27.61. Is not He (best) Who made the earth a fixed abode, and placed rivers in the folds thereof, and placed firm hills therein, and hath set a barrier between the two seas? Is there any God beside Allah? Nay, but most of them know not! (Pickthall)
27.61. Wer hat die Erde einen Wohnort gemacht und hat mitten in ihr Gewisser gemacht und hat dort fest verankerte Berge gemacht und hat zwischen die beiden Meere eine Sperre gemacht? Gibt es einen Gott zusammen mit Allah? Vielmehr die meisten von ihnen wissen nicht Bescheid. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.61. Oder (ist besser) Wer die Erde zu einem festen Grund gemacht und Flüsse durch sie gemacht und festgegründete Berge (auf) ihr gemacht und zwischen den beiden Meeren eine Schranke gemacht hat? Gibt es denn einen (anderen) Gott neben Allah? Aber nein! Die meisten von ihnen wissen nicht. (Bubenheim)
27.61. Ist Der, Der die Erde zum Leben ebnete mit Flüssen dazwischen, festgegründeten Bergen und einer Schranke zwischen den beiden großen Wassern (dem süßen und dem salzigen) etwa ein Gott beigesellter Götze? Nein, die meisten von ihnen wissen es nicht.sind Unwissende. (Azhar)
27.61. Ist Derjenige, Der die Erde als Aufenthaltsort machte, durch sie Flüsse fließen ließ, für sie Festigende machte und zwischen beiden Meeren eine Trennung machte, (besser oder euer Schirk)?! Gibt es etwa eine Gottheit neben ALLAH?! Nein, sondern die meisten von ihnen wissen nicht! (Zaidan)
27.61. Oder wer (sonst) hat die Erde zu einem (festen) Grund gemacht und zwischendurch Flüsse strömen lassen und feststehende (Berge) auf ihr angebracht und zwischen den beiden großen Wassern (al-bahraini) eine Sperre (haadschiz) gemacht (so daß die Bereiche des Süß- und des Salzwassers gegeneinander abgetrennt bleiben)? Gibt es neben Allah einen (anderen) Gott? Aber nein! Die meisten von ihnen wissen nicht Bescheid. (Paret)
27.61. Wer hat denn die Erde zu einer Ruhestatt gemacht und Flüsse durch ihre Mitte geführt und feste Berge auf ihr gegründet und eine Schranke zwischen die beiden Meere gesetzt? Existiert wohl ein Gott neben Allah? Nein, die meisten von ihnen wissen es nicht. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 61 bis 61
And Who is it Who made the earth as a place of rest' ( 74 ) and caused in it rivers to flow, and set in it firm mountains and placed barriers between the two bodies of water? ( 75 ) Is there besides Allah another god (who is His associate in these works)? Nay, but most of these people have no knowledge.
Desc No: 74 It is not a simple thing for the earth to be a place of rest for the countless kinds of different creations living on it. If man looks into the wise harmony and coordination with which this sphere of the earth has been established, he is simply amazed and starts feeling that these harmonies and concordances and relations could not be brought about without the grand design of an All-Wise, AllKnowing and All-Powerful God. This sphere of the earth is floating in space and is not resting on anything, yet there is no commotion and no vibration in its movement. Had there been any vibration in it, such as we experience during an earthquake, life could not exist here. This sphere comes before the sun and hides from it regularly, which causes the alternation of the day and night. Had it turned the same face perpetually towards the sun and kept the other side always hidden, no life could be possible here, for on the bright side all life would have been shrivelled up, and on the dark side all life would have been frozen to death. The sphere is enveloped by a five hundred mile thick atmosphere, which protects it against the' continual bombardment of meteors, otherwise the twenty million meteors on the average, which dart towards the earth daily at 30 miles per second, would have caused such destruction as would not have allowed any man animal or tree to survive. The same atmosphere controls the temperature, raises clouds from the oceans, carries water to different parts of the earth and provides the required gases that sustain the human, animal and plant life. Without it the earth could not become a fit place of rest for any kind of animal life. Just under the earth's surface all those minerals and chemicals which are essential to the survival of vegetable and animal life have been provided in abundance. Wherever these natural resources do not exist, the land there cannot sustain any kind of life. A great store of water has been arranged on the earth in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, springs and underground channels and snow on the mountains which melts and flows down in the form of rivers. Without such an arrangement there could be no life. Then the earth has been endowed with an appropriate gravitational pull by which it keeps the water and the air and all other things found on it attracted to it. If this pull had been a little less strong, it could not have stopped the air and the water from escaping. It would also have so much increased the temperature that life titre would have become difficult. On the other hand, if the gravitational pull had been a little stronger, the atmosphere would have been denser, its pressure would have increased, evaporation would have become difficult and rains impossible; the cold would have increased and less areas on earth would have been inhabitable; men and animals would have been shorter in size but heavier in weight, which would have made movement difficult. Besides, this sphere has been located at a suitable distance from the sun, which is most appropriate for the population here. If the distance had been longer, the earth would have received less of heat, the climate would have been much colder, the seasons much longer and the earthwould be hardly inhabitable. On the other hand, if the distance had been shorter, the intensity of the heat along with other factors would have rendered it unfit for the kind of life man is living here. These are a few of those harmonies and concordances due to which earth has become a place of rest for its population. A man with a little common sense who is aware of these facts cannot imagine for a moment that these concordances have come into existence without the design of an All-Wise Creator, as a mere accident, nor can he ever conceive that a god or goddess, jinn or prophet, saint or angel, could have had any hand in the creation and bringing into operation of this grand design.
Desc No: 75 That is, the bodies of sweet and saline waters that exist on the earth but do not , intermingle. Underground water channels mostly flow separately with sweet water and saline water side by side. Even in the middle of the bitter seas there exist at some places springs of sweet water; their current remains separate from the sea water and the sea passengers obtain their drinking water from it. (For further explanation, see, E.N. 68 of Surah Al-Furqan) .
27.62. Is not He (best) who answereth the wronged one when he crieth unto Him and removeth the evil, and hath made you viceroys of the earth? Is there any God beside Allah? Little do they reflect! (Pickthall)
27.62. Wer antwortet dem in Not, wenn er zu ihm ruft, und nimmt das Schlechte weg und hat euch zu Nachfolgern auf der Erde gemacht? Gibt es einen Gott zusammen mit Allah? Wenig, was ihr euch ermahnen laßt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.62. Oder (ist besser) Wer den in einer Notlage Befindlichen erhört, wenn er Ihn anruft, und das Böse hinwegnimmt und euch zu Nachfolgern (auf) der Erde macht? Gibt es denn einen (anderen) Gott neben Allah? Wie wenig ihr bedenkt! (Bubenheim)
27.62. Ist Der, Der das Gebet des Notleidenden erhört und die Not abwehrt und euch zu den Nachfolgern der Früheren macht, etwa ein Gott beigesellter Götze? Aber ihr Ungläubigen denkt wenig darüber nach. (Azhar)
27.62. Ist Derjenige, Der den in Not Geratenen erhört, wenn er an Ihn Bittgebete richtet, und Der von ihm das Boshafte wegnimmt und euch die Nachfolge auf Erden antreten ließ, (besser oder euer Schirk)?! Gibt es etwa eine Gottheit neben ALLAH?! Nein, sondern es ist selten, dass ihr euch besinnt. (Zaidan)
27.62. Oder wer (sonst) erhört den, der in Not ist, wenn er zu ihm betet, und behebt das Unheil (das ihn getroffen hat) und setzt euch als Nachfolger (früherer Generationen) auf der Erde ein? Gibt es neben Allah einen (anderen) Gott? Wie wenig laßt ihr euch mahnen! (Paret)
27.62. Wer antwortet denn dem Bedrängten, wenn er Ihn anruft, und nimmt das Übel hinweg und macht euch zu Nachfolgern auf Erden? Existiert wohl ein Gott neben Allah? Geringfügig ist das, was ihr (davon) bedenkt. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 62 bis 62
Who is it Who listens to the oppressed one when he invokes Him, and Who relieves him of his affliction? ( 76 ) And (Who is it Who) makes you vicegerents in the earth? ( 77 ) Is there besides Allah another god (to do this)? How little you reflect!
Desc No: 76 The Arab polytheists themselves knew and acknowledged that Allah alone could avert a disaster. Therefore, the Qur'an reminds them again and again that they implore Allah alone for help when they are confronted by a calamity. But when the calamity is removed, they start invoking others besides Allah. (For details, see E.N.'s. 29 to 41 of Al-An`am, Yunus: 21-22, E.N. 46 of An-Nahl, and E.N. 84 of Bani Isra'il). And this is not only true of the Arab polytheists but of all polytheists; so much so that even the Russian atheists who are regularly campaigning against God-Worship, had to invoke God when in the Second World War they were tightly encircled by the German forces.
Desc No: 77 This has two meanings: (1) "He raises one generation after the other and one nation after the other"; and (2) "He gives you power and authority to rule in the earth" .
27.63. Is not He (best) Who guideth you in the darkness of the land and the sea, He Who sendeth the winds as heralds of His mercy? Is there any God beside Allah? High exalted be Allah from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him) ! (Pickthall)
27.63. Wer leitet euch recht in den Finsternistiefen des Landes und des Meeres, und wer sendet die Winde als gute Kunde vor seiner Barmherzigkeit? Gibt es einen Gott zusammen mit Allah? Hoch erhaben ist Allah Uber das, was sie Ihm als Mitgötter geben. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.63. Oder (ist besser) Wer euch in den Finsternissen des Festlandes und des Meeres (den rechten Weg) leitet und Wer die Winde als Frohboten Seiner Barmherzigkeit (voraus)sendet? Gibt es denn einen (anderen) Gott neben Allah? Erhaben ist Allah über das, was sie (Ihm) beigesellen. (Bubenheim)
27.63. Ist Der, Der euch in der Finsternis auf See und an Land rechtleitet, Der den Wind als Freudenboten Seiner Barmherzigkeit schickt, etwa ein Gott beigesellter Götze? Erhaben ist Gott über all dem, was sie Ihm beigesellen. (Azhar)
27.63. Ist Derjenige, Der euch in den Finsternissen vom Lande und vom Meer rechtleitet, und Der die Winde als frohe Botschaft vor Seiner Gnade (vor dem Regen) schickt, (besser oder euer Schirk)?! Gibt es etwa eine Gottheit neben ALLAH?! Immer allerhabener ist ALLAH über das, was sie an Schirk betreiben! (Zaidan)
27.63. Oder wer (sonst) führt euch in der Finsternis des Festlandes und des Meeres den rechten Weg, und wer (sonst) schickt die Winde, daß sie frohe Botschaft bringen (indem sie) vor seiner Barmherzigkeit (vorauseilen und Regen ankündigen)? Gibt es neben Allah einen (anderen) Gott? Allah ist erhaben über das, was sie (ihm an anderen Göttern) beigesellen. (Paret)
27.63. Wer leitet euch in den Finsternissen über Land und Meer, und wer sendet die Winde als Freudenboten Seiner Barmherzigkeit voraus? Existiert wohl ein Gott neben Allah? Hoch Erhaben ist Allah über das, was sie (Ihm) beigesellen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 63 bis 63
And Who is it Who shows you the way in the darkness of the land and the sea, ( 78 ) and Who sends the winds as harbingers of His mercy? ( 79 ) Is there besides Allah another god (who does this)? Far exalted is Allah above what they associate with Him .
Desc No: 78 That is, "He has made such arrangements by means of the stars that you can find your way even in the darkness of the night." This is also because of the wise planning of Allah that He has created such means by which man can determine his direction and the way to his destination in his journeys by sea and land. In the day time he is guided by different land-marks and the direction of sunrise and sun-set, and in the dark nights by the stars. In Surah An-Nahl this has been counted among the bounties of Allah: "He has placed land-marks to direct people, and by the stars, too, they are guided aright." (v. 16)
Desc No: 79 "Allah's mercy" the rain whose coming is promptly foretold by the winds.
27.64. Is not He (best), Who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and Who provideth for you from the heaven and the earth? Is there any God beside Allah? Say: Bring your proof, if ye are truthful! (Pickthall)
27.64. Wer beginnt erstmals die Schöpfung, dann bringt er sie wieder, und wer versorgt euch vom Himmel und der Erde? Gibt es einen Gott zusammen mit Allah? Sag: Her mit eurem Beweis, wenn ihr wahrhaft seid? (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.64. Oder (ist besser) Wer die Schöpfung am Anfang macht und sie hierauf wiederholt und Wer euch vom Himmel und von der Erde versorgt? Gibt es denn einen (anderen) Gott neben Allah? Sag: Bringt euren Beweis vor, wenn ihr wahrhaftig seid. (Bubenheim)
27.64. Ist Der, Der die Schöpfung begonnen hat und sie wiederholen kann und euch vom Himmel und von der Erde versorgt, etwa ein Gott beigesellter Götze? Sprich: "Bringt eure Beweise vor, wenn ihr die Wahrheit sagt!" (Azhar)
27.64. Ist Derjenige, Der das Erschaffen beginnt, dann es wiederholt, und Der euch Rizq von dem Himmel und der Erde gewährt, (besser oder euer Schirk)?! Gibt es etwa eine Gottheit neben ALLAH?! Sag: ‚Bringt euren Beweis, solltet ihr wahrhaftig sein.‘ (Zaidan)
27.64. Oder wer (sonst) vollzieht die Schöpfung ein erstes Mal (zur Existenz im Diesseits) und wiederholt sie hierauf (bei der Auferweckung zur Existenz im Jenseits)? Und wer (sonst) beschert euch (den Lebensunterhalt) vom Himmel und (von) der Erde? Gibt es neben Allah einen (anderen) Gott? Sag: Bringt doch euren Beweis vor, wenn (anders) ihr die Wahrheit sagt! (Paret)
27.64. Wer ruft denn zum Beginn die Schöpfung hervor und wiederholt sie hierauf, und wer versorgt euch vom Himmel und von der Erde? Existiert wohl ein Gott neben Allah? Sprich: "Bringt euren Beweis herbei, wenn ihr wahrhaftig seid." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 64 bis 64
And Who is it Who originates the creation and then reproduces it? ( 80 ) And Who provides you sustenance from the sky and the earth? ( 81 ) Is there besides Allah another god (who is a partner in these works) Say, "Bring your proof if you are truthful. " ( 82 )
Desc No: 80 The simple fact hat has been expressed in this one sentence is so vast in meaning and detail that as one considers it more and more deeply one goes on getting new and ever new proofs of Allah's existence and His unity. to the first place, take the question of the creation itself. Man by his knowledge has not been able to discover what is life, how and whereform it comes. So far the admitted scientific fact is that the mere arrangement of inanimate matter by itself cannot bring about life. Though the atheists assume, unscientifically, that life comes into existence automatically when all the elements essential for its creation combine together accidentally in the right proportion, yet if the athematical law of chance is applied to it, the possibility of its occurrence comes to nought. All attempts made so far to produce animate matter out of inanimate matter experimentally in the laboratory have met with utter failure in spite of employing every possible care. At the most what has been created is DNA, which is the basic constituent of the living cell. This is the essence of life but not life itself. Life in itself even now is a miracle which cannot be explained scientifically except by saying that it is the result of a Creator's will and command and design. Furthermore, life does not exist in a solitary form but in a limitless variety of forms. Man has so far discovered more or less a million species of animals and two hundred thousand species of plants on the earth, which in their constitution and special characteristics are so clearly and absolutely different from one another, and thave been maintaining their distinctive features since the earliest known times so consistently that no Darwin could ever give any rational explanation of this great variety of life except the existence of the creative design of One God. Not a link has so far been discovered between any two species, which might have broken up the form of the characteristics and constitution of one species and might be struggling to attain the characteristics and constitution of another species. The whole record of the fossils is without such a precedent, and among the existing animals also thereis no such "eunuch" in its physical form. Any member of any species that exists is found with thedistinctive features of its own species, and every story that is invented and announced from time to tune about the discovery of some missing link is destroyed by the facts themselves. Therefore, the inevitable fact is that it is the All-Wise Designer, the Planner of creation, its Enforcer and its Fashioner, Who has endowed life with all its countless different forms. This was about the beginning of the creation.Now let us consider its reproduction. The Creator has placed inthe constitution and snake-up of every animal and vegetable species such a wonderful mechanism, which goes on producing through its countless members an endless race exactly with its own distinctive form and nature and characteristics, and it never has happened even by mistake that in these millions and millions of tiny sex workshops a certain workshop of a species may have turned out a specimen of a different species. The observations of modern Genetics in this connection present wonderful facts. Every plant has been so endowed with the capability of procreating its species that the new generation should possess all the distinctive characteristics of its own species and its every member should be distinguished in its special features from the members of all other species. This element for the survival of the species and its procreation is contained in a part of a cell of every plant, which can be seen with effort only through a most powerful microscope. This tiny engineer directs the whole development the plant precisely and definitely on the way which is the way .of its own distinctive species. That is why all the plants that have emerged from a grain of wheat arty where in the world have in turn produced only wheat. In no climate and in no region has it ever happened that from the whole race of a grain of wheat even a single grain of barley might have emerged. The same is the case with animals and men. None of them has been created just for once, but on an inconceivably high scale a huge factory of reproduction is functioning every where, which is constantly bringing into existence, from the members of every species, countless other members of the same species. If one considers the microscopic germ of procreation which along with all the distinctive features and hereditary characteristics of its species is found in a small portion of its tiny self and thou looks at the extremely delicate and complex physiological system and the subtle, intricate processes by which the procreative seed of every member of every species produces a member of the same species, one cannot conceive for a moment that such a tine and subtle system could come into being by itself, and then keep on functioning by itself in millions and millions of the members of different species. This thing stands in need of an All-Wise Designer not only for its beginning but for its proper and perpetual functioning also it needs an Administrator Who is at once Wise and Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent, Who is ever watching and guiding the work of these workshops. These facts destroy the very basis of an atheist's denial of God as also of a polytheist's creed of polytheism. A foolish person only can think that an angel or a jinn or a prophet or a saint has any hand in this work of God, but no unbiased person possessed of a little common sense can ever say that this huge workshop of production and reproduction with all its underlying wisdom and order started working just accidentally and has since been working so automatically.
Desc No: 81 The question of the provision of sustenance also is not so simple as a person may feel it to be from a cursory study of this brief sentence. There exist on this earth millions of animal and vegetable species, each comprising billions of members having different food requirements. The Creator has arranged the means of sustenance for each species in such abundance and so within easy reach that members of no species ever go without food. Then the agencies of the earth and sky which combine and work together in this system are varied and countless. Unless there is the right kind of coordination and harmony between the heat, light, air, water and the diverse substances of the earth, not a single particle of food can be produced. ' Can anyone conceive that this wise system could come about just accidentally. without the intelligent planning and design of an All-Wise Creator? And can anybody in his senses imagine that in this system there could be any hand of a Jinn or an angel or the spirit of a pious man?
Desc No: 82 That is, "You should either bring a proof to show that someone else is an associate of Allah in these works, or, if that is not possible, you should at least explain by an argument why you should worship and serve any other god beside Allah, when One Allah alone has done, and is doing, all these works." "
27.65. Qul la yaAAlamu man fii alssamawatiwaal-ardi alghayba illa Allahu wamayaschAAuruuna ayyana yubAAathuuna
27.65. Say (O Muhammad): None in the heavens and the earth knoweth the Unseen save Allah; and they know not when they will be raised (again). (Pickthall)
27.65. Sag: Es kennt keiner, der in den Himmeln und der Erde ist, das Verborgene, außer Allah, und sie sind es nicht gewahr, wann sie auferweckt werden. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.65. Sag: Über das Verborgene weiß nicht Bescheid wer in den Himmeln und auf der Erde ist, außer Allah; und sie merken nicht, wann sie auferweckt werden. (Bubenheim)
27.65. Sprich: "Niemand in den Himmeln und auf der Erde weiss um das Verborgene. Sie haben keine Ahnung davon, wann sie auferweckt werden. (Azhar)
27.65. Sag: ‚Diejenigen in den Himmeln und auf Erden kennen das Verborgene nicht, nur ALLAH (kennt es)!‘ Und sie merken nicht, wann sie erweckt werden. (Zaidan)
27.65. Sag: Die im Himmel und auf Erden sind, haben (alle) keine Kenntnis vom Verborgenen, außer Allah. Und sie merken es nicht (daß der jüngste Tag angebrochen ist), wenn sie (dereinst vom Tod) erweckt werden. (Paret)
27.65. Sprich: "Niemand in den Himmeln und auf Erden kennt das Verborgene außer Allah; und sie wissen nicht, wann sie wiederauferweckt werden." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 65 bis 65
Tell them, "None but Allah has the knowledge of the unseen, in the heavens and the earth, ( 83 ) and they (your deities) do not even know when they will be raised back to life. " ( 84 )
Desc No: 83 In the preceding verses, arguments have been given to prove that Allah is the One and only Deity when considered from the viewpoint of creation, design and provision of the means of sustenance. Now in this verse it is being told that from the viewpoint of knowledge too, which is an important attribute of Godhead, Allah is Unique and without associate. Whatever creations are therein the heavens and the earth, whether angels or jinns, prophets and saints, or other men and other creatures, they have only limited knowledge. Something is hidden from all of them. The All-Knowing One is only Allah, from Whom nothing whatever of this universe is hidden, and Who knows every thing of the past and the present and the future. The word ghaib means something hidden and covered. As a term it implies everything which is unknown, and beyond one's sphere of knowledge and information. There are many things in the world which individually are known to some human beings and. unknown to others. And there are many others which taken as a whole have never been known to any of mankind, nor are known at present; nor will be known in the future: The same is the case with the jinns and the angels and other kinds of creation: certain things are known to some of them and hidden from others, and many things hidden from all of them and known to none. All kinds of hidden things are only known to One Being, the All-Knowing Allah. For Him nothing is unknown everything is known and evident. In order to bring out this reality the method of the question as employed above with regard to creation, design and sustenance of the universe has not been adopted here. The reason is that the manifestations of those attributes are clear and evident which everyone sees, and which even the pagans and polytheists acknowledged, and do even today, that they are the works of Allah. So, the argument adopted above was: When all these works, as you admit, are being done by Allah, and no one else is His partner in these, why have you then made others His associates in Divinity, and in His worship? However, the attribute of knowledge . has no perceptible manifestation which may be referred to and pointed out. It can be comprehended only by thought and reflection. Therefore, it has been put forward as an assertion instead of a question. Now it is for every intelligent person to think and consider for himself whether it is reasonable to believe that there should be any other than Allah, who is all-knowing, i.e. who knows all those conditions and things and realities which existed in the universe in the past; or exist now; or will exist in the future. And if there is none other who is allknowing, and cannot be, then is it reasonable to believe that any of those who are not aware fully of the realities and conditions and circumstances can become the answerer of the people's prayers, fulfiller of their needs and remover of their hardships ? There is a subtle relationship between Divinity and the knowledge of the unseen and hidden. Since the earliest times in whatever being has man imagined the presence of an attribute of Godhead, he has taken it for granted that it knows everything and nothing is hidden from it. In other words, it is self-evident for man to believe that making or marring the destinies, answering the prayers, fulfilling the needs and helping everyone in need of help, can be the work of the being who knows everything and from whom nothing is hidden. That is why whomever man has regarded as possessor of the powers and authority of Godhead he has necessarily regarded him as the knower of all hidden things as well. For his intellect testifies rightly that knowledge and authority are inter-dependent. Now if it is a fact that none but God is the Creator and the Designer and the Answerer of the prayers and the Providence, as has been proved in the foregoing verses, then it is also a self-evident reality that none but God is the Knower of the hidden things. After all, who in his senses could imagine that an angel or a jinn or a prophet or a saint or any other creature would be knowing where and what kinds of animals existed in the oceans and in the atmosphere and under the layers of the earth and upon its surface? And what is the correct number of the planets in the heavens? And what kinds of creatures exist in each of them? And where is each one of these creatures living and what are its requirements? All this should necessarily be known to Allah, because He has created them and He alone has to watch over their conditions and control their affairs and arrange for their sustenance. But how can some one else with his limited self have this vast and all-embracing knowledge and what has he to do with the functions of creation and sustenance that he should know these things? Then this quality is also not divisible in the sense that a person, for instance, may be the knower of everything on the earth, or the knower of everything concerning human beings only, on the earth. It is in the same way indivisible as are God's Creativity and His Providence and His Self-Subsistence indivisible. After all, how can it be possible for one to know all the affairs and all the conditions and states of all human beings who have been born in the world since the beginning of creation, and will be born till Resurrection, from the time their mothers conceived them till the time they will breath their last ? And how and why will he know all this ? Is he the creator of these countless multitudes ? Did he create their seed in their fathers' sperm-drop ? Did he mould and shape them in their mother's womb? Did he arrange for their normal birth'? Did he make the destiny of each one of them? Is he responsible for taking decisions with regard to their life and death, their health and ill-health, their prosperity and adversity, and their rise and fall in the world ? And since when did he become responsible for it? Since before his own birth or since after it ? And how can these responsibilities remain confined only to human beings? This is only a part of the universal administration of the heavens and the earth. The Being Who is controlling the whole universe is the Being Who alone can be responsible for the creation and death of men, for restricting and extending their provisions and for making and marring their destinies. That is why it is a fundamental article of Islam that none other than Allah is the Knower of the hidden and unseen things. Allah may disclose whatever of His information He wills to whomsoever of His servants He pleases and bless him with the knowledge of one or more of the hidden things as a whole. Being the Knower of all hidden and unseen things is the attribute only of Allah, Who is the Lord of all creation "He alone has the keys of the `unseen' of which none has the knowledge but He." (AI-An`am: 59) "Allah alone has the knowledge of the Hour: He alone sends down the rain and He alone knows what is (taking shape) in the wombs of the mothers. No living being knows what he will earn the next day, nor does anybody know in what land he will die." (Luqman 34) "He knows what is before the people and also what is hidden from them; and they cannot comprehend anything of His knowledge save whatever He Himself may please to reveal." (AlBaqarah: 255). The Qur'an does not rest content with this general and absolute negation of the knowledge of the hidden and unseen for the different forms of creation, but about the Prophets in particular, and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) himself it clearly says that they do not possess the knowledge of the hidden and unseen, and that they were given only that much knowledge of the hidden by Allah as was necessary to enable them to carry out the duties of Prophethood. Surah Al-An`am.: 50, Al-A'raf: 187, At-Taubah: 101, Hud: 31, AlAhzab: 63, Al-Ahqaf: 9, At-Tahrim: 3 and Al-Jinn: 26-28 do not leave any room for doubt in this regard. All these elucidations of the Qur'an support and explain the verse under discussion after which there remains no doubt that looking upon another than Allah as the knower of the hidden and unseen and believing that someone else also possesses the knowledge of all the past and future events, is an absolutely un-Islamic belief. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Imam Ahmad, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abu Hatim have cited this saying of Hadrat `A'ishah. through authentic reporters: "Whoever claimed that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) knew what was going to happen the next day, accused Allah of lying, for Allah says: O Prophet, say, `None in the heavens and the earth has the knowledge of the hidden and unseen but Allah'." Ibn al-Mundhir has reported this on the authority of 'Ikrimah, the well-known pupil of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: "A person asked the Holy Prophet: O Muhammad, when will Resurrection be? And our territory is suffering from famine: when will it rain ? And my wife is pregnant: what will she deliver, a boy or a girl? And I know what I have earned today; but what shall I earn tomorrow? And I know where I was born, but where shall I die?" In reply, the Holy Prophet recited verse 34 of Surah Luqman as cited above. Then the well-known Tradition as reported in Bukhari; and Muslim and other works of Hadith also supports the same. According to it one of the questions asked by Angel Gabriel from the Holy Prophet when he sat among the Companions in human shape before him, was: "When will Resurrection be?" The Holy Prophet replied: "The one being questioned knows no better than the one questioning." Then added, "This is one of those five things whose knowledge is possessed by none but Allah," and then he recited the above-cited verse of Surah Luqman .
Desc No: 84 That is "Those others about whom it is thought that they possess the knowledge of the hidden and, therefore, are regarded as partners in Divinity, are themselves unaware of their future. They do not know when will Resurrection be when Allah will raise them up again. "
27.69. Qul siiruu fii al-ardi faondhuruukayfa kana AAaqibatu almudschrimiina
27.69. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Travel in the land and see the nature of the sequel for the guilty! (Pickthall)
27.69. Sag: Reist umher auf der Erde und seht, wie das endgültige Ende der Verbrecher war! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
27.69. Sag: Reist auf der Erde umher und schaut, wie das Ende der Übeltäter war. (Bubenheim)
27.69. Sprich: "Geht auf der Erde umher und seht, wie das Ende der Frevler war!" (Azhar)
27.69. Sag: ‚Zieht auf der Erde umher, dann seht, wie das Anschließende von den schwer Verfehlenden war.‘ (Zaidan)
27.69. Sag: Zieht doch im Land umher und schaut dann, wie das Ende der Sünder war! (Paret)
27.69. Sprich: "Reist auf der Erde umher und seht, wie der Ausgang der Sündigen war!" (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 66 bis 69
But (on the contrary,) these people have lost the knowledge of the Hereafter;" nay, they arein doubt about it; nay, they are blind to it. ( 85 ) The disbelievers say, "When we and our forefathers have become dust, shall we be really raised up from the graves? This news has been given to us as well as to our forefathers before us, but these are nothing but tales, which we have been hearing since the ancient times." Say to them, "Move about in the land and see what doom the criminals have met. " ( 86 )
Desc No: 85 After warning the people about their basic errors with regard to Divinity, it is being said that the reason why these people are involved in these errors is not that they have reached this conclusion after serious thought and deliberation that there exist other beings also who are Allah's associates in His Divinity, but the actual reason is that they have never considered this matter seriously. As they are unaware of the Hereafter, or are in doubt about it, or are blind to it, their heedlessness of the Hereafter has developed in them an utterly irresponsible attitude. They are not at all serious about the universe and the real problems of their own lives. They do not bother to know what reality is and whether their philosophy of life accords with that reality or not. For, according to them, in the end the polytheist and the atheist, the monotheist and the agnostic, all will become one with the dust after death, and nothing will bear any fruit. The' theme of the Hereafter is contained in this sentence of the preceding verse: "They do not know when they will be raised back to life." In that sentence it was said that those who are made deities-the angels, jinns, prophets, saints, etc., do not themselves know when will Resurrection be. Here three things have been said about the common polytheists and the atheists: (1) They do not at all know whether there will be any Hereafter or not; (2) this lack of information on their part is not due to the reason that they were never informed of this, but because they did not believe in the information given to them and doubted its authenticity; and (3) they never bothered to consider with due thought and seriousness the arguments that were advanced about the coming of the Hereafter, but they preferred to remain blind to it.
Desc No: 86 This brief sentence contains two strong arguments for the Hereafter as well as admonition: Firstly, those communities who rejected the Hereafter could not help becoming criminals: they lived irresponsibly; they committed cruelties and all kinds of sin; and ultimately their moral depravity led them to utter ruin. This continuous experience of human history which is testified by the doomed communities all over the world, clearly shows that belief and unbelief in the Hereafter has a deep relationship with the soundness or the unsoundness of human behaviour. Belief in it generates sound behaviour and denial of it unsound behaviour. This is a clear proof of the fact that belief in it is in accordance with the reality; that is why belief helps life to follow the right path. And rejection of it is against the reality; that is why rejection leads life into crooked alleys. Secondly, the destruction of the communities, which became criminals, one after the other, in the long experience of history is a clear pointer to the fact that this universe is not being ruled by the deaf and blind and senseless forces, but this is a wise system which is functioning according to the unalterable law of retribution, which is dealing with the human communities only on moral grounds, in which no community is given long enough rope to commit whatever evil it likes and continue to enjoy life and commit injustices after it has once risen to power and prosperity. But when a wicked community happens to reach a certain stage, a mighty hand topples it from power and hurls it into the abyss of ignominy. Anyone who realizes this fact can have no doubt that the same law of retribution calls for the establishment of a new world after this world, where all individuals and nations and the whole mankind collectively should be rewarded and punished for their deeds. For the requirements of justice cannot be fulfilled only by the destruction of a wicked nation; this dces not in any way redress the grievances of the oppressed people; this does not punish those who had enjoyed life and left the world before the coming down of the scourge; this dces not also take to task those wicked people who went on leaving behind them legacies of immoralities and deviations for the coming generations. The torment that visited the nation only put a stop to the further tyrannies of its last generation. The court has not yet started working, to punish every wicked person for the evil done, to compensate every oppressed person for the losses incurred, and to reward all those who stood by the right against the onslaught of evil, endeavoured to reform things and faced persecutions in this way throughout their lives. All this should necessarily happen at some time. For the continuous operation in the world of the law of retribution clearly points to the temperament and technique of the ruling government of the universe that it judges human deeds by moral standards and punishes and rewards them accordingly. Besides these two arguments, the aspect of admonition in this verse is: "Learn lessons from the fate of the guilty people of the past, and do not persist in the foolish belief of the denial of the Hereafter, which, in fact, was responsible for making them criminals. " "