33.37. And when thou saidst unto him on whom Allah hath conferred favor and thou hast conferred favor: Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear Allah. And thou didst hide in thy mind that which Allah was to bring to light, and thou didst fear mankind whereas Allah had a better right that thou shouldst fear Him. So when Zeyd had performed the necessary formality (of divorce) from her, We gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The commandment of Allah must be fulfilled. (Pickthall)
33.37. Und als du zu dem gesagt hast, dem Allah wohltätig gewesen ist, und dem du wohltätig warst: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah!", und du hast in deiner Seele geheimgehalten, was Allah sichtbar machte, und du hast die Menschen gefürchtet, - und Allah hat mehr Recht, daß du Ihn fürchtest, -und als Zaid mit ihr das Gebotene abgeschlossen hatte, haben Wir dich sie heiraten lassen, so daß es für die Gläubigen keine Bedrängnis gibt wegen den Gattinnen ihrer Söhne Gerufenen, wenn sie mit ihnen das Gebotene abgeschlossen haben, und der Befehl Allahs wird ausgeführt (Ahmad v. Denffer)
33.37. Und als du zu demjenigen sagtest, dem Allah Gunst erwiesen hatte und dem auch du Gunst erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah", und in deinem Inneren verborgen hieltest, was Allah doch offenlegen wird, und die Menschen fürchtetest, während Allah ein größeres Anrecht darauf hat, daß du Ihn fürchtest. Als dann Zaid keinen Wunsch mehr an ihr hatte, gaben Wir sie dir zur Gattin, damit für die Gläubigen kein Grund zur Bedrängnis bestehe hinsichtlich der Gattinnen ihrer angenommenen Söhne, wenn diese keinen Wunsch mehr an ihnen haben. Und Allahs Anordnung wird (stets) ausgeführt. (Bubenheim)
33.37. Du sagtest dem Mann, dem Gott Gnade erwiesen hatte und dem auch du Gunst erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Frau und sei gottesfürchtig!" Du hältst etwas geheim, was Gott kundgibt. Du fürchtest die Menschen und ihr Gerede. Gott ist es, Den du eher fürchten sollst. Und als (dein angenommener Sohn) Zaid nichts mehr bei ihr zu erreichen hoffte und sich von ihr trennte, verheirateten Wir sie mit dir, damit die Gläubigen keine Bedenken haben, die geschiedenen Frauen ihrer angenommenen Söhne zu heiraten. Gottes Entscheidung ist es, die geschieht. (Azhar)
33.37. Und (erinnere daran), als du demjenigen, dem ALLAH Wohltaten erwies und dem du Wohltaten erwiesen hast, sagtest: „Behalte deine Ehefrau und handle Taqwa gemäß ALLAH gegenüber!“ Doch du hast in deinem Inneren verheimlicht, was ALLAH offenlegen wird, und du hast dich vor den Menschen gefürchtet, während ALLAH doch mehr berechtigt ist, dass du dich vor Ihm fürchtest. Und nachdem Zaid an ihr kein Interesse mehr gehabt hatte (und sich von ihr geschieden hatte), ließen WIR dich sie heiraten, damit es keine Unannehmlichkeit für die Mumin wird, die (Ex-)Ehefrauen der nach ihnen Genannten zu heiraten, wenn diese kein Interesse mehr an ihnen haben (und sich von ihnen geschieden haben). Und ALLAHs Bestimmung wird immer umgesetzt. (Zaidan)
33.37. Und (damals) als du zu demjenigen, dem sowohl Allah als auch du Gnade erwiesen hatten, sagtest: "Behalte deine Gattin für dich und fürchte Allah!", und in dir geheimhieltest, was Allah (doch) offenkundig machen würde, und Angst vor den Menschen hattest, während du eher vor Allah Angst haben solltest! Als dann Zaid sein Geschäft mit ihr erledigt hatte, gaben wir sie dir zur Gattin, damit die Gläubigen sich (künftig) wegen (der Ehelichung) der Gattinnen ihrer Nennsöhne, wenn diese ihr Geschäft mit ihnen erledigt haben, nicht bedrückt fühlen sollten. Was Allah anordnet (amru llaahi), wird (unweigerlich) ausgeführt. (Paret)
33.37. Und da sagtest du zu dem, dem Allah Gnade erwiesen hatte und dem du Gnade erwiesen hattest: "Behalte deine Frau für dich und fürchte Allah." Und du verbargst das, was du in dir hegtest, das, was Allah ans Licht bringen wollte, und du fürchtetest die Menschen, während Allah es ist, Den du in Wirklichkeit fürchten sollst. Dann aber, als Zaid seine eheliche Beziehung mit ihr beendet hatte, verbanden Wir sie ehelich mit dir, damit die Gläubigen in Bezug auf die Frauen ihrer angenommenen Söhne nicht in Verlegenheit gebracht würden, wenn diese ihre ehelichen Beziehungen mit ihnen beendet haben. Und Allahs Befehl muß vollzogen werden. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 37 bis 37
O Prophet, ( 67 ) remember the time when you were saying to the man, ( 68 ) whom Allah as well as you had favoured, "Keep your wife and fear Allah. " ( 69 ) You were at that time keeping hidden in your heart that which Allah intended to reveal: you were fearing the people, whereas Allah has a greater right that you should fear Him. ( 70 ) So, when Zaid had fulfilled his desire of her, ( 71 ) We married (the divorced woman) to you ( 72 ) so that there remains no hindrance for the believers in regard to the wives of their adopted sons when they have fulfilled their desire of them. ( 73 ) And Allah's Command had to be carried out.
Desc No: 67 The discourse from here to verse 48 was sent down after the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab, and the hypocrites, the Jews and the mushriks had started a relentless propaganda campaign against him. While studying these verses one should bear in mind the fact that this Divine discourse was not meant for the instruction of the enemies who were engaged. in a wilful campaign of vilification and slander and falsehood to defame the Holy Prophet intentionally and to satisfy their rancour. But its real object was to protect the Muslims against the influence of their campaign and to safeguard them against doubts and suspicions. Evidently, the Word of Allah could not satisfy the unbelievers. It could give peace of mind only to those who knew and believed it to be Allah's Word. There was a danger that those righteous people also might be confused and influenced by the objections that were being raised by their enemies. Therefore, on the one hand, Allah removed all possible doubts from their minds, and on the other, taught the Muslims as well as the Holy Prophet himself how they should conduct themselves under the circrunstances.
Desc No: 68 It refers to Hadrat Zaid as has been mentioned clearly below. In order to understand how Allah had favoured him and how the Holy Prophet, it is necessary here to relate his story briefly. He was the son of Harithah bin Shurahbil, a person of the Kalb tribe, and his mother, Su'da bint Tha'labah, was from the Bani Ma'n, a branch of the Tay tribe. When he was eight years old, she took him along to her parents. There the people of Bani Qain bin Jasr raided their camp, plundered their good: and took some men prisoners, Hadrat Zaid included. Then they sold Zaid at the fair of 'Ukiiz near Ta'if. His buyer was Hakim bin Hizam, a nephew of Hadrat Khadijah. Hakim brought him to Makkah and presented him to his paternal aunt. When the Holy Prophet married Hadrat Khadijah he found Zaid in her service and was so impressed by his good manners and conduct that he asked him of her. Thus, this fortunate boy entered the service of the best of men, whom Allah, after a few years, was going to appoint a Prophet. Hadrat Zaid at that time was 15 years old. Afterwards when his father and uncle came to know that their child was at Makkah, they came to the Holy Prophet and requested him to return him in exchange for ransom. The Holy Prophet said, "I shall call the boy and leave it to him whether he would like to go with you or stay with me. If he chose to go, I would take no ransom but would Iet Trim go with you. However, if he chose to stay back, I am not the one who would turn out a person who would like to stay with me." They said, "This is perfectly right and just. Please ask the boy." The Holy Prophet called Zaid and asked him, Do you know these two gentlemen?" He said, "Yes sir, this is my father and this my uncle." The Holy Prophet then said, "Well, you know them as well as me. You have the choice to go with them, or stay with me if you so desire. " He said, "I have no wish to leave you and go with anyone else. " His father and uncle said, I 'Zaid, will you prefer slavery to freedom, and choose to stay with others in preference to your parents and family?" He replied, "After what I have seen of this person I cannot now prefer anything else of the world to him." Hearing the reply the father and uncle of Zaid were reconciled to his remaining with the Holy I Prophet. The Holy Prophet set Zaid fret immediately and proclaimed before a gathering of the Quraish in the Ka'bah, "Bear witness that hence-forth Zaid is my son: he will receive inheritance from me and I from him." Thereafter, he began to be called Zaid bin Muhammad by the people. All this happened before the Holy Prophet's advent as a Prophet. Then, when he was blessed with Prophethood by Allah, there were four persons who accepted his claim to it without a moment's hesitation as soon as they heard of it from him. They were Hadrat Khadijah, Hadrat Zaid, Hadrat 'AIi and Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Zaid was 30 years old then, and had already spent 15 years in the Holy Prophet's service. In the fourth year after Hijrah, the Holy Prophet marred him to his first cousin Hadrat Zainab, paid her dower on his behalf and provided them with necessary articles for setting up the house. This is to what Allah has alluded in the verse, saying: "Whom Allah as well as you had favoured. "
Desc No: 69 These words were said when the relations between Hadrat Zaid and Hadrat Zainab had become very strained, and after making repeated complaints Hadrat Zaid had finally told the Holy Prophet that he intended to divorce her. Although Hadrat Zainab had accepted to be married to him in obedience to Allah and His Messenger's command, she could not overcome her feeling that Zaid was a freed slave, who had been brought up by her own family, and she in spite of being the daughter of a noble Arab family, had been wedded to him. Due to this feeling she could never regard Hadrat Zaid as her equal in matrimonial lift, and this caused more and more bitterness between them. Thus after a little more than a year the marriage ended in divorce.
Desc No: 70 Some people have misconstrued this sentence to mean this: The Holy Prophet desired to marry Hadrat Zainab and wanted that Zaid should divorce her. But when Zaid came to the Holy Prophet and said that he wanted to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet stopped him from this only half-heartedly. At this Allaln said: 'You were keeping hidden in your heart that which Allah intended to reveal. The real meaning, however, is contrary to this. If this the sentence is read with verses 1, 2, 3 and 7 of this Surah, one can clearly see that in the very days when bitterness was increasing between Hadrat Zaid and his wife, Allah had hinted to His Prophet that when Zaid had divorced his wife, he would Inave to marry the divorced lady. But since the Holy Prophet knew what it meant to marry the divorced wife of the adopted son in the contemporary Arab society, and that too at a time when apart from a handful of the Muslims the entire country had become jealous of him, he was hesitant to take any step in that direction. That is why when Hadrat Zaid expressed his intention to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet said to him, `Fear Allah and do not divorce your wife." What he meant by this was that Zaid should not divorce his wife so that he was saved from facing the trial, otherwise in case the divorce was pronounced he would have to comply with the command, and thus provoke a severe storm of criticism and vilification against himself. But when the Holy Prophet deliberately forbade Zaid to divorce his wife so that he himself might be saved from what he feared would cause him defamatian, Allah found this below the high position that He wanted His Prophet to enjoy, whereas Allah intended to effect a great reform through this marriage of the Prophet. The words 'You were fearing the people, whereas Allah has a greater right that you should fear Him," clearly point to the same theme. The same explanation of this verse has been given by Imam Zain-ul-'Abedin Hadrat 'AIi bin Husain (may Allah be pleased with him). He says, Allah had indicated to His Prophet that Zainab would be included among his wives. But when Zaid complained about her to him, the Holy Prophet admonished him to fear Allah and keep his wife. At this Allah said to His Prophet, 'I had informed you that I would marry you to Zainab. But when you were forbidding Zaid to divorce his wife, you were hiding that which Allah was going to reveal'." (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Kathir on the authority of Ibn Abi Hatim). 'Allama Alusi also in his Ruh al-Ma ani has given the same meaning of it. He says, 'This is an expression of displeasure on abandoning the better course, which was that the Holy Prophet should have kept quiet, or should have told Zaid to do as he liked. The displeasure amounted to this: 'Why did you tell Zaid to keep his wife, whereas I had informed you beforehand that Zainab would be included among your wives?"
Desc No: 71 That is, Zaid divorced his wife and her waiting-period came to an end. The words "fulfilled his desire of her" by themselves give the meaning that Zaid was left with no desire attached to her. And this state of affairs does not appear on mere pronouncement of the divorce, because even during the waitingperiod the husband can take his wife back if he has any interest in her; and the husband also has this desire left with the divorced wife that it should become known whether she is pregnant or not. Therefore, the desire of her former husband with the divorced wife comes to an end only on the expiry of the waitingperiod.
Desc No: 72 These words are explicit that the Holy Prophet had married Hadrat Zainab not because of any personal desire but under the Command of Allah.
Desc No: 73 These words clearly indicate that Allah accomplished this social reform through the Holy Prophet to effect a great change which could not be enforced" by any other means. There was no way to put an end to the wrong customs that had become prevalent in Arabia in respect of the adopted relations but that Allah's Messenger himself should take initiative to abolish them. Therefore, Allah arranged this marriage not for the sake of adding a wife to the Holy Prophet's household but for enforcing an important social change.