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3.28. Die Gläubigen sollen nicht die Ungläubigen anstatt der Gläubigen zu Schutzherren nehmen. Wer das tut, hat überhaupt nichts mit Allah (gemeinsam) -, es sei denn, daß ihr euch (durch dieses Verhalten) vor ihnen wirklich schützt. Allah mahnt euch zur Vorsicht vor Sich selbst. Und zu Allah ist der Ausgang.
66.1. Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyulima tuharrimu ma ahalla Allahu lakatabtaghii mardata azwadschika waAllahughafuurun rahiimun
66.1. O Prophet! Why bannest thou that which Allah hath made lawful for thee, seeking to please thy wives? And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Pickthall)
66.1. Du, der Prophet, warum verbietest du, was Allah du gestattet hat? Du erstrebst die Zufriedenheit deinet Gattinnen, und Allah ist verzeihend, barmherzig. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.1. O Prophet, warum verbietest du, was Allah dir erlaubt hat, indem du da nach trachtest, die Zufriedenheit deiner Gattinnen zu erlangen? Und Allah ist Allvergebend und Barmherzig. (Bubenheim)
66.1. O Prophet! Warum verbietest du, was Gott dir erlaubt hat, um deine Frauen zufriedenzustellen? Gott ist voller Vergebung und Barmherzigkeit. (Azhar)
66.1. Prophet! Weshalb erklärst du für haram, was ALLAH dir für halal erklärte?! Strebst du etwa die Zufriedenheit deiner Ehefrauen an?! Und ALLAH ist allver- 3 gebend, allgnädig. (Zaidan)
66.1. Prophet! Warum erklärst du denn im Bestreben, deine Gattinnen zufriedenzustellen, für verboten, was Allah dir erlaubt hat? (Mit deinem Enthaltungsschwur hast du Unrecht getan.) Aber Allah ist barmherzig und bereit zu vergeben. (Paret)
66.1. O Prophet! Warum verbietest du das, was Allah dir erlaubt hat, um nach der Zufriedenheit deiner Frauen zu trachten? Und Allah ist Allvergebend, Barmherzig. (Rasul)
66.2. Qad farada Allahu lakum tahillataaymanikum waAllahu mawlakum wahuwaalAAaliimu alhakiimu
66.2. Allah hath made lawful for you (Muslims) absolution from your oaths (of such a kind), and Allah is your Protector. He is the Knower, the Wise. (Pickthall)
66.2. Allah hat schon für euch das Losen solcher eurer Eide vorgeschrieben, und Allah ist euer Schutzhcrr, und Er ist wissend, weise. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.2. Allah hat ja für euch festgelegt, womit eure Eide zu lösen sind. Und Allah ist euer Schutzherr, und Er ist der Allwissende und Allweise. (Bubenheim)
66.2. Er hat euch geboten, bestimmte Eide durch Sühne zu lösen. Gott ist euer Gebieter. Sein Wissen und Seine Weisheit sind unermesslich. (Azhar)
66.2. Bereits schrieb ALLAH euch das Entbinden von euren Eiden vor. Und ALLAH ist euer Maula. Und ER ist Der Allwissende, Der Allweise. (Zaidan)
66.2. Allah hat für euch angeordnet, ihr sollt eure (unbedachten) Eide (durch eine Sühneleistung) annullieren. Allah ist euer Schutzherr (maulaa). Er ist der, der Bescheid weiß und Weisheit besitzt. (Paret)
66.2. Wahrlich, Allah hat für euch die Lösung eurer Eide angeordnet, und Allah ist euer Beschützer; und Er ist der Allwissende, der Allweise. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 2
O Prophet, why do you make unlawful that which Allah has permitted for you? ( 1 ) (Is it because) you seek the good-will of your wives? ( 2 ) -Allah is All-Forgivings All Merciful. ( 3 ) Allah has already appointed a way to absolve you (people) from your oaths. ( 4 ) Allah is your Master, and He alone is the All-Knowing, the All-Wise. ( 5 )
Desc No: 1 This is not, in fact, a question but an expression of disapproval. The object is not to ask the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) why he had done so, but to warn him that his act to make unlawful for himself what Allah had made lawful is not approved by Allah. This by itself gives the meaning that nobody has the power to make unlawful what Allah has made lawful; so much so that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) himself also did not possess any such power. Although the Holy Prophet did not regard this as unlawful as a matter of faith nor legally but only forbade himself its use, yet since he was not an ordinary man but Allah's Messenger, and his forbidding himself something could have the effect that his followers too would have regarded it as forbidden, or at least reprehensible, or the people of his community might have thought that there was no harm in forbidding oneself something his Allah had made lawful, Allah pointed it out to him and commanded him to refrain from such prohibition.
Desc No: 2 This shows that in this case the Holy Prophet had not made a lawful thing unlawfirl because of a personal desire but because his wives had wanted him to do so, and he had made it unlawful for himself only in order to please them. Here, the question arises: why has Allah particularly made mention of the cause of making the thing unlawful besides pointing out the act of prohibition? Obviously, if the object had been to make him refrain from making a lawful thing unlawfirl, this could be fulfilled by the first sentences and there was no need that the motive of the act also should have been stated. Making mention of it in particular clearly shows that the object was not to check the Holy Prophet only for making a lawful thing unlawful, but along with that to warn the holy wives also to the effect that in their capacity as the Prophet's wives they had not understood their delicate responsibilities and had made the Holy Prophet do a thing which could lead to making a lawful thing unlawful.
Although it has not been mentioned ill the Qur'an as to what it was that the Holy Prophet had forbidden himself yet the traditionists and commentators have mentioned in this regard two differ. ent incidents, which occasioned the revelation of this verse. One of these relates to Hadrat Mariyah Qibiyyah (Mary, the Copt lady) and the other to his forbidding himself the use of honey.
The incident relating to Hadrat Mariyah is that after concluding the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah one of the letters that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) sent to the rulers of the adjoining countries was addressed to the Roman Patriarch of Alexandria also, whom the Arabs called Muqawqis. When Hadrat Hatib bin Abi Balta a took this letter to him, he did not embrace Islam but received him well, and in reply wrote: "I know that a Prophet is yet to rise, but 1 think he will appear in Syria. However, 1 have treated your messenger with due honour, and am sending two slave-girls to you, who command respect among the Coptics. " (Ibn Sa'd). One of those slave-girls was Sirin and the other Mariyah (Mary). Un his way back from Egypt Hadrat Hatib presented Islam before both and they believed. When they came before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) he gave Sirin in the ownership of Hadrat Hassan bin Thabit and admitted Hadrat Mariyah into his own household. In Dhil-Hijjah, A.H. 8 she gave birth to the Holy Prophet's son, Ibrahim. (Al-Isti'ab; Al-Isabah). This lady was very beautiful. Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Al-Isabah has rclated this saying of Hadrat 'A'ishah about her: "No woman's entry into the Holy Prophet's household vexed me so much as of Mariyah, because she was very beautiful and pleased him much. " Concerning her the story that has been narrated in several ways in the Hadith is briefly as follows:
One day the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) visited the house of Hadrat Hafsah when she was not at home. At that time Hadrat Mariyah carne to him there and stayed with him in seclusion. Hadrat Hafsah took it very iII and complained of it bitterly to him. Thereupon, in order to please her the Holy Prophet vowed that he would have no conjugal relation with Mariyah in future. According to some traditions, he forbade Mariyah for himself, and according to others, he also swore an oath on it. These traditions have been mostly reported by the immediate successors of the Companions without mentioning any intermediary link. But some of these have been reported from Hadrat 'Umar,. Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Abbas and Hadrat Abu Hurairah also. In view of the plurality of the methods of narration, Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari has expressed the view that there is some truth in the story. But in none of the six authentic collections of the Hadith has this story been narrated. In Nasa'i only this much has been rclated from Hadrat Anas: "The Holy Prophet had a slave-girl with whom he had conjugal relations. Then, Hadrat Hafsah and Hadrat `A'ishah began to point out this to him repeatedly until he forbade her for himself. There upon, Allah sent down this verse: 'O Prophet. why do you maKe unlawful that which Allah has made lawful for you?"
The other incident has been related in Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and several other books of Hadith from Hadrat `A'ishah herself and its purport is as follows:
"The Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) usually paid a daily visit to all his wives after the `Asr Prayer Once it so happened that he began to stay in the house of Hadrat Zainab bint-Jahsh longer than usual, for she had received sane honey from somewhere as a gift and the Holy Prophet was very fond of sweet things; therefore, he would have a drink of honey at her house. Hadrat 'A'ishah states that she felt envious of this and spoke to Hadrat Hafsah, Hadrat Saudah and Hadrat Safiyyah about it and together they decided that whoever of them was visited by the Holy Prophet, she should say to him: 'Your mouth smells of maghafir ' Maghafir is a kind of flower, which gives out an offensive smell, and if the bee obtains honey from it, it is also tainted by the same odour. They all knew that the Holy Prophet was a man of very fine taste and he abhorred that he should emit any kind of unpleasant smell. There fore, this device was contrived to stop him from staying in the house of Hadrat Zainab and it worked. When several of his wives told him that his mouth smelt of Maghafir, he made a promise not to use the honey any longer. In one tradition his words are to the effect "Now, I will never have a drink from it: I have sworn an oath. " In another tradition he only said: "I will never have a drink from it," and there is no mention of the oath And in the tradition which Ibn al Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Tabarani and Ibn Marduyah have related from Ibn 'Abbas the words are to the effect: "By God, I will not drink it!"
Our eminent scholars regard this second version as correct and the first as unreliable. Imam Nasa'i says: "About honey the Hadith reported from Hadrat 'A'ishah is authentic, and the story of forbidding Hadrat Mariyah for himself by the Holy Prophet has not been narrated in a reliable way." Qadi 'Iyad says: "The truth is that this verse was sent down concerning honey and not Mariyah." Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-'Arabi; also regards the story about honey as correct and the same is the opinion of Imam Nawawi and Hafiz Badruddiu 'Aini. Ibn Humam writes in Fath al-Qadir "The story of the prohibition of honey has been narrated in Bukhari and Muslim from Hadrat `A'ishah who was herself a party to it; therefore, it is much more reliable." Hafiz Ibn Kathir says: "The truth is that this verse was sent down about forbidding honey for himself by the Holy Prophet. "
Desc No: 3 That is, "Although the act of making a lawful thing unlawful only in order to please your wives was an act unbecoming of your high and responsible office, yet it was no sin, which might have entailed a punishment. Therefore, Allah has only pointed it out to you and corrected it, and has forgiven you for this error. "
Desc No: 4 It means: "Act according to the method Allah has prescribed for absolution from oaths by cxpiation in AI-Ma'idah :89 and break your promise that you have trade to forbid yourself a lawful thing. " Here, an important legal question arises and it is this: Is this Command applicable to the case when a person has forbiddcn himsclf a lawful thing on oath, or is forbidding oncsclf a lawful thing by itsclf tantamount to swearing an oath, whether the words of the oath have been used or not'? The jurists in this regard have expressed different opinions:
One section of them says that mere forbidding oncsclf a lawful thing is not an oath. If a person without swearing an oath has forbiddcn himself a wife, or some other lawful thing, it is an absurd thing which does not entail any expiation, but he can resume without any expiation the use of the thing that he had forbidden himself. This is the opinion of Masruq, Sha'bi, Rabi'ah and Abu Salamah; and the same view is held by Ibn Jarir and all the Zahiris. According to them forbidding oneself something would be an oath only in case express words of oath are used when forbidding it for oneself. In this regard, their reasoning is that since the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) while forbidding himself a lawful thing had also sworn an oath, as has been reported in several traditions, Allah told him to act according to the method that had been appointed for absolving oneself from oaths.
The second group says that to forbid oncsclf something without using the words of oath is not an oath by itself, but the case of the wife is an exception. If a person has . forbiddcn himself a garment, or an article of food, it is meaningless, and one can use it without expiation. But if concerning a wifc or a slave-girl he has said: "I forbid myself an intercourse with her," she would not become unlawfirl and forbiddcn, but one would have to expiate the oath before going in to her. This is the opinion of the Shafe'is. (Mugni al-Muhtaj). And a similar opinion on this question is held by the Malikis. (Ibn al-'Arabi, Ahkam al-Qur an).
The third group says that to forbid oneself something is by itsclf an oath even if the words of oath have not been used. This is the opinion of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat 'A'ishah, Hadrat 'Umar, Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit and Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas (may Allah bless them all). Although from Ibn 'Abbas another opinion has been reported in Bukhari to the effect: "If a tnan has forbidden himsclf his wifc, it is meaningless," yet it has been interpreted to mean that according to him this is not divorce but an oath which entails an expiation. For in Bukhari, Muslim and Ibn Majah, another saying of Ibn 'Abbas has been reported that to forbid oneself one's wife entails an expiation, and in Nasa'i the tradition is to the effect that when Ibn 'Abbas was asked his opinion on this, he said: "She is not forbidden to you, but you must pay the expiation." and in Ibn Jarir's tradition the words of Ibn 'Abbas are to the effect: "If the people forbid themselves what Allah has made lawful for them, they must expiate their oath." This same is the opinion of Hasan Basri, 'Ata, Ta'us. Suleman bin Yasar. Ibn Jubair and Qatadah, and the same has been adopted by the Hanafis. Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas says: `The words of the verse lima tuharrimu do not indicate that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) along with forbidding himself the lawful thing had also sworn an oath, therefore, one will have to admit that tahrim (to forbid oneself something) itself is an oath; for after it Allah made obligatory the expiation of the oath in connection with the prohibition." Farther on he writes again: 'Our companions (i.e. the Hanafis) regard tahrim as an oath in case it is not accompanied by the intention of divorce. If a person forbade himself his wife, he in fact said: "By God, I will not come near you," thus, he committed ila' (act of temporary separation! . And if he forbade himself an article of food. etc, he in a wav said: "By God, I will not use that article." For Allah first said: "Why do you forbid that which Allah has made lawful?" and then said. "Allah has appointed a way to absolve you from your oaths." Thus, Allah has regarded tahrim as an oath, and the word tahrim in its meaning and legal effect becomes synonymous with an oath."
Here, for the benefit of the common man, it would be useful to tell what is the legal command according to the jurists in respect of forbidding oneself one's wife and forbidding oneself other things besides the wife.
The Hanafis say that if without the intention of divorce somebody forbade himself his wife, or swore an oath that he would not have conjugal relations with her, this would be ila (temporary separation), and in this cast he would have to expiate his oath before having the sexual relation . But if wit h the intention Of divorce he said: "You are unlawful to me," it will have to be ascertained what was his actual intention. If his intention was of three divorces, the three divorces will take place, and if the intention was of a lesser number, of one or two divorces, only one divorce will take place in either case. And if some body says: "I have forbidden myself whatever was lawful for me, this would not apply to the wife unless he said these words with the intention of forbidding himself the wife. Apart from the wife, one cannot use the thing O11e has forbidden oneself until one has expiated the oath. Badai as-Sana'i: Hedayah; Fath Al-Qadir,' al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur an.
The Shafe'is say that if one forbids oneself the wife with the intention of divorce or zihar, the intended thing would become effective, whether it is a revocable divorce or an irrevocable divorce, or zihar. And if a person used the words of tahrim with the intention of both divorce and zihar, he would be asked to choose one, or the other, for both divorce and zihar cannot be established at one and the same time. Divorce dissolves marriage but in case of zihar it continues and if without any intention the wife is forbidden, she would not become forbidden, but expiation of the oath would become necessary. And if another thing, apart from the wife, is forbidden, it would be meaningless; there is no expiation for it. (Mughni al-Muhtaj).
The Malikis say that if a person forbids himself anything other than the wife, it neither becomes forbidden nor entails an expiation. But if he says to the wife, "You are unlawful, or unlawfirl for me, or I am unlawful for you," this would amount to a triple divorce in any case whether this was said to a wife with whom marriage has been consummated, or to one with whom it has not yet been consummated, unless his intention was of less than three divorces. Asbagh says: 'If a person says: whatever was lawful for me, is unlawful, the wife also becomes forbidden unless he makes an exception of the wife." In al-Mudawwanah, distinction has been made between the wife with whom marriage has been consummated and the wife with whom it has not been consummated. If one forbids oneself the former, a threefold divorce will take place irrespective of the intention, but in case of the latter the same number of divorces would take effect as was intended, and if there was no intention of any particular number, it would be considered a triple divorce (Hashiyah ad-Dusuqi). Qadi Ibn al-'Arabi in his Ahkam al-Qur'an has cited three statements of Imam Malik: (1) That forbidding oneself the wife amounts to an irrevocable divorce; (2) that it amounts to three divorces; and (3) that in case of the wife with whom marriage has been consummated it amounts to three divorces, bat in case of the one with whom it has not been consummated, to only one divorce if one was intended Then he says: 'The correct thing is that forbidding oneself the wife amounts to one divorce only. for if the man uses the word divorce instead of calling her unlawfirl without specifying the number, only one divorce will take place."
Three different views in this regard have been reported from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal: (1) That to forbid oneself the wife, or to make a lawful thing absolutely unlawful for oneself, is zihar, whether zihar was intended or not; (2) that this is an express allusion to divorce, and it amounts to pronouncing a triple divorce whether only one divorce was intended; and (3) that it is an oath, unless The man had the intention of divorce or zihar and in this case the same would take effect as was intended. Of these only the first one is the best known view among the Hanbalis. (Al-Insaf)
Desc No: 5 That is, "Allah is your Master and Guardian of your affairs. He knows best in what lies your own good, and whatever Commands He has given, they are all based on wisdom. "The first thing means: "You are not independent in this world, but you are servant of Allah and He is your Master; therefore, none of you possesses any power to alter or change the ways and methods prescribed by Him; the best thing for you is to entrust your affairs to Him and continue to obey Him. "
The second thing means that all the methods and laws that Allah has enjoined, are based on knowledge and wisdom, Whatever He has made lawful, has been made lawful on the basis of knowledge and wisdom and whatever He has made unlawful also has been made unlawful on the basis of knowledge and wisdom. Nothing has been made lawful or unlawful at random. Therefore, those who believe in Allah should understand that it is Allah Who is AII-Knowing and All-Wist and not they. and their well-being lies only in carrying out duly the Commands given by Him. "
66.3. When the Prophet confided a fact unto one of his wives and when she afterward divulged it and Allah apprised him thereof, he made known (to her) part thereof and passed over part. And when he told it her she said: Who hath told thee? He said: The Knower, the Aware hath told me. (Pickthall)
66.3. Und als der Prophet einer seiner Gattinnen eine Mitteilung vertraulich erzählte, und als sie Nachricht davon gab und Allah es ihm offenkundig machte, gab er manches davon bekannt und überging manches davon, und als er ihr Nachricht davon gab, sagte sie: "Wer hat dir über dies Nachricht gegeben?" Er sagte: Es hat mir Nachricht gegeben der Wissende, der Kundige! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.3. Als der Prophet einer seiner Gattinnen eine Mitteilung im geheimen anvertraute. Als sie sie dann kundtat und Allah es ihm offen darlegte, gab er (ihr) einen Teil davon bekannt und überging einen (anderen) Teil. Als er es ihr nun kundtat, sagte sie: "Wer hat dir das mitgeteilt?" Er sagte: "Kundgetan hat (es) mir der Allwissende und Allkundige." (Bubenheim)
66.3. Als der Prophet einer seiner Frauen etwas anvertraute, sie es dann einer anderen Frau des Propheten weitererzählte und Gott es ihm mitteilte, ließ er sie einen Teil davon wissen und verschwieg einen Teil. Als der Prophet es ihr mitteilte, sagte sie: "Wer hat dir das mitgeteilt?" Er sagte: "Der Allwissende, der Allkundige hat es mich wissen lassen." (Azhar)
66.3. Und (erinnere daran), als der Prophet einigen seiner Ehefrauen einen Bericht als Geheimnis anvertraute, dann sie ihn (anderen) mitteilte und ALLAH ihn darüber in Kenntnis setzte, machte er einiges davon bekannt und unterließ einiges. Und als er ihr davon Mitteilung machte, sagte sie: „Wer teilte dir dies mit?“ Er sagte: „Mir machte Mitteilung Der Allwissende, Der Allkundige.“ (Zaidan)
66.3. Und (damals) als der Prophet einer seiner Gattinnen etwas unter dem Siegel der Verschwiegenheit anvertraute. Als sie es dann (trotzdem einer anderen) mitteilte und Allah ihn darüber aufklärte, gab er es teils bekannt, teils ließ er es auf sich beruhen. Und als er es dann ihr (selber) mitteilte, sagte sie: "Wer hat dir das kundgetan?" Er sagte: "Er, der Bescheid weiß und (über alles) wohl unterrichtet ist". (Paret)
66.3. Und als der Prophet sich zu einer seiner Frauen im Vertrauen geäußert hatte und sie es dann kundtat und Allah ihm davon Kenntnis gab, da ließ er (sie) einen Teil davon wissen und verschwieg einen Teil. Und als er es ihr vorhielt, da sagte sie: "Wer hat dich davon unterrichtet?" Er sagte: "Unterrichtet hat mich der Allwissende, der Allkundige." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 3 bis 3
(And this also is note-worthy that) the Prophet had confided a matter to a wife in secret. Then, when she disclosed the secret (to another), and Allah informed the Prophet (of the disclosure of the secret), the Prophet made known (to the wife) part of it and overlooked part of it. So when the Prophet told her (of the disclosure), she asked, "Who informed you of this?" The Prophet said, "I was informed by Him Who knows everything and is All-Aware. " ( 6 )
Desc No: 6 Different things have been reported in different traditions, saying that the Holy Prophet had told such and such a thing to one of his wivcs in confidence, which she disclosed to another wife. But for us, in the first place, it is not right to investigate it, for it is on the disclosure of a secret that Allah is taking a wife to task it cannot therefore be right for us to enquire into it and try to uncover it. Secondly, in view of the object for which this verse wa: sent down, it is not at all important to know what the secret was. Had it any connection with the object of the discourse, Allah would Himself have mentioned it The real object for which this incident has been related in the Qur'iin is to warn the Holy Prophet's wives and. through them, the wives of the responsible people among the Muslims not to be careless in the matter of guarding secrets. Had it been only a private and personal affair, as is generally the case between the husband and the wife in the world there was no need that Allah should have directly informed the Holy Prophet of it through revelation, and then did not rest content only with giving the information, but should also have recorded it in the Holy Book which the whole world has to recite forever. The reason why it was given such importance was that this wifc was not the wifc of an ordinary husband but of that illustrious husband, whom Allah had appointed to the office of the highest responsibility, who was locked in an incessant battle with the disbelievers, polytheists and hypocrites at all times and under whose leadership a fierce conflict was going on for establishing Islam in place of paganism. In the house of such an illustrious man there could be countless things which if not kept secret but disclosed before time, could harm the great mission which he was performing. Therefore, when a lady of the house happened to show this weakness for the first time in that she disclosed a secret that had been told her in confidence, to another (a member of her own household), the weakness was immediately pointed out to her, not secretly but openly in the Qur'an, so as to impart training in the guarding of secrets not only to the wivcs of the Holy Prophet but also to the wives of all responsible people of the Muslim community. In the verse the question whether the secret disclosed pertained to a matter of any consequence or not, and whether its disclosure could cause any Iran+ to the mission or not, has been altogether ignored. What has been disapproved and pointed out in particular is that the secret was disclosed to another. The higher the position of responsibility a person holds the more dangerous would be the leakage of secrets from his house. No matter whether a thing is of any consequence or not, once a person becomes careless in the matter of guarding secrets, he may reveal important things as well as trivial matters.
66.4. In tatuuba ila Allahifaqad saghat quluubukuma wa-in tadhaharaAAalayhi fa-inna Allaha huwa mawlahu wadschibriilu wasalihualmu/miniina waalmala-ikatu baAAda dhalika dhahiirun
66.4. If ye twain turn unto Allah repentant, (ye have cause to do so) for your hearts desired (the ban); and if ye aid one another against him (Muhammad) then lo! Allah, even He, is his protecting Friend, and Gabriel and the righteous among the believers; and furthermore the angels are his helpers. (Pickthall)
66.4. Wenn ihr beide reuig zu Allah umkehrt, - und es waren schon eure beiden Herzen hingeneigt, und wenn ihr einander unterstützt gegen ihn, so ist ja Allah, Er, sein Schutzherr, und Dschibril und die Rechtschaffenen der Gläubigen, und die Engel hiernach sind Unterstützen (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.4. Wenn ihr beide euch in Reue zu Allah umkehrt - so werden eure Herzen sich ja (der Aufrichtigkeit) zuneigen - ... Und wenn ihr einander gegen ihn beisteht, so ist Allah sein Schutzherr; und Gibril, die Rechtschaffenen von den Gläubigen, und die Engel werden darüber hinaus (ihm) Beistand sein. (Bubenheim)
66.4. Ihr sollt euch beide (Ehefrauen des Propheten) reumütig zu Gott wenden, weil eure Herzen abgewichen sind. Wenn ihr euch aber gegen ihn zusammenschließt, so steht Gott, sein Gebieter, ihm bei, desgleichen Gabriel und die rechtschaffenen Gläubigen. Auch die Engel werden ihm dann Beistand leisten. (Azhar)
66.4. Wenn ihr beide ALLAH gegenüber bereut, so wichen eure Herzen ab. Und wenn ihr euch gegen ihn verbindet, so ist ALLAH sein Maula, sowie Dschibril und die guten der Mumin, und die Engel sind danach einander folgend. (Zaidan)
66.4. Wenn ihr beiden (Frauen) euch (reumütig) Allah wieder zuwendet (tut ihr gut daran). Euer Herz ist ja (vom rechten Wege) abgewichen. Wenn ihr jedoch gegen den Propheten zusammensteht (und glaubt, euren Willen durchsetzen zu können, werdet ihr nicht zum Ziel kommen). Allah ist ja sein Schutzherr (maulaa). Und Gabriel, die Gläubigen (alle), soweit sie rechtschaffen sind (saalihu l-mu'miniena), und überdies (? ba`da zaalika) die Engel werden (ihm) Helfer sein. (Paret)
66.4. Wenn ihr beide (Frauen des Propheten) euch Allah reumütig zuwendet, so sind eure Herzen bereits (dazu) geneigt. Doch wenn ihr euch gegenseitig gegen ihn unterstützt, wahrlich, dann ist Allah sein Beschützer; und Gabriel und die Rechtschaffenen unter den Gläubigen (sind ebenso seine Beschützer); und außerdem sind die Engel (seine) Helfer. (Rasul)
66.5. It may happen that his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him in your stead wives better than you, submissive (to Allah), believing, pious, penitent, inclined to fasting, widows and maids. (Pickthall)
66.5. Es kann sein, daß sein Herr, wenn er sich von euch scheidet, ihm bessere Gattinnen eintauscht als euch, frieden machend ergebene, gläubige, gehorsame, reuig umkehrende, gottdienende, verzichtende, schon verheiratet gewesene und Jungfrauen. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.5. Vielleicht wird sein Herr ihm, wenn er sich von euch (allen) scheidet, zum Tausch (andere) Gattinnen geben, (die) besser (sind) als ihr: muslimische, gläubige, demütig ergebene, in Reue umkehrende, (Allah) dienende und umherziehende, früher verheiratete oder Jungfrauen. (Bubenheim)
66.5. Vielleicht wird Gott ihm, wenn er sich von euch scheiden lässt, an eurer Stelle bessere Ehefrauen geben, die sich Gott ergeben, innig an Ihn glauben, Ihm unterwürfig sind, reumütig zu Ihm finden, Ihm dienen und Ihn auf verschiedene Weise andächtig anbeten, Frauen, die bereits verheiratet waren und andere, die Jungfrauen sind. (Azhar)
66.5. Vielleicht tauscht ihm sein HERR, wenn er euch gegenüber Talaq-Scheidung vollzieht, andere Gattinnen ein, die besser als ihr sind, die islam-praktizierend, iman-verinnerlichend, viel betend, bereuend, ALLAH dienend, fastend/hidschra-unternehmend, nicht jungfräulich und jungfräulich sind. (Zaidan)
66.5. Wenn er euch (Frauen) entläßt, wird sein Herr ihm vielleicht Gattinnen zum Tausch geben, die besser sind als ihr: Frauen, die den Islam angenommen haben (muslimaat), die gläubig sind, (Allah) demütig ergeben (qaanitaat), bußfertig, fromm, fastend, solche, die schon verheiratet waren (thaiyibaat) oder noch Jungfrauen sind. (Paret)
66.5. Vielleicht wird sein Herr ihm, wenn er sich von euch scheidet, an eurer Stelle bessere Frauen als euch geben, muslimische, gläubige, gehorsame, reuige, fromme, fastende (Frauen), Thaiyibat und Jungfrauen. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 4 bis 5
If you both (women) repent to Allah, (it is better for you), for your hearts have swerved from the right path ( 7 ) and if you supported each other against the Prophet, ( 8 ) you should know that Allah is his Protector, and after Him Gabriel and the righteous believers and the angels are his companions and helpers. ( 9 ) It may well be that if the Prophet divorces all of you, Allah will give him in your place better wives, ( 10 ) who are true Muslims, who are believing ( 11 ) and obedient, ( 12 ) penitent, ( 13 ) worshipping' ( 14 ) and given to fasting,' ( 15 ) be they previously married or virgins.
Desc No: 7 The word saghat in the original is from Baghy which means to swerve and to become crooked. Shah Waliyullah and Shah Rafi'uddin have translated this sentence thus: "Crooked have become your hearts." Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas, Sufyan Thauri and Dahhak have given this meaning of it: "Your hearts have swerved from the right path." Imam Razi explains it thus: "Your hearts have swerved from what is right, and the right implies the right of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace)." And 'Allama Alusi's commentary is Although it is incumbent on you that you should approve what the Holy Messenger (upon whom he peace) approves and disapprove what he disapproves, yet in this matter your hearts have swerved from conformity with him and turned in opposition to him. "
Desc No: 8 The word tazahur means to cooperate mutually in opposition to another person, or to be united against another person. Shah Waliyullah has translated this sentence, thus: "If you mutually join together to cause distress to the Prophet. " Shah 'Abdul Qadir's translation is: "If you both overwhelm him." Maulana Ashraf 'AII Thanwi's translation urns: "And if you both continued to work thus against the Prophet. " And Maulana Shabbir Ahmad 'Uthmami has explained it thus: ,"lf you two continued to work and behave thus (against the Prophet)."
The verse is clearly addressed to two ladies and the context shows that these ladies arc from among the wives of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) for in vv. 1-5 of this Surah the affairs concerning the Holy Prophet's wives only have been discussed continuously, and this becomes obvious from the style of the Qur'an itself. .As for the question who were the wives, and what was the matter which caused Allah's displeasure, the details are found in the Hadith. In Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nasa'i, a detailled tradition of Hadrat 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas has been related, which describes the incident with sane variation in wording. Ibn 'Abbas says:
"I had been thinking a long time to ask Hadrat 'Umar as to who were the two of the Holy Prophet's wives, who had joined each other against him, and about whom Allah sent down this verse: In tatuba.....; but I could not muster courage because of his awe-inspiring personality until he left for Hajj and I accompanied him. On our way back while helping him to perform ablutions for the Prayer at one place I had an opportunity to ask him this question. He replied: they were 'A'ishah and Hafsah. Then he began to relate the background, saying: "We, the people of Quraish, were used to keeping our women folk under strict control. Then. when we came to Madinah, we found that the people here were under the control of their wives, and the women of Quraish too started learning the same thing from them. One day when I became angry with my wife, I was amazed to see that she argued with me. I felt badly about her conduct. She said, 'Why should you feel so angry at my behaviour? By God, the wives of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) answer him back face to face,' (the word in the original is li yuraji nahu) and some one of them remains angrily apart from hire for the whole day. (According to Bukhari: the Holy Prophet remains angry and- apart from her the whole day). Hearing this I came out of my house and went to Hafsah (who was Hadrat `Umar's daughter and the Holy Prophet's wife). I asked her. Do you answer back to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) face to face? She said: Yes. asked: And does one of you remain apart from him for the whole day (According to Bukhiiri: the Holy Prophet remains angry and apart from her for the entire day). She said: Yes. I said: Wretched is the one from among you, who behaves thus. Has one of you become so fearless of this that Allah should afflict her with His wrath because of the wrath of His Prophet and she should perish? So, do not be rude to the Prophet (here also the words are: la turaji-'i), nor demand of him anything, but demand of me whatever you desire. Do not be misled by this that your neighbor (i.e. Hadrat `A'ishah) is more beautiful and dearer to the Holy Prophet. After this I left her house and went to the house of Umm Salamah, who was related to me, and talked to her on this subject. She said: Son of Khattab, you are a strange man: you have meddled in every matter until you are now interfering in the affair between Allah's Messenger and his wives. She discouraged me. Then it so happened that an Ansari neighbor came to my house at night and he called out to me. We used to sit in the Holy Prophet's assembly by turns and each used to pass on to the other the news of the day of his turn. It was the time when we were apprehending an attack by the Ghassanids any time. On his call when I came out of my house, he said that something of grave significance had happened. 1 said: Have the Ghassanids launched an attack? He said: No, but something even more serious! The Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has divorced his wives. I said: Doomed is Hafsah (the words in Bukhari are: Raghima anfu Hafsah wa `Aishah). I already had a premonition of this."
We have left out what happened after this, how next morning Hadrat 'Umar went before the Holy Prophet and tried to appease his anger. We have described this incident by combining the traditions of Musnad Ahmad and Bukhari. In this the word muraj`at which Hadrat `Umar has used cannot be taken in its literal sense, but the context shows that the word has been used in the sense of answering back face to face and Hadrat `Umar's saying to his daughter: La turaji- `I Rasul Allah clearly has the meaning: Do not be impudent to the Messenger of Allah, Some people say that this is a wrong translation, and their objection is: Although it is correct to translate muraja `at as answering hack, or answering hack face to face, yet it is not correct to translate it as "bing impudent" . These objectors do not understand that if a person of a lower rank or position answers back or retorts to a person of a higher rank and position, or answers him back face to face this very thing is described as impudence. For example, if a father rebukes his son for something or feels angry at his behaviour, and the son instead of keeping quiet or offering an excuse, answers back promptly this could only he described as impudence. Then, when the matter is not between a father and a son, but between the Messenger of Allah and an individual of his community, only a foolish person could say that it was not impudence.
Some other people regard this translation of ours as disrespectful, whereas it could be disrespectful in case we had had the boldness to use such words in respect of Hadrat Hafsah from ourselves. We have only given the correct meaning of the words of .Hadrat 'Umar, and these words he had used while scolding and reproving his daughter for her error. Describing it as disrespectful would mean that either the father should treat his daughter with due respect and reverence even when scolding and rebuking her or else the translator should render his rebuke and reproof in a way as to make it sound respectful and reverent.
Here, what needs to be considered carefully is that if it was such an ordinary and trivial matter that when the Holy Prophet said something to his wives they would retort to Him, why was it given so much importance that in the Qur'an Allah administered a severe warning directly to the wives themselves? And why did Hadrat 'Umar take it as such a grave matter that first he reproved his own daughter, then visited the house of the other wives and asked them to fear the wrath of Allah? And, about all, was the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) also so sensitive that he would take offence at minor things and become annoyed with his wives, and was he, God forbid, so irritable that once having been annoyed at such things he had severed his connections with all his wives and retired to his private apartment in seclusion? If a person considers these questions deeply, he will inevitably have to adopt one of the two views in the explanation of these verses Either on account of his excessive concern for reverence for the holy wives he should not at all mind if a fault is imputed to Allah and His Messenger, or else he should admit in a straightforward way that at that time the attitude and behaviour of these holy wives has actually become so objectionable that the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) was justified in becoming annoyed over it, and more than that, Allah Himself was justified that He should administer a severe warning to the wives on their unseemly behaviour and attitude.
Desc No: 9 That is, "You would only harm yourselves if you upheld and supported each other against the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be Allah's peace), for none could succeed against him whose Protector was Allah and who had Gabriel and the angels and all the righteous Believers on his side. "
Desc No: 10 This shows that the fault did not lie only with Hadrat 'A'isha and Hadrat Hafsah but the other wives also had some share in it. That is why, after them, all the other wives too, have been warned in this verse. No light has been thrown on the nature of the error in the Qur'an. However, some details are found in the Hadith, which we shall relate below.
In Bukhari, a tradition has been reported from Hadrat Anas, saying that Hadrat 'Umar said: "The Holy Prophet's wives because of their mutual envies and rivalries had utterly displeased him. At this 1 said to them: It may well be that if the Holy Prophet divorced you, Allah would give him in your place better wives than you. " Ibn Abi Hatim has, on the authority of Hadrat Anas, reported the statement of H_ adrat Umar in these words: "I was informed that a discord had been created between the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) and his wives. At this I went to each of them and asked them to refrain from vexing the Holy Prophet; otherwise Allah would give him in their stead better wives than them selves. So much so that when I went to the last of them (and according to a tradition of Bukhari, to Umm Salamah), she said to me: O `Umar, is not the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) himself enough to admonish his wives? Then why should you come out to counsel them? This made me quiet, and after this Allah sent down this verse.'
In Muslim, Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Abbas has related that Hadrat 'Umar said to him: "When the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) separated himself from his wives, I went to the Mosque and found the people worried and upset and playing with pebbles and saying to one another: 'The Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) has divorced his wives.' After this Hadrat `Umar related his visiting the apartments of Hadrat 'A'ishah and Hafsah and admonishing them. then said: I went before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) and said: Why do you feel upset with regard to your wives? If you divorce them, Allah is with you, all the angels and Gabriel and Michael arc with you, and I and Abu Bakr and all the Believers are with you. I thank Allah that seldom has it so happened that I said a thing and did not have hope from Allah that He would testify to what I said. So, after this these verses of Surah At-Tahrim were sent down. Then I asked the Holy Prophet: Have you divorced your wives'? He said: No. Thereupon I stood at the entrance of the Mosque and announced in a loud voice: The Holy Prophet has not divorced his wives."
The traditions related in Bukhari from Hadrat Anas and in Musnad Ahmad from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin `Abbas, Hadrat 'A'ishah and Hadrat Abu Hurairah say that the Holy Prophet had pledged to remain away from his wives for a month and he retired in seclusion to his apartment. When 29 days passed, Gabriel carne and said; "You have fulfilled your oath: a month has come to completion."
Hafiz Badruddin 'Aini in 'Umdat al-Qari has related this on the authority of Hadrat 'A'ishah: The wives of the Holy Prophet had become divided into two parties. one party consisted of Hadrat 'A'ishah herself and Hadrat Hafsah. Hadrat Saudah and Hadrat Safiyyah, and the other of Hadrat Zainab, Hadrat.Umm Salamah and the rest of the wives.
These traditions indicate to some extent the conditions ,that existed in the Holy Prophet's domestic life at that time, which made it necessary that Allah Almighty should intervene and reform the attitude of the holy wives. Although the wives were the best ladies of society, yet they were human beings and were not tree from human weaknesses. Sometimes when it became difficult for them to lead a life of continous poverty and hardship, they would become restive, impatient and would start pressing the Holy Prophet for better maintenance. At this Allah sent down vv. 28-29 of Surah AI-Ahzah and admonished them to the effect: 'If you seek the world and it adotnments,.0ur Messenger will give you of these and send you of in a good way. But if you seek Allah and His Messenger and the Hereafter, you should bear up against the hardships with patience, which you might have to face when living with the Messenger." (For details, see E.N. 41 of Surah Al-Ahzab and the Introduction to it). Then on account of the feminine nature they sometimes happened to behave in a way, which though not unusual in everyday human life, did not go well with the unique dignity and great responsibilities of the house to which Allah had given them the honour to belong. So, when it was apprehended that those things might embitter the Holy Prophet's domestic life and might even adversely affect the great mission that Allah had entrusted to him, He sent down this verse in the Qur'an, and reformed them so that the holy wives may realize the responsibilities of the position and rank which they had attained as the life-companions of the Last Messenger of Allah, and should not regard themselves as.ordinary women and their household as a common household. The very first sentence of this verse was such as might have caused Their hearts to shudder. There could be no severer warning for them than ,this: `It may well be that if the Prophet divorces all of you, Allah will give him in your place better wives than yourselves." In the first place, even the thought of being divorced by the Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) was unbearable for them: more than that, this would deprive them of the honour of being Mothers of the Believers, and the other women whom Allah would give as wives to the Prophet would be better than them, After this it was no longer possible for the holy wives to behave in a way as would have occasioned a reproof from Allah. That is why we find only two places in the Qur'an where these select and distinguished ladies have been administered a warning, in Surah Al-Ahzab and here in Surah ,At-Taltrim.
Desc No: 11 In the places where the words .muslim and mu min have been used together, muslim means the one who carries out Divine commands practically, and mu min the one who believes sincerely and truly Thus, the foremost quality of the best Muslim wives is that they should be believing in Allah and His Messenger and His Religion (din) sincerely and also practically following Allah's Religion in their morals, habits, customs and conduct.
Desc No: 12 "Obedient" has two meanings and both are implied here (1) They are obedient to Allah and His Messenger: (2) they are obedient to their husbands.
Desc No: 13 The word taÆib when used as attribute of a man does not imply the one who offers repentance only once but the one who continues to implore Allah again and again for the forgiveness of his mistakes, whose conscience is alive and active, who is always a are of his weaknesses and errors and is penitent for them. Such a person never feels proud, arrogant and conceited, but is gentle and clement by nature.
Desc No: 14 A worshipper can never be so heedless of God as a non-worshipper. This also helps much in making a woman a good wife. Being devout she adheres to the bounds set by Allah, recognizes and discharges the rights of others and keeps her faith fresh and alive at all times. Because of these qualities she can better be expected that she would not reject obedience to Divine Commands.
Desc No: 15 The word sa ihat in the original has been interpreted by several companions and large number of their successors to mean the same as sa imat 1 those given to fasting). The reason why the word siyahat journeying has been used for fasting is that in the ancient times journeys were mostly undertaken by the monks and ascetics, who had no provisions and had to go without food till they got something to eat from somewhere. On that account fasting also is a kind of asceticism, for a faster has to remain hungry until the time of breaking the fast. Ibn Jarir in his Commentary of At-Taubah 12 has cited a saying of Hadrat 'A'ishah, saying: "The journeying (i.e. asceticism) of the Ummah is fasting. Here, making mention of fasting as an attribute of the pious wives dces not mean that they observe the obligatory fasting month of Ramadan only but that they observe voluntary fasts also besides the obligatory fasts.
Addressing the holy wives Allah's saying: "If the Holy Messenger divorces all of you, Allah will give him in your place better wives who will have this quality" does not mean that the wives were not virtuous, but it means; "Give up your wrong conduct which is causing so much distress to the Holy Prophet; instead, pay attention to developing in yourselves these noble qualities to the highest degree.' "
66.6. Ya ayyuha alladhiina amanuuquu anfusakum waahliikum naran waquuduha alnnasuwaalhidscharatu AAalayha mala-ikatunghiladhun schidadun la yaAAsuunaAllaha ma amarahum wayafAAaluuna mayu/maruuna
66.6. O ye who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire whereof the fuel is men and stones, over which are set angels strong, severe, who resist not Allah in that which He commandeth them, but do that which they are commanded. (Pickthall)
66.6. Ihr, die glauben, hütet euch selbst und eure Angehörigen vor einem Feuer, dessen Brennstoff die Menschen und die Steine sind, über ihm sind Engel, unnachgiebige, harte, sie widersetzen sich nicht Allah in dem, was Er ihnen befiehlt, und sie tun, was ihnen befohlen wird. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.6. O die ihr glaubt, bewahrt euch selbst und eure Angehörigen vor einem Feuer, dessen Brennstoff Menschen und Steine sind, über das hartherzige, strenge Engel (gesetzt) sind, die sich Allah nicht widersetzen in dem, was Er ihnen befiehlt, sondern tun, was ihnen befohlen wird. (Bubenheim)
66.6. O Ihr Gläubigen! Schützt euch und eure Angehörigen vor dem Höllenfeuer, dessen Brennstoff Menschen und Steine sind! Darüber herrschen harte und strenge Engel, die sich Gott nicht widersetzen, was immer Er ihnen vorschreibt und die alles ausführen, was ihnen befohlen wird. (Azhar)
66.6. Ihr, die den Iman verinnerlicht habt! Schützt euch selbst und die Eurigen vor einem Feuer, dessen Brennstoff die Menschen und die Steine sind, über ihm (dem Feuer) sind strenge, harte Engel, die sich ALLAH nicht in dem widersetzen, was ER ihnen gebot, und sie machen, was ihnen geboten wird. (Zaidan)
66.6. Ihr Gläubigen! Nehmt euch selber und eure Angehörigen vor einem Feuer in acht, dessen Brennstoff aus Menschen und Steinen besteht, und über das harte und strenge Engel gesetzt sind, die sich gegen Allah in dem, was er ihnen befohlen hat, nicht auflehnen, vielmehr tun, was ihnen befohlen wird. (Paret)
66.6. O ihr, die ihr glaubt, rettet euch und die Euren vor einem Feuer, dessen Brennstoff Menschen und Steine sind, worüber strenge, gewaltige Engel gesetzt sind, die Allah nicht ungehorsam sind in dem, was Er ihnen befiehlt, und die alles vollbringen, was ihnen befohlen wird. (Rasul)
66.7. Ya ayyuha alladhiinakafaruu la taAAtadhiruu alyawma innamatudschzawna ma kuntum taAAmaluuna
66.7. (Then it will be said): O ye who disbelieve! Make no excuses for yourselves this day. Ye are only being paid for what ye used to do. (Pickthall)
66.7. Ihr, die den Glauben verweigert haben, entschuldigt euch heute nicht, es wird euch vergolten, was ihr immer getan habt. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.7. O die ihr ungläubig seid, entschuldigt euch heute nicht. Euch wird nur das vergolten, was ihr zu tun pflegtet. (Bubenheim)
66.7. O ihr Ungläubigen! Ihr dürft euch heute nicht entschuldigen. Euch werden die Taten vergolten, die ihr begangen habt. (Azhar)
66.7. Ihr, die Kufr betrieben habt! Entschuldigt euch heute nicht! Euch wird doch nur vergolten, was ihr zu tun pflegtet. (Zaidan)
66.7. (Zu den Ungläubigen wird dereinst gesagt:) "Ihr Ungläubigen! Ihr braucht heute keine Entschuldigungen vorzubringen. Euch wird nur (für) das vergolten, was ihr (in eurem Erdenleben) getan habt." (Paret)
66.7. O ihr die ihr ungläubig seid, bringt heute keine Entschuldigung vor. Ihr werdet nur für das belohnt, was ihr zu tun pflegtet. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 6 bis 7
O you who have believed, save yourselves and your households from a Fire whose fuel shall be the men and the stones, ( 16 ) over which shall be appointed fierce and stern angels, who never disobey Allah's Command and do as they are commanded. ( 17 ) (At that time it will be said:) "O disbelievers, do not make excuses today. You are being recompensed only for what you were doing." ( 18 )
Desc No: 16 Thts verse tells that a person's responsibility is not confined to making effort to save himself from the punishment of God but it is also his responsibility that he should so educate and train to the best of his ability members of his family also to become Allah's favourite servants, who have been entrusted to his care in the natural process of life; and if they might be following a path to Hell, he should try. as far as he can, to correct them. His concern should not only be that his children should lead a happy and prosperous life in the world but; more than that, he should be anxious to see that they do not become fuel of Hell in the Hereafter. According to a tradition reported in Bukhiiri by Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Umar, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said: "Each one of you is a herdsman and is accountable with regard to his herd: the ruler is a herdsman and is accountable with regard to his subjects; the man is a herdsman of his family and is accountable with regard to them; and the woman is a herdsman of her husband's house and his children and is accountable with regard to them."
Whose fuel...stone" probably implies coal. Ibn Mas' ud, Ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Suddi say that this will be brimstone.
Desc No: 17 That is, they will enforce on every culprit precisely the same punishment which they will be commanded to enforce on him without making any alteration in it, or showing any pity for him.
Desc No: 18 The style of both these verses contains a severe warning for the Muslims. In the first verse the Muslims have been addressed and told that they should save themselves and their households from the dreadful punishment; in the second that this will be said to the disbelievers while subjecting them to punishment in Hell. This by itself gives the meaning that the Muslims in the world should avoid adopting that conduct and behaviour in consequence of which they may have to meet with the fate as the disbelievers in the Hereafter:
66.8. Ya ayyuha alladhiina amanuutuubuu ila Allahi tawbatan nasuuhanAAasa rabbukum an yukaffira AAankum sayyi-atikumwayudkhilakum dschannatin tadschrii min tahtihaal-anharu yawma la yukhzii Allahu alnnabiyyawaalladhiina amanuu maAAahu nuuruhum yasAAabayna aydiihim wabi-aymanihim yaquuluuna rabbanaatmim lana nuurana waighfir lanainnaka AAala kulli schay-in qadiirun
66.8. O ye who believe! Turn unto Allah in sincere repentance! It may be that your Lord will remit from you your evil deeds and bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, on the day when Allah will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with him. Their light will run before them and on their right hands: they will say: Our Lord! Perfect our light for us, and forgive us! Lo! Thou art Able to do all things. (Pickthall)
66.8. Ihr, die geglaubt haben, kehrt reuig um zu Allah in aufrichtiger reuiger Umkehr, es kann sein, daß euer Herr eure Schlechtigkeiten von euch nimmt, und Er euch hineingehen läßt in Gärten, unter denen Gewässer fließen, am Tag, an dem Allah den Propheten nicht verächtlich macht und diejenigen, die geglaubt haben zusammen mit ihm, ihr Licht läuft vor ihnen her und zu ihrer Rechten, sie sagen: "Unser Herr, mache uns unser Licht vollkommen und verzeihe uns, Du bist ja zu allem imstande." (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.8. O die ihr glaubt, kehrt zu Allah um in aufrichtiger Reue; vielleicht wird euer Herr euch eure bösen Taten tilgen und euch in Gärten eingehen lassen, durcheilt von Bächen, am Tag, da Allah den Propheten und diejenigen, die mit ihm geglaubt haben, nicht in Schande stürzen wird. Ihr Licht eilt ihnen voraus und (ebenso) zu ihrer Rechten. Sie werden sagen: "Unser Herr, vollende für uns unser Licht und vergib uns. Gewiß, Du hast zu allem die Macht." (Bubenheim)
66.8. O ihr Gläubigen! Kehrt mit aufrichtiger Reue zu Gott zurück! Möge euer Herr eure ?beltaten tilgen und euch in Paradiesgärten bringen, unterhalb derer Flüsse fließen. An dem Tag wird Gott weder den Propheten noch die Gläubigen, die mit ihm sind, beschämen. Ihr Licht wird ihnen vorausgehen und zu ihrer Rechten sein, und sie werden sagen: "Unser Herr! Vollende unser Licht und vergib uns! Deine Allmacht umfasst alles." (Azhar)
66.8. Ihr, die den Iman verinnerlicht habt! Bereut ALLAH gegenüber mit einer aufrichtigen Reue. Vielleicht wird euer HERR euch eure gottmißfälligen Taten tilgen und euch in Dschannat eintreten lassen, die von Flüssen durchflossen sind, an dem Tag, wenn ALLAH den Propheten und diejenigen, die mit ihm den Iman verinnerlichten, nicht erniedrigt. Ihr Licht läuft vor ihnen und an ihrer Rechten, sie sagen: „Unser HERR! Mache uns unser Licht vollständig und vergib uns! DU bist über alles allmächtig.“ (Zaidan)
66.8. Ihr Gläubigen! Wendet euch in aufrichtiger Buße (taubatan, nasuuhan) wieder Allah zu! Vielleicht wird euer Herr euch (dann) eure schlechten Taten tilgen und euch in Gärten eingehen lassen, in deren Niederungen Bäche fließen. Am Tag, da Allah den Propheten und diejenigen, die mit ihm gläubig waren, nicht wird zuschanden werden lassen! Ihr Licht eilt dann vor ihnen und in ihrer Rechten (in Richtung auf das Paradies) dahin, und sie sagen: "Herr! Laß uns unser Licht in seiner ganzen Helligkeit erstrahlen und vergib uns! Du hast zu allem die Macht." (Paret)
66.8. O ihr, die ihr glaubt, wendet euch in aufrichtiger Reue zu Allah. Vielleicht wird euer Herr eure Übel von euch nehmen und euch in Gärten führen, durch die Bäche fließen; am Tage, da Allah den Propheten nicht zuschanden macht, noch jene, die mit ihm glauben. Ihr Licht wird vor ihnen hereilen und auf ihrer Rechten (sein). Sie werden sagen: "Unser Herr, mache unser Licht für uns vollkommen und vergib uns; denn Du hast Macht über alle Dinge." (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 8 bis 8
O you who have believed, turn to Allah in sincere repentance. ( 19 ) (It may well be that) Allah will remove your evils from you and admit you into Gardens underneath which rivers will be flowing. ( 20 ) It will be a Day when Allah will not humiliate His Prophet and those who have believed with him. ( 21 ) Their light shall be running on before them and on their right hands, and they will be saying, "O our Lord, perfect our light for us and forgive us: You have power over all. " ( 22 ) O Prophet, wage Jihad against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern with them. ( 23 ) Their abode is Hell, and an evil abode it is!
Desc No: 19 Literally, "taubat an-nasuh-an "may either mean that one should offer such true repentance as may have no tinge of pretence and hypocrisy in it, or that one should wish one's own self well and repenting of sin should save oneself from the evil end, or that one should so adorn and improve one's life after repentance as to become a cause of admonition for others, and seeing his example others also may reform themselves accordingly. These are the meanings of taubat an-nasuh which- are indicated by its literal sense. As for its religious meaning, its explanation is found in the Hadith which Ibn Abi, Hatim has related on the authority of Zirr bin Hubaish. He says: "When I asked Hadrat Ubayy bin Ka'b the meaning of taubat an-nasuh, he said that he had asked the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) the same question, and he had replied: 'It implies that when you happen to commit an error, you should feel penitent for it, then should implore Allah for forgiveness remorsefully, and then should refrain from committing the same error again." This same meaning has been reported from hadrat 'Umar. Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud and Hadrat 'Abdullah bin `Abbas also, and in a tradition Hadrat 'Umar has defined taubat an-nasuh, thus: ¦After offering repentance one should not even think of committing the sin, not to speak of repeating it." (Ibn Jarir) Hadrat 'Ali once heard a desert Arab chanting the words of repentance and forgiveness quickly and mechanically and remarked: `This is the repentance of the liars." The man asked: 'What is true repentance? Hadrat 'AIi replied: It should be accompanied by six things:
(1) You should feel penitent for the wrong you have done: (2) you should carry out the duties that you havc ignored; t3) restore the rights that you have usurped; (4) ask forgiveness of him whom you have wronged; (S) make a resolve not to repeat the sin again; and (6) consume yourself in obedience to Allah as you have so far been consuming it in wrongdoing, and cause it to taste the bitterness of obedience as you havc so far been causing it to enjoy the sweet taste of disobedience and sin. " (Al-Kashshaf)
In connection with repentance there are some other points also which should be well understood: (I) That repentance, in fact, is to show remorse for an act of disobedience only because it is a disobedience of Allah; otherwise to make a resolve to refrain from a sin because it is harmful for health, for instance, or it is likely to cause defamation or financial loss, is no repentance; (2) that man should offer repentance as soon as he realizes that he has committed disobedience of Allah and should compensate for it without delay in whatever form possible and should not defer it in any way; (3) that violating one's repentance again and making a jest of repentance and repeating the sin again and again of which one has repented, is a proof of the falsity of one's repentance, for the essence of repentance, is penitence, and breaking one's repentance repeatedly is a sign that it has not been motivated by penitence; (4) that if the person who has repented sincerely and resolved not to repeat the sin again, happens to repeat it once again because of human weakness, it will not revive his past sin: however, he should offer a fresh repentance for the latter sin sod should resolve more firmly that he would not commit the sin in future; (5) that it is not necessary to renew one's repentance again everytime one remembers the disobedience committed in the past, but if one's self derives pleasure from the remembrance of the past, sinful life, one should offer repentance again and again until the remembrance of the sins causes remorse instead of pleasure and enjoyment. For the person who has actually repented of disobedience because of fear of God cannot derive pleasure from the thought chat he has been disobeying God. His deriving pleasure from it is a sign that fear of God has not taken root in his heart.
Desc No: 20 The words of the verse deserve deep consideration. It has not been said chat if you repeat, you will surely be forgiven and will certainly be admitted to Paradise, but that: "If you offer true repentance, it may well be that Allah will treat you kindly." It means that it is not incumbent upon Allah to accept the repentance of the sinner and to grant him Paradise instead of subjecting him to punishment but it will be His kindness and compassion that He may forgive well as reward His servant. One should have hope of Hit forgiveness, but one should not commit a sin with the confidence that one will achieve forgiveness by repentance.
Desc No: 21 That is, `He will not allow the reward of their good deeds to go to waste. He will not let the disbelievers and the hypocrites taunt the believers that they had gained nothing n spite of their worship. Humilitation will be the fate of the rebels and the disobedient and not of the faithful and obedient."
Desc No: 22 When this verse is read along with w. 12-13 of Surah AI-Hadid, it becomes clear that the running on of the light before the believers will take place when they will be proceeding towards Paradise from the Plain of Resurrection. There it will be pitch dark all around and those who will have been condenmed to Hell, will be groping; about in it; the light will only be with the believers by which they will be travelling on their way. On this critical occasion, hearing the wailings and groanings of those groping in the dark the believers will be feeling terrorstricken- In view of their past errors and short-comings they will be afraid lest they too should be deprived of their light and made to grope about like those-wretched people. Therefore, they will pray: "O our Lord, forgive us our sins and Iet our light remain with us until we reach Paradise." Ibn Jarir has cited Hadrat Abdullah bin 'Abbas as explaining the meaning of Rabbana-atimim lava nurana thus They will implore Allah AI-mighty that their light be allowed to remain with thetas and kept from going out until they have crossed the bridge across Hell." The commentary given by Hadrat Hasan Basri, Mujahid and Dahhak also is almost the same. Ibn Kathir has cited their this saying: ¦When the believers see that the hypocrites have been deprived of the light, they will pray to Allah for the perfection of their light." (For further explanation, see E.N. 17 of Surah Al Hadid).
Desc No: 23 For explanation, see E. N . , 82 of Surah At-Taubah. "
66.9. O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern with them. Hell will be their home, a hapless journey ' s end. (Pickthall)
66.9. Du, der Prophet, setze dich ganz ein gegen die Glaubensverweigerer und die Heuchler, und sei unnachgiebig gegen sie, und ihre Bleibe ist die Hölle, und ganz elend ist das endgültige Sein. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.9. O Prophet, mühe dich gegen die Ungläubigen und die Heuchler ab und sei hart gegen sie. Ihr Zufluchtsort wird die Hölle sein - ein schlimmer Ausgang! (Bubenheim)
66.9. O Prophet! Bekämpfe die Ungläubigen und die Heuchler, und sei streng gegen sie! Die Hölle ist ihre endgültige Wohnstätte. Welch schlimmes Ende! (Azhar)
66.9. Prophet! Leiste Dschihad gegen die Kafir und die Munafiq und sei streng mit ihnen! Und ihre Unterkunft ist Dschahannam. Und erbärmlich ist das Werden. (Zaidan)
66.9. Prophet! Führe Krieg gegen die Ungläubigen und die Heuchler (munaafiqien) und sei hart gegen sie! Die Hölle wird sie (dereinst) aufnehmen - ein schlimmes Ende! (Paret)
66.9. O Prophet! Bekämpfe die Ungläubigen und die Heuchler, und sei streng gegen sie. Ihre Herberge wird Dschahannam sein, und dies ist ein schlimmes Ende! (Rasul)
66.10. Allah citeth an example for those who disbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot, who were under two of our righteous slaves yet betrayed them so that they (the husbands availed them naught against Allah and it was said (unto them): Enter the Fire along with those who enter. (Pickthall)
66.10. Allah prägt ein Gleichnis für diejenigen, die den Glauben verweigert haben: Die Frau des Nuh und die Frau des Lut, sie beide waren unter zwei Knechten von Unseren rechtschaffenen Knechten, und sie beide waren treulos, und es nützten ihnen beiden beide nichts gegenüber Allah, und es wurde gesagt: Geht beide in das Feuer hinein, mit den Hineingehenden! (Ahmad v. Denffer)
66.10. Allah hat als Gleichnis für diejenigen, die ungläubig sind, dasjenige von Nuhs Frau und Luts Frau geprägt. Sie beide unterstanden zwei rechtschaffenen (Dienern) von Unseren Dienern, doch handelten sie verräterisch an ihnen, und so haben ihnen diese vor Allah nichts genützt. Und es wurde gesagt: "Geht beide ins (Höllen)feuer ein mit denjenigen, die hineingehen." (Bubenheim)
66.10. Gott führt als Gleichnis der Ungläubigen die Frau von Noah und die Frau von Lot an. Beide unterstanden im Ehebund zwei rechtschaffenen Dienern, die sie aber betrogen. Diese konnten ihnen gegen Gottes Strafe nicht helfen, und ihnen wurde gesagt: "Tretet in die Hölle ein mit den anderen Eintretenden!" (Azhar)
66.10. ALLAH prägte ein Gleichnis für diejenigen, die Kufr betrieben haben, die Ehefrau von Nuh und die Ehefrau von Lut. Beide waren bei zwei Dienern von Unseren Dienern, die gottgefällig Guttuende waren, dann begingen beide (Frauen) Verrat gegen sie, dann nutzten beide ihnen (ihren Ehefrauen) nichts vor ALLAH. Und es wurde gesagt: „Tretet ins Feuer mit den Eintretenden ein!“ (Zaidan)
66.10. Allah hat in Noahs und in Lots Frau ein Beispiel für die Ungläubigen aufgestellt. Beide unterstanden (als Gattinnen) zwei rechtschaffenen Dienern von uns. Aber sie handelten treulos gegen sie. Da halfen diese ihnen (bei der Abrechnung) vor Allah nichts. Es würde vielmehr (zu ihnen) gesagt: "Geht mit den anderen (Verdammten) in das Höllenfeuer ein!" (Paret)
66.10. Allah legt denen, die ungläubig sind, das Beispiel von Noahs Frau und von Lots Frau vor: Diese zwei waren unter zwei Unserer rechtschaffenen Diener, doch sie handelten untreu an ihnen. Darum nützten sie ihnen nichts gegen Allah, und es wurde gesprochen: "Geht ihr beide ins Feuer ein, zusammen mit denen, die (darin) eingehen!" (Rasul)