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Quran
2.197. Die (Zeit der) Pilgerfahrt (sind) bekannte Monate. Wer in ihnen die (Durchführung der) Pilgerfahrt beschlossen hat, der darf keinen Beischlaf ausüben, keinen Frevel begehen und nicht Streit führen während der Pilgerfahrt. Und was ihr an Gutem tut, Allah weiß es. Und versorgt euch mit Reisevorrat, doch der beste Vorrat ist die Gottesfurcht. Und fürchtet Mich, o die ihr Verstand besitzt!

[ alBaqara:197 ]


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Medina-Musshaf Seite 186

Mehr Übersetzungen

Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



8.73. Waalladhiina kafaruu baAAduhumawliyao baAAdin illa tafAAaluuhu takunfitnatun fii al-ardi wafasadun kabiirun

8.73. And those who disbelieve are protectors one of another If ye do not so, there will be confusion in the land, and great corruption. (Pickthall)

8.73. Und diejenigen, die den Glauben verweigern, die einen von ihnen sind Schutzfreunde der anderen - wenn ihr es nicht so macht, gibt es Verführung auf der Erde und großes Verderben. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

8.73. Und diejenigen, die ungläubig sind, sind einer des anderen Schutzherren. - Wenn ihr es nicht tut, wird es im Land Aufruhr und großes Unheil geben. (Bubenheim)

8.73. Die Ungläubigen sind einander Beschützer. Solltet ihr das nicht beachten, würde es auf Erden Versuchung und schweres Unheil geben. (Azhar)

8.73. Und diejenigen, die Kufr betrieben haben, sind einander Wali. Wenn ihr euch daran nicht haltet, wird es auf Erden eine Fitna und großes Übel geben. (Zaidan)

8.73. Und diejenigen, die ungläubig sind, sind (ihrerseits) untereinander Freunde. Wenn ihr es nicht tut, wird es (überall) im Land Versuchung (zum Abfall vom Glauben) (fitna) und großes Unheil geben. (Paret)

8.73. Und die Ungläubigen - (auch) sie sind einander Beschützer. Wenn ihr das nicht tut, wird Verwirrung im Lande und gewaltiges Unheil entstehen. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 72 bis 73

Those who embraced the Faith and emigrated from their homes and expended their possessions and their lives in the Way of Allah, and those who gave refuge to the emigrants and helped them, are indeed the guardians of one another. However, you have no relation of guardianship with those who have embraced the Faith, but have not emigrated (to Dar-ul-Islam) until they emigrates ( 50 ) (to it); yet it is obligatory on you to help them in the matters of Faith, if they ask for your help, except against a people with whom you have a treaty. ( 51 ) As for disbelievers, they help one another; unless you also help one another, there will be mischief and great disorder on the earth. ( 52 )

Desc No: 50
This verse contains a very important article of the Islamic Constitution . and lays down the terms of the relationship of ~y~ (vi/ayat-guardianship) between the Muslims. According to it, "Those Muslims only shall be bound by the relationship of vilayat who are either the inhabitants of Dar-ul-Islam or emigrate to it. As for the Muslims living outside the territorial borders of the Islamic State, there shall be the relationship of Islamic brotherhood only, but there shall be no relationship of vilayat with them. Likewise there shall be no relationship of vilayat with those Muslims who visit the Dar-ul-Islam as foreigners in the capacity of the subjects of Dar-u/-Kufr, without emigrating to it permanently" .
The Arabic word ( vilayat) is very comprehensive in meaning and 'guardianship' does not convey its full significance. It denotes the relationship of help, succour, protection, support, friendship, guardianship and the like between the citizens and the State and vice versa, and between the citizens themsleves. Thus it is clear that this verse confines the limits of the Islamic, political and constitutional citizenship to its territorial boundaries only and excludes from this particular relationship the other Muslims who live beyond its territorial boundaries.
The legal implications of this negation of guardianship are very extensive, but this is not the occasion for their statement. Here it will suffice to say that according to this, the Muslims of Dar-ul-Kufr cannot become the inheritors of the Muslims of Dar-ul-Islam and vice versa, nor can they be the legal guardians of one another, nor can there be inter-marriages between them; nor can the Islamic State appoint a citizen of Dar-ul-Kufr on any responsible post, until that one renounces the relationship of citizenship with Dar-ul-Kufr. Moreover, this verse affects also the foreign policy of the Islamic State and frees it from the responsibility of the Muslims living outside its territorial borders by restricting it only to the Muslims living within its territory. The Holy Prophet also declared the same thing, saying, "I owe no responsibility for the protection of any Muslim who resides among the mushriks ".
This foreign policy of Islam cuts at the very roots of such disputes as are generally responsible for creating international crises. For it is obvious that if states refuse to shoulder any responsibilities for the protection, etc., of the minorities living outside their territorial borders, there cannot arise such disputes concerning them as lead to wars over and over again.  

Desc No: 51
Though the Muslims living outside the territorial borders of the Islamic State have been excluded from political protection in the preceding verse, this fact dces not deprive them of the brotherly relationship of Faith. Therefore it is obligatory on the Islamic State and its inhabitants, to help their wronged and oppressed brethren if they ask for help. But even in this case, they should observe the International Law and the universally accepted moral code. If Dar-ul-Islam has made a treaty with the persecuting people of Dar-ul-Kufr the Muslims of Dar-ulIslam are forbidden to give any help to the oppressed Muslims in Dar-ul-Kufr if that is against the moral obligations of the treaty.
In this verse the word (mithaq) has been used for treaty. It implies everything that gives the guarantee of peace in the known sense to the parties concerned even though there might not be any explicit mention of a no-war agreement.
Moreover, the original words of the Arabic Text- "....between you and thetas there is a treaty"- clearly show that a treaty of the Islamic State with a non-Islamic State is not merely a treaty between the two states but between the two nations. Therefore it is morally binding on both the Islamic State and the Muslims living in the Islamic State. The lslamic Code dces not tolerate that the Muslim subjects should be left free from the obligations of the treaty which a Muslim government makes with other countries or nations. Of course, those Muslims who reside outside the territorial borders of the State that makes a treaty are free from this obligation. that is why Abu Busair, Abu Jandal and other Muslims who were not the subjects of Dar-ul-Islam were not bound by the terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, which the Holy Prophet had made with the disbelievers of Makkah.  

Desc No: 52
The sentence-"unless you also help one another"-has two meanings: (1) If it is considered in connection with the previous sentence, "the disbelievers help one another," it means: "If you, the Believers, will not help one another just as the disbelievers help one another, there will be mischief and great disorder on the earth" . (2) But if it is considered in connection with the instructions given in v. 72, it will mean: if the people living in Dar-u/-/s/am (a) do not become the guardians and protectors of one another, (b) do not consider the Muslims, who have not migrated to Dar-u/-/s/am and live in Dar-ul-Kufr, outside their political protection, (c) do not. give help to the persecuted Muslims, living outside Dar-ul-/slam, when they ask for it, and if at the same time, they do not observe the law that the Muslims living in Dar-ul-Islam would not help those Muslims living in Dar-ul-Kufr among the people with whom they made a treaty of peace, and (d) do not break all their friendly relations with the disbelievers,-then there will be mischief and great chaos in the world.  "



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