelessness. This Is the Fame thing of which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) has warned the Muslims in a Hadith: `A person will be brought up on the Day of Resurrection, and it will be proclaimed: `His wife and children ate up all his good deeds'."
In the end, it is said: "If you pardon and overlook and forgive, Allah is surely AII-Forgiving, All-Merciful. " It means: "You are being made aware of their enmity so that you may beware of them and do your best to save your faith from them, This warning does not, however, mean that you should treat your wife and children harshly, or strain your relations with them so as w make your own and their domestic lift miserable and wretched For if you did so, two of the disadvantages would obviously result: first, it may close down every avenue to the reformation of the wife and children for ever; second, it may give rise to suspicions and misgivings against Islam in the society and the people around may form the impression that a Muslim turns unduly rigid and ill-tempered for his own children in his own house as soon as he has embraced Islam.
In this connection, one should also keep in mind that in the beginning when the people became Muslims, they encountered a special difficulty if their parents were unbelievers. They would press their children to give up the new Faith. They would face another difficulty when their wives and children (or in case of women, their husbands and children) persisted unbelief and would force them to abandon the Faith of Tnrth. About the first difficulty, instruction was given in AI-'Ankabut; 8 and Luqman; 14-15, saying: "Treat your parents well but if they press you to join with Me another about whom you have no knowledge, do not obey them at all " About the second difficulty the Instruction has been given here, saying: "You must try to save your faith from your children and family members but do not treat them harshly, but rather politely and leniently." (For further explanation, see At-Taubah: 23-24; E N. 37 of AI-Mujadalah, E.N.'s 1 to 3 of Al-Mumtahanah; E.N. 18 of Munafiqun).
Desc No: 30 For explanation, sec E.N. 23 of Surah AI-Anfal. Here one should also keep in view the Holy Prophet's saying which Tabarani has related on the authority of Hadrat Abu Malik al-Ash'ari, saying: "Your real enemy is not he whom if you kill there is success for you, and if he kills you, there is Paradise for you; but your real enemy may b your own child who is born of your own loins, or the wealth of which you are the owner." That is why here us well as in Al-Anfal: 28, Allah says: If you save yourselves from the temptation and allurements of worldly possessions and Children and succeed in keeping love of them subject to the love of Allah, there are rich rewards for you with Allah.
Desc No: 31 At another place in the Qur'an it has been said: "Fear Allah as He should actually be feared." (Al-'Imran: 102). At still another place: ¦Allah dces not burden any one with a responsibility heavier than he can bear." (AI-Baqarah: 286) And here: "Fear Allah as far as you can." When these three verses are read together it appears that the first verse sets an ideal which every believer should try to attain. The second verse lays down the principle that no one has been required to exert himself. beyond his power and ability, for in Allah's Religion one has been made responsible only for what is within one's power and ability. This verse enjoins every believer to try to attain piety and consciousness of God as far as he can. He should carry out His Commands and avoid His disobedience as best as he possibly can. For if he shows laxity in this regard, he will not be able to escape punishment. However, one will not be held accountable for what was beyond one's power (and Allah alone can decide best what was really beyond a person's power and ability).
Desc No: 32 For explanation, see E.N. 19 of Al-Hashr.
Desc No: 33 For explanation, see E.N. 267 of Al-Baqarah, E.N. 33 of Al Ma'idah, E,N. 16 of Al-Hadid.
Desc No: 34 For explanation, see E.N.'s 52, 59 of Fatir; E.N.42 of Ash-Shura.