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31.14. Und Wir haben dem Menschen seine Eltern anbefohlen - seine Mutter hat ihn unter wiederholter Schwäche getragen, und seine Entwöhnung (erfolgt) innerhalb von zwei Jahren -: "Sei Mir und deinen Eltern dankbar. Zu Mir ist der Ausgang."
80.32. Provision for you and your cattle. (Pickthall)
80.32. Als Nutznießung für euch und euer Vieh, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
80.32. als Nießbrauch für euch und für euer Vieh. (Bubenheim)
80.32. zu eurem Nutzen und für euer Vieh. (Azhar)
80.32. als Verbrauchsgut für euch und eure An'am . (Zaidan)
80.32. (dies alles) euch und eurem Vieh zu Nutz (und Frommen). (Paret)
80.32. als Versorgung für euch und euer Vieh. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 17 bis 32
Cursed ( 8 ) be man! ( 9 ) What a perverse disbeliever he is! ( 10 ) Out of what has Allah created him? Out of a spermdrop. ( 11 ) Allah created him, then set him his destiny, ( 12 ) then made the way of life easy for him ( 13 ) then caused him to die, and brought. him to the grave. ( 14 ) Then whenever He wills, He .will raise him up again to life ( 15 ) Nay, but he has not fulfilled the duty that Allah-had assigned to him ( 16 ) Then let man look at his food. ( 17 ) We poured down water in abundance, ( 18 ) then cleft the' earth asunder, ( 19 ) then caused to grow in it corns and grapes and Vegetables and olives and dates and lush gardens and fruits of every kind and fodder as a means of sustenance for you and your cattle. ( 20 )
Desc No: 8 From here the rebuke turns directly against the disbelievers, who were treating the message of the Truth with scant attention. Before this, from the beginning of the Surah to verse 16, the address though apparently directed to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), was actually meant to reprimand the disbelievers, as if to say: "O Prophet, why are you ignoring a seeker after truth and paying all your attention to those who are worthless from your mission's point of view? they do not deserve that a great Prophet like you should present a sublime thing like the Qur'an before them."
Desc No: 9 At all such places in the Qur'an, "man" does not imply every individual of the human race but the people whose evil traits of character are intended to be censured. At some places the word "tnan" is used because the evil traits are found in most of human beings, and at others for the reason that if the particular people are pin-pointed for censure, it engenders stubbornness. Therefore, admonition is given in general terms so as to be more effective. (For further explanation, see E.N. 65 of Ha Mim As-Sajdah, E.N. 75 of Ash-Shura).
Desc No: 10 Another meaning also can be: "What caused him to be inclined to kufr?" Or, in other words: "On what strength dces he commit kufr?' Kufr?" hen means denial of the Truth as well as ingratitude for the favours of one's benefactor and also rebellious attitude against one's Creator, Providence and Master.
Desc No: 11 That is, let him first consider out of what he was created, where he was nourished and developed, by what way he came into the world, and from what helpless state he began his life in the world. Why dces he forget his such beginning and becomes involved in conceit and haughtiness and why does he feel so puffed up as to resist his Creator and stand before Him as an adversary? (The same theme has been expressed in Ya Sin 77-78 above).
Desc No: 12 That is, he was yet developing and taking shape in his mother's womb when his destiny was set for him. It was determined what would be his sex, his colour, his size; the extent and volume of his body, the extent to which his limbs would be sound or unsound, his appearance and voice, the degree of Physical strength and mental endowments, what would be the land, the family, the conditions and environments in which he would take birth, develop and be moulded into a specific person, what would be the hereditary influences and effects of the surroundings and the role and impact of his own self in the make-up of his personality, the part he would play in his life of the world, and how long he would be allowed to function on the earth. He cannot swerve even a hair-breadth from his destiny, nor can effect the slightest alteration in it. Then, how strange is his daring and stubbornness! He commits disbelief of the Creator before Whose destiny he is so helpless and powerless!
Desc No: 13 That is, He created all those means and provisions in the world, which he could utilize, otherwise all the capabilities of his body and mind would have remained useless, had not the Creator provided the. means and created the possibilities on the earth to employ them. Furthermore, the Creator also gave him the opportunity to choose and adopt for himself whichever of the ways, good or evil, of gratitude or ingratitude, of obedience or disobedience, that he pleased. He opened up both the ways before him and made each way smooth and easy so that he could follow any way that he liked.
Desc No: 14 That is, not only in the matter of birth and destiny but in the matter of death also he is absolutely helpless before his Creator. Neither he can take birth by his choice nor die by his choice, nor can defer his death even by a moment. He dies precisely at the appointed time, in the appointed place, under the appointed circumstances that have been decreed for his death, and he is deposited in the type of grave destined for him whether it is the belly of the earth, the depths of the sea, a bonfire. or the stomach of a beast. Nothing to say of the man, even the whole world together cannot change the Creator's decree in respect of any person.
Desc No: 15 That is, he does not either have the power to refuse to rise up when the Creator may will to resurrect him after death. When he was first created, he was not consulted: he was not asked whether he wanted to be created or not. Even if he had refused, he would have been created. Likewise, his resurrection also is not dependent upon his will and assent that he may rise from death if he so likes, or refuse to rise if he does not like. In this matter also he is absolutely helpless before the Creator's will. Whenever He wills He will resurrect him, and he will have to rise whether he likes it or not.
Desc No: 16 "Duty" implies the duty that Allah has enjoined on every man in the form of natural guidance as well as the duty to which man's own existence and every particle of the universe, from the earth to the heavens, and every manifestation of Divine power are pointing, and that duty also which Allah has conveyed in every age through His Prophets and Books and disseminated through the righteous people of every period. (For explanation, see E.N. 5 of Surah Ad- Dahr). In the present context the object is to express the meaning that on the basis of the truths stated in the above verses, it was man's duty to have obeyed his Creator, but, contrary to this, he adopted the way of disobedience and did not fulfil the demand of his being His creature.
Desc No: 17 That is, let him consider the food, which he regards as an ordinary thing, how it is created. Had God not provided the means for it, it was not in the power of man himself to have created the food on the earth in any way.
Desc No: 18 This refers to rainwater: water vapours are raised in vast quantities from the oceans by the heat of the sun: then they are turned into thick clouds; then the winds blow and spread them over different parts of the earth; then because of the coolness in the upper atmosphere the vapours turn back to water and fall as rain in every area in a particular measure. The water not only falls as rain directly on the earth but also collects underground in the shape of wells and fountains, flows in the form of rivers and streams, freezes on the mountains as snow and melts and flows into rivers in other seasons as well than the rainy season. Has man himself made all these arrangements? Had his Creator not arranged this for his sustenance, could man survive on the earth ?
Desc No: 19 "Cleaving the earth asunder" implies cleaving it in a way that the seeds, or seed-stones, or vegetable seedlings that man sows or plants in it, or which are deposited in it by winds or birds, or by some other means, should sprout up. Man can do nothing more than to dig the soil, or plough it, and bury in it the seeds that God has already created. Beyond this everything is done by God. It is He Who has created the seeds of countless species of vegetable; it is He Who has endowed these seeds with the quality that when they are sown in the soil, they should sprout up and from every seed vegetable of its own particular species should grow. Again it is He Who has created in the earth the capability that in combination with water it should break open the seeds and develop and nourish every species of vegetable with the kind of food suitable for it. Had God not created the seeds with these qualities and the upper layers of the earth with these capabilities, man could not by himself have arranged any kind of food on the earth.
Desc No: 20 That is, "A means of sustenance not only for you but also for those animals from which you obtain items of food like meat, fat, milk, butter, etc. and which perform countless other services also for your living. You benefit by all this and yet you disbelieve in God Whose provisions sustain you." "